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Remote Sensing and Internet Data Sources Unit 3: Module 12, Lecture 2 – Remote Remote Sensing and Internet Data Sources Unit 3: Module 12, Lecture 2 – Remote Underwater Sampling Stations

Overview · Many kinds of remote sensing systems for water science involve sensor systems Overview · Many kinds of remote sensing systems for water science involve sensor systems that remotely operated. These include: · Buoy systems (RUSS units, National Buoy network) · Towed or tethered systems · Sea floor mounted systems · Autonomous underwater vehicles Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 2

Background: RUSS and WOW · Remote Underwater Sampling Station technology developed at NRRI in Background: RUSS and WOW · Remote Underwater Sampling Station technology developed at NRRI in · · · mid-1990 s U. of MN creates Apprise Technologies, Inc. to market RUSS units and other sensors 1996 – NSF Advanced Technology Education grant to create “Water on the Web” · Online curriculum incorporating real-time data from RUSS units into collegelevel lesson plans 1999 – 2002 EPA EMPACT program funds Lake Access · Deliver real-time data to public 2000 – WOW II – Water Science Technician Training 2001 – Duluth. Streams · Real-time stream monitoring Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 3

Remote monitoring systems for environmental data · RUSS unit – Remote Underwater Sampling Station Remote monitoring systems for environmental data · RUSS unit – Remote Underwater Sampling Station · Real-time water quality data acquisition · Data transmitted to WOW web site “RUSS” Remote Underwater Sampling Station Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 4

RUSS Design: Platform & Power Supply Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and power RUSS Design: Platform & Power Supply Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and power supply units) Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 5

RUSS Design: Profiler Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and power supply units) Profiler RUSS Design: Profiler Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and power supply units) Profiler (Variable-buoyancy device) Multiprobe (sensor package) Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 6

Profiler: Leveling device · Variable buoyancy · Will achieve target depth within 0. 2 Profiler: Leveling device · Variable buoyancy · Will achieve target depth within 0. 2 m · Typically set to collect data at 1 m intervals in water column Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 7

Profiler: Sensor package · Standard Hydrolab or YSI Sonde attached to Leveler · Measures Profiler: Sensor package · Standard Hydrolab or YSI Sonde attached to Leveler · Measures · Temperature · p. H · Dissolved Oxygen · Conductivity · Turbidity · Chl a Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 8

RUSS deployment Lake Independence, MN Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m RUSS deployment Lake Independence, MN Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 9

RUSS Deployment - Ice Lake, MN Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 RUSS Deployment - Ice Lake, MN Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 10

The RUSS Fish House December 1998 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 The RUSS Fish House December 1998 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 11

Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 12 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 12

On-board Data Processing and Storage · Remote Programming, Data Acquisition and Retrieval (Re. PDAR) On-board Data Processing and Storage · Remote Programming, Data Acquisition and Retrieval (Re. PDAR) unit · CPU · Memory · Telemetry · Data is stored in ring memory on Re. PDAR · Profiles are stored in a data buffer · Can be downloaded on demand Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 13

RUSS Design: Communications Wireless Communications (cellular/RF/Satellite/900 MHz) Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and RUSS Design: Communications Wireless Communications (cellular/RF/Satellite/900 MHz) Solar Panels Triple Hull (with electronics and power supply units) Profiler (Variable-buoyancy device) Multiprobe (sensor package) Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 14

Data Flow: RUSS unit to the WOW web site HTML Data Importer EXCEL Archive Data Flow: RUSS unit to the WOW web site HTML Data Importer EXCEL Archive DVT Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 15

RUSS Programming · Sampling timing and frequency can be programmed from the base station RUSS Programming · Sampling timing and frequency can be programmed from the base station computer · Data is broadcast back to the base station at user specified intervals (generally every 4 - 6 hours) · Data is stored in standard ASCII formats for import to spreadsheet or database programs Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 16

Ice Lake Profile - Sept 5, 2004 Date/Time Depth Temp M °C 09/05/2004 06: Ice Lake Profile - Sept 5, 2004 Date/Time Depth Temp M °C 09/05/2004 06: 04: 00 1. 1 20. 9 09/05/2004 06: 15 2. 0 09/05/2004 06: 07: 54 EC 25 DO DOSat Turb u. S/cm mg/L @temp NTU 8. 1 123. 4 5. 9 68. 6 4. 7 20. 4 8. 1 125. 3 6. 6 75. 1 4. 9 3. 0 19. 2 8. 2 125. 7 6. 5 72. 9 5. 1 09/05/2004 06: 08: 57 3. 9 18. 5 8. 2 125. 4 6. 4 70. 5 5. 3 09/05/2004 06: 10: 00 4. 8 18. 3 8. 2 125. 9 65. 1 4. 9 09/05/2004 06: 11: 42 5. 8 18. 0 8. 2 125. 9 5. 8 62. 7 5. 4 09/05/2004 06: 13: 12 6. 8 15. 2 7. 9 133. 9 3. 8 39. 3 6. 1 09/05/2004 06: 14: 27 7. 8 12. 6 7. 5 139. 0 1. 3 12. 7 6. 8 09/05/2004 06: 15: 27 9. 0 7. 3 144. 3 0. 9 7. 6 5. 5 09/05/2004 06: 16: 24 9. 9 8. 1 7. 2 143. 0 0. 5 4. 4 6. 6 09/05/2004 06: 18: 24 10. 8 7. 1 7. 0 147. 1 0. 3 2. 5 8. 5 Developed by: Host p. H Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 17

Data from RUSS units · 5 -6 variables per depth · 10 -20 depths Data from RUSS units · 5 -6 variables per depth · 10 -20 depths per profile · 4 profiles per day Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 18

“Data hose” effect · · 5 -6 variables per depth 10 -20 depths per “Data hose” effect · · 5 -6 variables per depth 10 -20 depths per profile 4 profiles per day ~200 days per season · 96, 000 points per lake · 4 -6 lakes in WOW · 2 -6 years worth of data 2, 400, 000 data points in archives Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 19

Online Data Visualization Tools · Profile plotter (parameters vs depth) · Color mapper (parameters Online Data Visualization Tools · Profile plotter (parameters vs depth) · Color mapper (parameters vs depth) · Dx. T (depth vs time) Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 20

Data Visualization Tools: Profile Plotter · Accesses and plots individual profiles by parameter · Data Visualization Tools: Profile Plotter · Accesses and plots individual profiles by parameter · Can ‘step through’ or animate time steps Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 21

Data Visualization Tools: Profile Plotter Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m Data Visualization Tools: Profile Plotter Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 22

DVT: Color Mapper Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s DVT: Color Mapper Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 23

Data Visualization Tools: Dx. T Profiler 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Data Visualization Tools: Dx. T Profiler 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 24

Data Visualization Tools: 3 D Slicer 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Data Visualization Tools: 3 D Slicer 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 25

Data Visualization Tools: Dx. T Profiler 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Data Visualization Tools: Dx. T Profiler 2 D visualizations: Temperature by Depth and Time Seasonal oxygen patterns Green - > 6 ppm O 2 Brown – 3 – 6 ppm O 2 – chronic stress Black - < 3 ppm O 2 - lethal Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 26

Seasonal Cycles of Temperature and Oxygen Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 Seasonal Cycles of Temperature and Oxygen Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 27

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Hardware and management issues Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 Hardware and management issues Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 29

Vandalism “I bet you can’t hit that yellow thing out in the water. . Vandalism “I bet you can’t hit that yellow thing out in the water. . ” Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 30

Animal Vandals Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 31 Animal Vandals Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 31

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Assuring Data Quality: Sensors · Hydrolab or YSI sondes need to be calibrated biweekly Assuring Data Quality: Sensors · Hydrolab or YSI sondes need to be calibrated biweekly · Biofouling · “Drift” Before Developed by: Host After (1 month) Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 35

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September 30, 2003 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s September 30, 2003 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 37

July 1998 July 2001 Anomalous Conductivity Spike July 4, 1998 Ice Lake, MN “Several July 1998 July 2001 Anomalous Conductivity Spike July 4, 1998 Ice Lake, MN “Several truckloads of salt” Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 38

Stream Monitoring Units · In-stream sensor package connected to land-based power and data storage Stream Monitoring Units · In-stream sensor package connected to land-based power and data storage units · No need for depth profile, but need information on stream flow · Similar power and data management issues Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 39

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SMU deployment · SMUs typically deployed near bridge abutments to allow easy access to SMU deployment · SMUs typically deployed near bridge abutments to allow easy access to stream · Note solar panel on pole · Good climbing skills required WOW staffer Jerry Hennick installing Duluth. Streams SMU Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 42

Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 43 Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 43

· Baseflow and post- storm differences in stream flow in Chester Creek, Duluth, MN · Baseflow and post- storm differences in stream flow in Chester Creek, Duluth, MN Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 44

Hardwired SMUs · Ideal situation – obtain power and communications by tying into existing Hardwired SMUs · Ideal situation – obtain power and communications by tying into existing land lines · Duluth ship canal · USGS power supply and office facilities Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 45

Summary · RUSS and SMUs have formed the basis for the WOW on-line curriculum, Summary · RUSS and SMUs have formed the basis for the WOW on-line curriculum, as well as projects such as Lake Access and Duluth Streams · As on-line sensors become more widely used, there is a significant potential to use these systems for both public and student education · As a result, we should be more likely to use real data in making land water management decisions Developed by: Host Updated: 1. 05 U 3 -m 12 -s 46