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Regional Issues: Asia Pacific CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres Regional Issues: Asia Pacific CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok, Thailand OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Outline Aquaculture in Asia-Pacific (AP) Aquatic animal health in AP regional health program Regional Outline Aquaculture in Asia-Pacific (AP) Aquatic animal health in AP regional health program Regional issues and concerns Conclusions and way forward OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Some Facts Global fish production ◦ 145 mmt in 2009 Aquaculture fastest growing food Some Facts Global fish production ◦ 145 mmt in 2009 Aquaculture fastest growing food producing sector (8 -10% growth) 3% for live stock and 1. 6% for capture fisheries Aquaculture now accounts to almost 50% of world’s food fish OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Consumption and Need Fish consumption has been on the rise ◦ A-P accounts for Consumption and Need Fish consumption has been on the rise ◦ A-P accounts for nearly 70% of global consumption Per caput ◦ A-P: 43 kg/year ◦ Global: 22 kg/year Based on current consumption By 2050: An extra 30 million tonnes needed Where does this “need” come from? AQUACULTURE is the answer OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture producer in the world In 2008, almost 90% of world aquaculture Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture producer in the world In 2008, almost 90% of world aquaculture production. Oceania: 172, 214 T (0. 3%) Europe: 2, 341, 339 T (4. 5%) Americas: 2, 405, 166 T (4. 6%) Asia-Pacific: 46, 687, 046 T (88. 8%) Source: FAO, 2010 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Dominance of Asia-Pacific A-P dominated aquaculture globally Year Global (t) A-P (t) 1987 13, Dominance of Asia-Pacific A-P dominated aquaculture globally Year Global (t) A-P (t) 1987 13, 961, 611 11, 939, 706 (85. 5%) 1997 34, 261, 739 31, 075, 412 (90. 7%) 2007 65, 190, 029 59, 568, 049 (91. 4%) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture (aquatic animals) producers in the world in 2008 (FAO, 2010) Rank Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture (aquatic animals) producers in the world in 2008 (FAO, 2010) Rank Country 1 China 2 Production (T) Value (US$1000) 32, 735, 994 50, 638, 540 India 3, 478, 690 5, 043, 749 3 Vietnam 2, 461, 700 4, 599, 850 4 Indonesia 1, 690, 121 2, 813, 673 5 Thailand 1, 374, 024 2, 202, 075 6 Bangladesh 1, 005, 542 1, 766, 182 7 Norway 843, 730 3, 119, 011 8 Chile 843, 142 4, 502, 789 9 Philippines 741, 142 1, 576, 141 Japan 732, 374 3, 104, 346 10 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Rank Species Production (T) Value (x 1000 US$) 1 Silver carp 3, 782, 281 4, 766, 195 2 Grass carp 3, 775, 267 4, 797, 279 3 Common carp 2, 987, 433 3, 696, 415 4 Nile tilapia 2, 334, 432 3, 208, 561 5 Bighead carp 2, 321, 513 2, 975, 412 (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (Cyprinus carpio) (Oreochromis niloticus) (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Rank Species Production (T) Value (x 1000 US$) 6 Catla 2, 281, 838 3, 303, 124 7 Crucian carp 1, 975, 337 2, 135, 857 8 Atlantic salmon 1, 456, 721 7, 204, 152 9 Pangasius catfish 1, 388, 546 2, 009, 081 Rohu 1, 159, 454 1, 334, 193 10 (Catla catla) (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (Salmo salar) (Pangansius/Pangasianodon spp. ) (Labeo rohita) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Vol. = 2, 259, 183 T Val. = ~9 Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Vol. = 2, 259, 183 T Val. = ~9 Billion US$ Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Vol. = 3, 141, 851 T Val. = ~3 Billion US$ OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Asian Aquaculture is Small scale ‘Farmer owned/ leased, operated and managed’ Indonesia Thailand Freshwater Asian Aquaculture is Small scale ‘Farmer owned/ leased, operated and managed’ Indonesia Thailand Freshwater ponds: 0. 14 ha Coastal pond: 0. 8 ha Freshwater pond: 0. 28 ha Vietnam catfish culture >55% under 4 ha But production per ha very high, average 350 -400 t/ha/crop Aquaculture in Asia will remain small-scale ◦ Health strategies have to “factor” this in OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Aquaculture trends in AP Aquaculture will intensify, diversify, and expand Production of all species Aquaculture trends in AP Aquaculture will intensify, diversify, and expand Production of all species groups will be increased New species will appear (exotics, e. g. P. vannamei) All environments will be increasingly utilized Increasing influence of markets, trade and consumption (food safety) More and more resources will be used International trade in live aquatic animals and their products will increase OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Implications q Increasing intensification v q Continued diversification of species v q Increased risk Implications q Increasing intensification v q Continued diversification of species v q Increased risk of introduction and spread of pathogens (Trans-boundary pathogens) Continued diversification of farming systems v q more disease outbreaks and disease emergencies Potential for spread of pathogens to wider geographical areas Economic and social cost of disease is enormous (e. g. One billion $ annual loss in China) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Serious diseases in AP Fish ◦ Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) ◦ koi herpes virus Serious diseases in AP Fish ◦ Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) ◦ koi herpes virus disease (KHVD) ◦ Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) ◦ Grouper iridoviral disease (GID) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Finfish Diseases (2010) Country EUS VHS Australia + + Bangladesh Infection with KHV Red Finfish Diseases (2010) Country EUS VHS Australia + + Bangladesh Infection with KHV Red seabream Iridoviral dis. GIV Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicemia of catfish + Strep. Infection in tilapia + + Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong India + + + + Indonesia + Iran Japan + + + + Lao PDR Malaysia + + Myanmar Nepal + Pakistan Philippines + Korea PR + + + Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam + +

Serious diseases in AP Crustaceans ◦ White spot disease (WSD) ◦ Taura syndrome (TS) Serious diseases in AP Crustaceans ◦ White spot disease (WSD) ◦ Taura syndrome (TS) ◦ Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) ◦ White tail disease (WTD) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Crustacean Diseases (2010) Country TS WSD YHD Spherical Baculovirus IHHN Mr. NV Infectious myonecrosis Crustacean Diseases (2010) Country TS WSD YHD Spherical Baculovirus IHHN Mr. NV Infectious myonecrosis MSGS Milky Lobster disease + + Australia Bangladesh + Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong + India + Indonesia + + + + + Iran Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar + Nepal Pakistan Philippines Korea PR Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam + + + + +

Emerging diseases in AP Crustaceans ◦ Monodon Slow growth syndrome (TGAV/LSV ? ? ) Emerging diseases in AP Crustaceans ◦ Monodon Slow growth syndrome (TGAV/LSV ? ? ) ◦ Loose Shell syndrome in P. monodon ◦ Abdominal segment deformity syndrome in P. vannamei ◦ White faeces syndrome in vannamei and tiger Finfish ◦ Edwardsiella tarda in marine species ◦ Streptococcus agalactiae major problem in Tilapia culture ◦ Streptococcus iniae in marine and also freshwater species ◦ Tenacibaculum maritimum in marine species Mollusk ◦ Ganglioneuritis in abalone OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Asia Regional Aquatic Animal Health Programme Reduce risks of aquatic animal disease impacting on Asia Regional Aquatic Animal Health Programme Reduce risks of aquatic animal disease impacting on livelihoods of aquaculture farmers, national economies, trade and human health Program in 21 countries coordinated and facilitated by intergovernmental NACA OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Outputs (2000 -2010) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Regional and international cooperation in aquatic Outputs (2000 -2010) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved Practical national strategies developed, adopted and implemented in member countries Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies in the region improved Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved Asia Regional Advisory Group (AG) Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved Asia Regional Advisory Group (AG) on Aquatic Animal Health v 10 -member expert group (aquatic health experts, OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, FAO, OIE Regional Representation for Asia-Pacific and NACA); v. Advises member governments of NACA v. Revises the list of diseases for regional (QAAD) reporting system; v. NACA facilitating annual Advisory Group meetings since 2002 (AGM 9 -in Bangkok in November 2010) v. Reports tabled at the OIE-AAHSC meetings OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved EU-ASEM Aquaculture Platform under the Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved EU-ASEM Aquaculture Platform under the EU-FP 7 project (2009 -2013) ◦ Europe-Asia steering group on aquatic animal health established ◦ Formal mechanism for utilizing the networks and expertise ◦ Resource document of aquatic animal health networks and initiatives in Europe and Asia published ◦ e-newsletter and active discussion forums will be established ◦ Project facilitated joint research proposals OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Regional resource base identified and operational 3 -tier Regional Resource Base Regional Resource Experts Regional resource base identified and operational 3 -tier Regional Resource Base Regional Resource Experts (RRE) Regional Resource Centres (RRC) Regional Reference Laboratories (RRL) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

National strategies developed and implemented in the region Asia Regional Technical Guidelines (TG): Global National strategies developed and implemented in the region Asia Regional Technical Guidelines (TG): Global Context. Ø Consistent with FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries Ø OIE Aquatic Code and Aquatic Manual Ø ICES protocols Ø Adopted by 21 countries in Asia-Pacific Ø Adopted by ASWGFi of the ASEAN Ø Promoting implementation of TG is the main focus of NACA’s health program OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Status of National Strategies (2008) Elements in TG Progress made (Number of Countries) good Status of National Strategies (2008) Elements in TG Progress made (Number of Countries) good moderate low Disease diagnosis 10 6 5 Health certification and quarantine measures 10 5 6 Disease zoning 3 3 15 Disease surveillance and reporting 8 8 5 Contingency planning 3 7 11 Import risk analysis 4 4 13 National strategies and policy frameworks 11 4 6 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Sub-regional agreements implemented SOPs for health certification and quarantine Measures for the Responsible Movement Sub-regional agreements implemented SOPs for health certification and quarantine Measures for the Responsible Movement of Live Food Finfish within ASEAN (2007) ◦ AADCP-RPS project (NACA, ASEC, Aus. Vet, ASEAN governments) ◦ Participated by all 10 ASEAN countries ◦ Final draft of SOPs completed in Feb 2007 ◦ Has become an ASEAN policy document OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region Facilitating research Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region Facilitating research towards improved diagnostics (e. g. use of PCR; histopathology, epidemiology, etc) Inter-calibration of fish health services (e. g. PCR calibration among Aquatic Animal Health Services in India, Indonesia and Vietnam); Capacity building in risk analysis (e. g. APEC-funded project on Import Risk Analysis; 2002 -2004) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

PCR application in national surveillance programs (source=QAAD) Year Thailand (Number of samples tested for PCR application in national surveillance programs (source=QAAD) Year Thailand (Number of samples tested for WSSV) 14129 2005 8613 2006 7380 2007 6424 2008 Philippines (Number of samples tested) for WSSV) 150 2004 Myanmar (Number of samples tested for WSSV) 288 225 118 183 2355 199 1317 157 574 3419 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Comparison of PCR service providing laboratory performances – India, Indonesia and Vietnam Result Interpretation Comparison of PCR service providing laboratory performances – India, Indonesia and Vietnam Result Interpretation India II Indonesia II Vietnam II Perfect scores Fine 17 (46%) 6 (19%) 10 (30%) 7 (23%) 14 (44%) 14 (58%) Failed to identify only weak positives Sensitivity not optimized 3 (8%) 13 (40%) 4 (12%) 6 (20%) 7 (22%) 6 (25%) Failed to identify moderate/severe positives Major sensitivity problem 6 (16%) 6 (19%) 10 (30%) 8 (27%) 3 (9%) 0 (0%) Failed to identify negatives Contamination problem 9 (24%) 2 (6%) 4 (12%) 4 (13%) 3 (10%) 1 (4%) Failed to identify both positives and negatives Total system failure 2 (6%) 6 (19%) 5 (15%) 5 (17%) 5 (15%) 3 (12%) TOTAL responses 37 32 33 30 32 24 Non-responses 12 (26%) 19 (37%) 1 (3%) 0 (0%) 13 (29%) 4 (14. 3%) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies Utilizing the regional expertise to address disease Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies Utilizing the regional expertise to address disease emergencies ◦ Emergency technical mission to Indonesia in 2002, in the wake of KHV outbreaks ◦ Emergency technical mission to Iran, in the wake of WSD outbreaks in Busher province in 2005 ◦ Emergency technical assistance to Indonesia in 2006, in the wake of IMNV outbreaks ◦ Emergency technical assistance to Vietnam in 2007, in the wake of milky lobster disease ◦ Initiating emergency assistance to Vietnam in 2011 in the wake of serious shrimp diseases OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies NACA/FAO/OIE Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies NACA/FAO/OIE Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting QAAD has been initiated since the 3 rd quarter of 1998; ◦ Till date 50 QAAD reports published Recommendation from NACA/OIE Expert Consultation in 1996; OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Myanmar 21 Participating Countries OIE Global Conference on AAHPanama Myanmar 21 Participating Countries OIE Global Conference on AAHPanama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( List of diseases revised annually by the Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( List of diseases revised annually by the AG; Includes all OIE listed diseases plus diseases of regional concern. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Disease reporting by member governments has improved Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Disease reporting by member governments has improved significantly in recent years. Efficient diagnostic techniques are now used to screen and detect many viral and bacterial pathogens of fish and shrimps. 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 I 13 17 7 9 8 8 9 7 4 10 5 II 2 2 3 3 7 6 7 10 7 13 6 6 7 III 5 6 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 * I – observation of animal and the environment; clinical examination; II – parasitology, bacteriology, mycology and histopathology; III – virology, electron microscopy, molecular biology, immunology. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Reports are widely distributed: printed copies and Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Reports are widely distributed: printed copies and free downloads from NACA website (www. enaca. org) Total number of web downloads of each QAAD reports from 1998 -2010. Quarter Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Q 1 260 231 587 650 1229 914 Q 2 264 201 554 550 950 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1149 634 652 634 622 446* 1098 1321 613 658 687 592 289* 172* Q 3 268 265 223 582 665 1132 795 1065 591 686 550 600 Q 4 238 665 512 212 659 824 681 1023 51 721 484 342 Mean 253 364 292 484 631 992 872 1140 590 629 589 539 2010 * Reports made available online in late July (Q 1) and late October (Q 2) 2010, and early February (Q 3) 2011. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama 302

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Aquatic animal diseases initially listed in QAAD Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Aquatic animal diseases initially listed in QAAD that have been listed in OIE. (early warning system for emerging diseases) Year Listed Disease QAAD OIE Infection with Koi Herpesvirus 2004 2007 Abalone viral mortality 2005 2007 White tail disease (Mr. NV) 2005 2008 Necrotising hepatopancreatitis 2005 2010 Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) 2006 2009 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Regional Aquatic animal diseases listed in QAAD Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Regional Aquatic animal diseases listed in QAAD (2011) Disease Grouper Iridoviral Disease Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicaemia of catfish Infection with Marteilioides chungmuensis Acute viral necrosis (in scallops) Akoya oyster disease Monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) Milky hemolypmh disease of spiny lobster OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Benefits: Serves as early warning system for Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Benefits: Serves as early warning system for emerging threats; Valuable source of information to support risk analysis; establishment of excellent regional networking in support of disease surveillance and reporting in the region. Serves as guide to participating countries in revising their national list of reportable diseases Very strongly complements and supports the OIE disease reporting systems OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Way Forward: Development of OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific( Way Forward: Development of OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core is in progress; OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core will replace the paper-based QAAD reporting system once it is fully implemented. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region Working with Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region Working with many governments and partners Working on key commodities (shrimp, catfish) Identifying risk factors and developing interventions (e. g. better management practices) Promoting the adoption of BMPs through group/cluster approach ◦ Example: 752 clusters with over 16, 000 small farmers implementing shrimp BMPs in India OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region Scientifically validated Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region Scientifically validated BMPs when applied properly by small scale farmers using the cluster/group approach will ◦ improve production efficiency ◦ reduce costs of production ◦ maximize economic returns. ◦ Support compliance to stringent food safety, aquatic animal health and market requirements. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 1. Spread of IMN in Indonesia Potential for it to Emerging Concerns in AP 1. Spread of IMN in Indonesia Potential for it to spread to other countries in the region Potential for it to spread to native P. monodon Need for a regional approach to prevent its spread NACA IMN alert messages sent to all CA’s IMN information brochure sent to all countries Need for developing a regional contingency plan OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Spread of IMNV in Indonesia (2006 -2010) Initially reported in Situbondo District, East Java Spread of IMNV in Indonesia (2006 -2010) Initially reported in Situbondo District, East Java in May 2006 and was contained in this area until 2008. 2009: more districts of East Java (Situ, Banyuwangi, Blitar and Malang); Bali (Jembrana); Lampung (Pesawaran and South Lampung Dist. ), West Nusa Tenggara (East Lombok) and Central Java (Jepara, Blora, Kendal and Rembang) 2010: more districts of East Java (Bangil, Pasuran and Lamongan); West Nusa Tenggara (West Sumbawa); West Java; Aceh; West Kalimantan; South Kalimantan. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN) Available for free download at www. enaca. org OIE Global Conference Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN) Available for free download at www. enaca. org OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 2. Major shrimp disease outbreak in Vietnam Over 50, 000 Emerging Concerns in AP 2. Major shrimp disease outbreak in Vietnam Over 50, 000 ha in 7 coastal provinces of Mekong Delta affected Both tiger and white shrimp affected Confirmatory diagnosis still not available National, regional and international efforts are underway to address the situation OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 3. Other unconfirmed shrimp disease problems India (both tiger and Emerging Concerns in AP 3. Other unconfirmed shrimp disease problems India (both tiger and white shrimp) China (Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces) Malaysia Both tiger and white shrimp cultured together Need for close monitoring, surveillance and follow up Need for sharing the information OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 4. Expansion of P. vannamei farming Introduced to several countries Emerging Concerns in AP 4. Expansion of P. vannamei farming Introduced to several countries in the region (e. g. China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Philippines, Malaysia) Limited understanding of the SPF concept ◦ Market tool? ◦ Health management tool to promote bio-security? Using pond raised brood stock is a major concern Not using the routine PCR seed screening tools while choosing SPF seed is a major worry (this is a very common practice for P. monodon seed selection) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 5. Exotic and native-long term outlook Now in many countries Emerging Concerns in AP 5. Exotic and native-long term outlook Now in many countries both tiger and white shrimp are cultured in same geographical locations and in some cases as poly-culture Provides excellent opportunities for transfer of pathogens between two species Already the region has TSV and IMNV P. vannamei has brought in lot of economic benefits but is there a time bomb waiting to explode? Occurrence of exotic diseases in resource poor countries could pose significant risk to others OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 6. WSD in Brunei First report of WSSV from Brunei Emerging Concerns in AP 6. WSD in Brunei First report of WSSV from Brunei in P. stylirostris Achieving fool proof bio-security is very difficult This provided a good example of national efforts in containing the problem Also showed that it is very expensive to implement a stamping out operation Highlights the importance of timely availability of technical and financial resources OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 7. Introduction of new stocks of native species Introduction of Emerging Concerns in AP 7. Introduction of new stocks of native species Introduction of wild P. monodon broodstock from Africa (Mozambique) and Australia to Asia for setting up domestication programs Need for proper risk analysis Tendency to lower the stringency for import requirements and health inspections as compared to an exotic species OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 8. Re-emergence of EUS There is a feeling of complacency Emerging Concerns in AP 8. Re-emergence of EUS There is a feeling of complacency in many countries Severity of outbreaks is serious in some of the countries (e. g. India) Huge economic losses in culture systems Also an issue for export of ornamentals to EU OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 9. Intensification Mekong striped catfish ◦ 200 -400 tonnes/ha/crop in Emerging Concerns in AP 9. Intensification Mekong striped catfish ◦ 200 -400 tonnes/ha/crop in Vietnam ◦ System unique to Vietnam and Mekong Delta Catfish in India and Bangladesh ◦ 30 -40 tonnes/ha/crop Red Tilapia ◦ Series of problems in recent years in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam (Streptococcus infection) Limited focus on low value species. Much of the attention is on high value species. This needs to change OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 10. Increased focus on molecular diagnostics In the last decade Emerging Concerns in AP 10. Increased focus on molecular diagnostics In the last decade more capacity built in the region for molecular biology and its applications Reduced interest in conventional diagnostics and hence reduced capacity for histopathology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology Limited capacity for epidemiology and risk analysis Consequence ◦ holistic approach in dealing with new disease outbreaks and emerging disease events lacking OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 11. Aquaculture Certification Perception concerning Asia Pacific ◦ Public institutions Emerging Concerns in AP 11. Aquaculture Certification Perception concerning Asia Pacific ◦ Public institutions not able to enforce full compliance to international mandatory standards (e. g. food safety and animal health) and other voluntary standards (e. g. environment and social) Mushrooming of private standards and third party certification schemes ◦ Confusion to small scale primary producers ◦ Will they help to improve compliance to animal health standards? Clear need for provision of services to the small scale sector to enhance compliance to both mandatory and voluntary standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 12. Cooperation between veterinary and fisheries authorities In many of Emerging Concerns in AP 12. Cooperation between veterinary and fisheries authorities In many of the AP countries, aquatic animal health responsibilities come under the fisheries departments Nomination of OIE aquatic focal points is a significant step forward Need to further strengthen the cooperation ◦ Better implement the national strategies ◦ Enhance participation of aquatic animal health experts in the OIE standard setting process OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Emerging Concerns in AP 13. National Government Support Compared to livestock, aquatic animal health Emerging Concerns in AP 13. National Government Support Compared to livestock, aquatic animal health management receives less attention and priority from governments in AP Hence a strong need to quantify the social and economic cost of aquatic animal diseases ◦ Not available for many countries OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Conclusions Aquaculture will diversify, expand intensify and disease risk will increase in AP Trade Conclusions Aquaculture will diversify, expand intensify and disease risk will increase in AP Trade (movement of live animals and their products) will happen and diseases will spread in AP AP should aim to promote responsible aquaculture and responsible trade Having effective national strategies will help to comply with mandatory and voluntary national and international requirements and standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Conclusions NACA endeavors to support governments in Asia Pacific through projects and capacity building Conclusions NACA endeavors to support governments in Asia Pacific through projects and capacity building activities to strengthen compliance to all standards and requirements including OIE code and standards NACA will continue to cooperate and collaborate with international (e. g. OIE, FAO) and regional (e. g. SEAFDEC, ASEAN, SAARC) organizations and promote implementation of a strong aquatic animal health program in Asia-Pacific. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

Thank you. . Visit us at www. enaca. org for more details OIE Global Thank you. . Visit us at www. enaca. org for more details OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama