e8ebee89485dd2cfbd7d1b52994aebb6.ppt

- Количество слайдов: 118

Reducing Appraiser Liability: Using the ANSI Residential Measuring Standards • Presenter • Byron Miller, SRA, RAA, MSSE • Principal Appraiser • BM Appraisals

Presenter Biography Byron Miller, SRA, RAA, MSSE - MN Certified Residential Appraiser - WI Certified Residential Appraiser - SRA Designated Member of the Appraisal Institute - RAA Designated Member of the National Association Realtors - BOD North Star Chapter of the Appraisal Institute - BOD Twin Cities Financial & Estate Planning Council (TCFEPC) - Instructor - Coursework Developer - Author - Software Developer - http: //www. bmaprsls. com - [email protected] net - 612. 822. 5985

Seminar Objectives • Discuss SFR Measuring Standard • Discuss MFR Measuring Standard

ANSI Z 765 -2013 Single-Family Residential Measurement Standard

Z 765 -2013 Overview Ø Motivation for Standard Ø ID Five Causes of Measuring Errors Ø Present Major Components of Standard Ø Examples

Quiz • Calculate first floor area of home – First floor area ØBase Area: First Floor § 40’ X 26’ ØBump-out: floor-ceiling height 6’ 8” § 20’ X 4’ Ø Fireplace Bump-out: § 8’ X 4’ ØStair Opeining § 6’ X 8’

Quiz Floor Plan

Quiz Floor Plan • Which is the correct area? Ø 1040 SF Ø 1112 SF Ø 1080 SF Ø 1032 SF Ø 992 SF

Quiz Answers ü 1040 SF for gross area Ø 40’ X 26’ = 1040 SF ü 48 SF for Void Area Ø 6’ X 8’ = 48 SF ü 992 SF for total finished area Ø 1040 SF – 48 SF = 992 SF

Organization Background • ANSI: American National Standards Institute Ø Oversees Standards Development Ø Non-Profit Ø Established 1918 Ø 125, 000+ Member Companies

Organization Background • NAHB: National Association of Home Builders Ø Enhance Housing & Building Industries Ø Provide Affordable & Safe Housing Ø Established 1942 Ø 140, 000+ Member Companies

Motivation • Why do we need a measuring standard?

Motivation • What is it? – Voluntary Guidelines for describing, calculating, measuring, and reporting of area for Single Family Residential (SFR) attached, detached & semi-detached (Duplex) homes.

Motivation • In the beginning…

Motivation • There was…, Gross Living Area (GLA) • “Total area of finished, above-grade residential space; calculated by measuring the outside perimeter of the structure and includes only finished, habitable, above-grade living space. (Finished basements and attic areas are not generally included in total gross living area. Local practices, however, may differ). ” • The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 5 th ed.

Motivation • Why do we need it? Ø Inconsistent Measuring Methods • Exterior area Measuring • Interior area Measuring • Mixture of both

Motivation • Why do we need it? Ø Different Measurers & Uses • Appraiser • Assessor • Realtor

Motivation • Appraiser

Motivation • Assessor

Motivation • Realtor

Motivation • Why do we need it? Ø Differing SF Measuring Methods Cause • Confusion • Inconsistent Results • Conflict

Motivation One of the most common reasons appraisers & realtors get sued is over measuring disagreements

Motivation Consistent measuring methods reduces liability

Motivation • History Behind Z 765 Standard Ø Building Owners & Managers Association (BOMA) • 1915 develop commercial building measurement standard • Current Version: Z 65. 1 -2010 (Commercial buildings) Ø NAHB • • 1994 NAHB research begins work on residential standard First Version: Z 765 -1996 Previous Version: Z 765 -2003 New Version: Z 765 -2013 – Summer 2013

Motivation • Z 765 Participants (partial list) Ø Appraisal Foundation Ø American Institute of Architects Ø Consumers Union Ø Employee Relocation Council (ERC) Ø Fannie Mae Ø Freddie Mac Ø HUD Ø International Code Council Ø Manufacturer Housing Institute Ø National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Ø National Association of Realtors (NAR) Ø Veterans Administration

Motivation • States that use ANSI Z 765 (partial list) Ø Alabama Ø Arkansas Ø Colorado Ø Kentucky Ø Louisiana Ø North Carolina

Five Deadly Measurement Sins

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Ø Ø Measuring Issues Missing Gross Living Area (GLA) Counting Non-GLA Complex Floor Plans Inaccessible Measurements

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Measuring Issues § Equipment Failure v Measuring Wheels v Fiberglass Tape Measurers v Laser Measurers

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Equipment Failure Example § Elongated Wheel

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Measuring Issues § Equipment Failure v Measuring Wheels v Fiberglass Tape Measurers v Laser Measurers § Squaring Error

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Squaring Example #1 Ø Easy!

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Squaring Example #2 Ø Easy, Right?

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Missing Gross Living Area (GLA) § § § Four Season Porches Bonus Rooms Excluding Stairs Hallways (extending to unfinished spaces) Mother-in-law Units (attached through finished hall)

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Counting Non-GLA § § Three Season Porches Decks Patios Non-attached Auxiliary Buildings v ie: Mother-in-law units above a detached garage § Garages § Below-grade § Including Stairs (double dipping)

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Complex Floor Plans § § Upper level footprint doesn’t match main footprint Interior Cavities/Dead-space in walls Difficult Geometries Multi-Level Homes v Completely Above-grade v Partially Above-grade

Five Deadly Measurement Sins • Five Causes of Measurement Errors Ø Inaccessible Measurements § § Upper Stories: two and above Condos Attached Townhomes Not accounting for wall thickness

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions Ø Area Measurement & Calculation Ø Area Reporting

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Attached Single-Family Residential (SFR) Home v A house that has its own roof & foundation, and is separated by dividing walls that extend from the roof to the foundation. The house does not share utility services with other attached houses.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Detached Single-Family Residential (SFR) Home v A house with open space on all sides

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Habitable Space v A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are NOT considered habitable spaces. International Building Code (IBC) - 2009

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Habitable Space v A space that is usable year-round. Interpreted definition ANSI-Z 765

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Finished Area v An enclosed area in a house that is suitable for year-round use that is consistent with the rest of the house

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Unfinished Area v Sections of the house that do not meet the criteria of finished area

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Grade v The ground level at the perimeter of the exterior finished surface of a house.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Level v Areas of the house that are vertically within two feet of the same horizontal plane.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Square Footage (SF) v Area of length X width. Units in square meters using Metric (Standard International) measurements, or square feet using English measurements.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Finished SF v Same as finished area, although not a Z 765 definition.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Unfinished SF v Same as unfinished area, although not a Z 765 definition.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § FNMA definitions. Not defined in Z 765 standard but presented here for reference. v. Gross Living Area (GLA) v. Below-Grade SF (BSF)

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Gross Living Area (GLA) § For units in condominium or cooperative projects, use interior perimeter unit dimensions to calculate the gross living area. In all other instances, use the exterior building dimensions per floor to calculate the above-grade gross living area of a property. Only finished abovegrade areas should be used— garages and basements (including those that are partially above-grade) should not be included. FNMA Guidelines: XI, 405. 06 (11/01/2005)

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Below-grade SF § Consider a level to be below-grade if any portion of it is below-grade— regardless of the quality of its “finish” or the window area of any room. Therefore, a walk-out basement with finished rooms would not be included in the above-grade room count. FNMA Guidelines: XI, 405. 06 (11/01/2005)

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Definitions § Garage v A structure intended for the storage of automobiles and other vehicles.

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Measurement & Calculation of Area § § § § Units of Measurement Attached SFR Finished Area Detached SFR Finished Area Above- & Below-Grade Area Distinctions Above- & Below-Grade Finished Area Openings to Floor Below Area Ceiling Height Requirements Building Protrusions

Z 765 -2013 Components • Components of the ANSI Z 765 Standard Ø Reporting of Area § Rounding § Above & Below Finished Area § Above & Below Unfinished Area

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Examples

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Example #1 Ø 1 - Story 26’ X 40’, Flr-Ceiling Bump, No Bsmt. 1076 SF Above-grade

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Example #2 Ø 1 -Story 26’ X 40’, Bay Window Bump, No Bsmt. 1040 SF Above-grade

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Example #3 Ø 1 -Story 26’ X 40’, Bay, 25% below-grade Bsmt. 1004 SF Above-grade , 1040 SF Below-grade

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Examples #4 Ø 2 -Story 26’ X 40’, Bay, Bsmt + 6’ X 6’ Open Foyer 2044 SF Above-grade, 1040 SF Below-grade

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Examples #5 Ø 2 -Story 26’ X 40’, Flr, Bsmt + 6’ X 6’ Open Foyer 2044 SF Above-grade, 1076 SF Below-grade

Where the Rubber Meets the Road • Examples #6 Ø 2 -Story 26’ X 40’, Flr, 25% below-grade Slab 1040 SF Above-grade, 1076 SF Below-grade

ANSI Z 765 -2013 • Where to find: Ø http: //www. homeinovaton. com/about/bookstore

Questions to Ponder • ANSI Z 765 -2013 Questions

ANSI BOMA Z 65. 4 -2010 Multi-Family Residential Measurement Standard

Measuring Multi-Family Residential Properties Using BOMA Z 65. 4

Z 65. 4 Overview Ø Scope Ø Key Features Ø Applicability Ø History Ø Definitions Ø Z 65. 4 -2010 Synopsis Ø Example

Z 65. 4 Scope • 4+ Unit Residential Measurement Standard for – Measuring – Calculating – Reporting Ø Seven Types of Building Area v. Any ideas what they are?

Key Features • Flexible – Individual Units | Whole Building • Consistent – Standard Rules for Measuring & Reporting Area • Two Measuring Methods – Gross – Net

Building Types

BOMA History • National Association of Building Owners and Managers – Founded 1907 – Changed name to BOMA in 1968 • Information source – Bldg. Codes, Legislation, Statistics, & Technology • 16, 500+ members

BOMA Z 65. 4 History • Z 65. 1 -2010 Office Bldg. Standard – Original Standard Circa. 1915 • • • Z 65. 2 -2012 Industrial Bldg. Standard Z 65. 3 -2009 Gross Area Bldg. Standard Z 65. 4 -2010 Multi-Unit Res. Standard Z 65. 5 -2010 Retail Bldg. Standard Z 65. 6 -2011 Mixed-Use Bldg. Standard

Quiz • Calculate the Following for a Unit: – Construction Gross Area (CGA) – Void Area ØWall Width: § 2’ thick between living units § 1’ thick otherwise

Quiz Floor Plan

Quiz Floor Plan • Which is correct for CGA? Ø 1040 SF Ø 1144 SF Ø 1077 SF Ø 1024 SF ØNone of the above

Quiz Answers ü 1077 SF for Construction Gross Area (CGA) Ø 41’ X 22’ + 11’ X 11’ + 9’ X 6’ = 1077 SF ü 100 SF or 121 SF for Void Area Ø 10’ X 10’ = 100 SF (Net Method) Ø 11’ X 11’ = 121 SF (Gross Method)

Z 65. 4 -2010 Definitions

Definitions • Building Perimeter – External perimeter around level or floor • Center Line – Mid-point of wall • Common Area – Shared by two or more units • Construction Gross Area (CGA) – Total area of all floor calculated using perimeter

Definitions

Definitions • Demising Wall – A wall between areas; may be same or different • Finished (wall) Surface – Face of wall | window; painted or clad wallboard • Limited Common Area – Private balconies, decks, patios, or porches • Living Unit – Residential Habitable Unit

Definitions

Definitions • Major Vertical Penetrations (MVP) – Floor opening for ductwork & building utilities ØMore than one SF | 0. 1 Sq. Meters ØLocated anywhere in CGA • Multi-Unit Residential Building – Building with 4+ residential Units ØIncludes: corridors, lobbies, parking, stairs, & storage

Definitions

Definitions • Occupant – A person(s) living or squatting in a living | storage unit • Occupancy Voids – An opening between floors in a single living unit Ø Includes: stairs, elevators, and dumwaiters • Unit Gross Area (UGA) – Overall area of either living or a storage unit ØMethod A, discuss in a bit

Definitions

Definitions

Definitions • Restricted Headroom Area (RH) – Area in living unit that does not meet IBC 1208. 2 minimum ceiling height. • Storage Unit Area (SU) – Enclosed area used for storage ØNot part of or connected to living area ØMay be unfinished, have restricted headroom, limited building services, & not suitable for a use as living unit

Definitions

Definitions • Structured Parking Area (SP) – An attached enclosed vehicle storage structure ØExcludes off-street uncovered parking, on-grade parking below an elevated building, and carports ØDetached parking garages are considered separately • Unit Net Area (UNA) – The net area of a living unit or a storage unit ØMethod B, discussed in a bit.

Definitions

Definitions • Void – An open air space where a floor is expected ØNot part of CGA ØVoid Examples: atriums, and 2 -story foyers ØMajor vertical penetrations are not voids ØDifferent from occupant voids

Definitions

Z 65. 4 -2010 Definitions

Meat & Potatoes How to Apply Z 65. 4 -2010

Meat & Potatoes • Overview of Standard – Unit Gross Area Method: Method A – Unit Net Area Method: Method B

Meat & Potatoes • Gross Method: Method A – Measures gross area of unit • Net Method: Method B – Measures net area of unit • Measurement Rules – Must explicitly specify which method used – Z 65. 4 does not specify units | precision • Standard Application same for either Method

Meat & Potatoes • Four Steps in apply Z 65. 4 Standard – – Determine CGA Partition area by type for each floor Determine boundaries of each type of space Calculate all areas and tabulate

Meat & Potatoes

Meat & Potatoes • Four Steps in apply Z 65. 4 Standard – Determine CGA ØMeasure | Plans & Spec § Building perimeter boundary ØCalculate Gross Area of each floor § Based on building perimeter boundary ØSum all floors

Meat & Potatoes • Four Steps in apply Z 65. 4 Standard – Partition area by type for each floor (ID only) ØSeven types of area § What are they? ? ?

Meat & Potatoes • Seven Types of Areas – Major Vertical Penetration – Structured Parking – Living Units – Restricted Headroom – Limited Common Area – Storage Unit – Common Area v. Voids aren’t considered a space, since they’re not part of CGA

Meat & Potatoes • Four Steps in apply Z 65. 4 Standard – Determine boundaries of each type of space ØFigure out wall measuring point § Interior finished side; also called near-side § Exterior side (finished | unfinished); also called far-side § Mid-point of wall ØUse Wall Priority Diagrams to decide measuring point

Meat & Potatoes

Meat & Potatoes

Meat & Potatoes

Meat & Potatoes • Four Steps in apply Z 65. 4 Standard – Calculate all areas and tabulate ØCalculate areas: Net | Gross method | both methods ØTabulate areas of each type by: § Individual units; Net | Gross | both § Each floor § Sum all ØReport in Global Summary of Areas form | similar form § Report units in feet | meters § Round to nearest square foot | square meter v. Standard suggests follow steps in order

Meat & Potatoes

Putting it all Together

Putting it all Together • Calculate the Following for Unit A: – Construction Gross Area – Unit Net Area – Major Vertical Penetration Area – Common Area – Limited Common Area – Void Area ØWall Width: § 2’ thick between living units § 1’ thick otherwise

Putting it all Together

Putting it all Together ü 1077 SF; Construction Gross Area (CGA) Ø 41’ X 22’ + 11’ X 11’ + 9’ X 6’ = 1077 SF ü 1023 SF; Unit Gross Area (UNA) Ø 41’ X 22’ + 11’ X 11’ = 1023 SF ü 900 SF; Unit Net Area (UGA) Ø 40’ X 20’ + 10’ X 10’ = 900 SF

Putting it all Together ü 64 SF for Major Vertical Penetration (MVP) Ø 8’ X 8’ = 64 SF ü 167 SF for Common Area (CA) Ø 11’ X 21’ – (8’ X 8’; elevator) = 167 SF ü 56 SF for Limited Common (LC) Area Ø 6’ X 9’ = 54 SF ü 100 SF for Void Area Ø 10’ X 10’ = 100 SF (Method B)

Putting it all Together

Wrap-Up • Questions

Fini! • ANSI BOMA Z 65. 4 -2010: Multi-family Measurement Standard

ANSI BOMA Z 65. 4 -2010 • Where to find: Ø http: //store. boma. org/t/categories/boma-standards