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RECYCLE Ø Ø Ø Recycle of solid waste is reduce the amount of waste introduce to the environment. also reduce the use of primary commodities or raw material Recycle paper would reduce 60% of water usage, save 70% of the energy and reduce the emission of the pollutants as much as 50 %
Ø Ø Recycle glass would reduce the usage of water by 50%, 79% of the mining waste could be avoided and air pollution could be reduce by 14% Recycle plastic reduce 30% of energy to make polystyrene foam products compare with the energy used for paper cups made
Why it is important to recycle Lack of space Ø Not wise to build one landfill after another Ø Pollution, hygiene and other issues must be consider Water pollution Ø Most land areas are catchment area Ø Toxic leachate will pollute the water
Air pollution Ø Decomposition releases gas Ø Pollute air and contribute to global warming Ø Create unpleasant environment Save energy Ø One aluminum can save enough energy to keep a TV set on Ø One glass bottle can saves 100 watts
Compromising health Ø Air and water pollution Ø Live close with landfill Ø Vector may carry diseases
The benefits of recycle Ø Ø Cut down the need for disposal capacity Lower emission from landfill, incinerators and litter Ø Reduce of energy usage and emission Ø Lessen impacts and conserve raw material Ø The energy recovery will increase due to; Ø Ø Reduction in energy use and related emission and reduction in extraction and manufacturing process Long term, value of conservation materials
WHY RECYCLE Protecting Our Planet Global warming is no longer a theory it has sadly become a fact. The change needed must be in your actions today in order to ensure a bright (not too hot) tomorrow.
POTENTIAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT • If greenhouse gas concentrations keep rising, climatic changes are likely to result. • Effects will be on the environment and socioeconomic and related sectors, such as health, agriculture, forests, water resources, coastal areas and biodiversity. Source: US EPA
GREENHOUSE EFFECT • • This graphic explains how solar energy is absorbed by the earth's surface, causing the earth to warm and to emit infrared radiation. • Source: US EPA Human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase. The greenhouse gases then trap the infrared radiation, thus warming the atmosphere.
The limitation in recycle Ø Ø Ø The definition of waste is varies among the different nation Lack of incentives among developing countries for technology development There are no fix price for the recycle product and the erratic price fluctuations favour incineration or landfill
Ø Ø Ø Usually curb side collection is preferred when recycle is higher. The “bring” system is not conducive to participants There no incentive for recycle in many South East Asia countries Frequent recycle causes contamination risk due to heavy metal accumulation.
Recycle in Malaysia Ø Ø Recycle was introduced in PJ in 1991. In 1996, yellow box recycling programme was launched In KL plastic is the main material recycled followed by metals. However, less then 1% is recycle. The awareness is high among Malaysian but very few actually practice Only 30 to 40% of paper is recycle compare with US 50% and some European nation 60 to 70%
Ø Ø The important elements of integrated solid waste management are not officially and legally incorporated into the Malaysian waste management practice Organized source reduction and recycle are lacking although a few NGOs do carry out recycle activities Only < 5% of the garbage is recycle and the target should be 25 to 30% Recycle of paper is currently practiced in Malaysia especially KL, Penang and Ipoh
Ø Ø Among Asian countries, Australia, Japan and India have a high recover (60 to 80%) Which increase commitment in certain sector, recycling of glass in Malaysia has increase
RECYCLING STATISTICS Countries with the highest Recycling Rates • Malaysian Recycling Rates are approximately < 5% Percentage of Waste Recycled Rank Country 1 Switzerland 52% 2 Austria 49. 7% 3 Germany 48% 4 Netherlands 46% 5 Norway 40% 6 Sweden 34% 7 United States 31. 5% Source, BBC Source, KPKT
What we can recycle? Paper Ø The principal types of waste paper that are recycled are old newspaper, cardboard, high grade paper and mix paper Ø Except tissue paper, carbon paper, aluminum foil/wax paper, plastic liminated paper and contaminated paper
Glass Ø Container glass (for food packing), flat glass (window glass), pressed or amber glass Ø Except crystal, mirror, window panes vehicle screen, porcelain, ceramic, bulb, laboratory apparatus and toxic container Ø Glass, to be reprocessed is often separated by color into categories of clear, green and amber
Ø Aluminum recycle is made up of two sector: aluminum cans and secondary aluminum Ø Secondary aluminum includes window frame, sliding and gutter Ø Except paint container, toxic container and solvent container Ø The demand for recycled aluminum cans is high. It take 95% less energy to produce an aluminum cans from an existing cans than from ore
Plastic Ø Classified into two categories: ØClean commercial grade scrap ØPost consumer scrap Ø Two type of post consumer plastic that most commonly recycle are: Ø polyethylene terephtalate (PETE/1) ØHigh density polyethyelene (HDPE)
Ferrous metal (iron & steel) Ø Traditionally come from large item such as cars and appliances Ø Many communities have large scrap metal piles at the local landfill or transfer station Ø In many cases, the pile are unorganized in different metal are mix together – making them unattractive to scrap buyer
Ø Steel can use as food container (juice, soft drink and food) and easily separated from mixed recyclable or municipal waste.
Non-ferrous metals Ø Recyclable non-ferrous metal from household items: Ø Ø Outdoor furniture, kitchen cookware and appliance, ladder, tool and hardware From construction and demolition project: Ø Cooper wire, pipe, and plumbing supplies, light fixture, aluminum siding, gutters.
Ø Ø Ø From large consumer, commercial and industrial products: Appliance, automobiles, boats aircraft and machinery Virtually all nonferrous metal can be recycled if they are sorted and free of foreign materials such as plastic, fabrics and rubber
• Recycling soap bars from the guest rooms • Re-use plastic bottles whenever possible • Printing is highly discouraged unless absolutely necessary.
• Replacing bottled water with water dispensers for meetings and events thus reducing 43, 200 plastic bottles per year. • SGHKL associates are given a Hijau Way Canvas to discourage use of plastic bags. • Changing of plastic laundry bag to nonwoven bag.
• Separating of glass, paper, aluminum cans and plastic for collection by relevant parties. Funds received from this exercise are channeled to the sports and welfare funds. •
Methods for the collection of recycle materials Ø Ø The methods used for the collection of recycle materials includes curbside collection and delivery by homeowner to drop-off and buy-back centres The future separation and processing of waste that have been source-separation is at Material Recover Facilities (MRFs) or Integrated Material Recover Facilities/transfer facilities (MRTFs)
Drop-off centre Ø Ø Ø Required residents or businesses to separate recyclable materials at the source and bring to a specified drop-off or collection centre Require residents to store the materials until sufficient and material is collected to the drop-off centre. The storage of multiple material types is a problem in densely populated area.
Ø Ø To encourage participation, most successful programs have made drop-off centres has convenient as possible Other incentives, such as donating portions of proceeds a local charity
Buy-Back Centres Ø Refers to a drop-off program that provides monetary incentive to participate Ø The residents are paid for their recyclable either directly or indirectly through reduction in monthly collection and disposal fees.
RECYCLING ACTIVITIES MOBILE RECYCLING FIXED RECYCLING CENTRE KERBSIDE RECYCLING FIXED RECYCLING CENTRE
Options for the separation of waste materials Ø Ø Separation is a necessary operation in the recovery of reusable and recyclable materials from MSW Separation can be accomplished either at the source of generation or at MRFs / MRTFs.
Integrated MRTFs Ø The function of a drop-off centre for separation waste. Ø The facilities include: ØMaterial separation facilities ØA facility for the composting and bioconversion of waste ØA facility for the production of refusederive fuel ØTransfer facility
Ø Ø Chemical and biological processes are use to reduce the volume and weight and to recover conversion products and energy The most common used chemical transformation process is combustion. Used in conjunction with the recovery of energy. The most commonly used biological transformation process is aerobic composting
If you do care, start recycle RECYCLE FOR THE BETER FUTURE ……. OR WOULD YOU RATHER LIVE IN THE WASTE? . . .
Field capacity of solid waste Factor that limit growth of vegetation on landfill