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Recognition of Credits - Achievements and Problems / Challenges A Stocktaking Exercise Bologna Conference Recognition of Credits - Achievements and Problems / Challenges A Stocktaking Exercise Bologna Conference Riga Dec. 3 -5 / 2004 [email protected] fhosnabrueck. de 1

Achievements How can achievements be measured? One proposal n Critical Success Factors Suitability – Achievements How can achievements be measured? One proposal n Critical Success Factors Suitability – fit for purpose Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Feasibility – fit to live Sustainability – fit for life [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 2

CSF 1 Suitability – fit for purpose? gehmlich@wi. fhosnabrueck. de 3 CSF 1 Suitability – fit for purpose? [email protected] fhosnabrueck. de 3

Suitability – fit for purpose 11 Credits document the achievement of learning objectives - Suitability – fit for purpose 11 Credits document the achievement of learning objectives - expressed as learning outcomes – by the learner 12 Allocated credits to a learning module highlight the expected notional workload necessary to be invested by the learner l Common denominators ¡ l Workload and Outcome Achieved? [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 4

Suitability – fit for purpose l The development of ECTS from a transfer to Suitability – fit for purpose l The development of ECTS from a transfer to a transfer and accumulation system and the linkage of learning outcomes with credits have made it possible l 11/12 ECTS = fit for purpose [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 5

Suitability – fit for purpose l 13 A credit system has to support the Suitability – fit for purpose l 13 A credit system has to support the Bologna objective of Employability l Achieved? [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 6

Learning Chain La bo ur Ma rk e t Change of paradigm Learners Learning Learning Chain La bo ur Ma rk e t Change of paradigm Learners Learning space Learnig outcomes Subject related (Teaching and learning, Research -Knowledge broadening Selection Learning material, -Knowledge deepening (accumulates credits) Learning methods. . . ) Generic -Knowledge accessing La Total Quality Management [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de bo ur M ar 7 ke t

Indicators Information process Trainability/ Learning Agreement Individual Selection Performance • Credits • Grade Transcript Indicators Information process Trainability/ Learning Agreement Individual Selection Performance • Credits • Grade Transcript of Records Learning Space Employability -wherever. Information Pack. Modularisation Learning Outcomes Workload Credit Transfer / Accumulation Information process [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de Descriptors Profile Level Award / Diploma Supplement 8

Indicators Information process Trainability/ Learning Agreement Individual Selection • Interview • Portfolio u. a. Indicators Information process Trainability/ Learning Agreement Individual Selection • Interview • Portfolio u. a. Performance • Credits • 5 • Grade • Local • Ranking Transcript of Records Information Package Structure of a Module Learning Outcomes: Subj. rel. /non subj. rel. • Knowledge widening • Knowledge deepening • Knowledge accessing • Instrumental • Interpersonal • systemic Employability Tuning 6 x 4 Dublin Descriptors Qualificationsframework LLL Workload -Effectiveness - Efficiency Transfer / Accumulation Information process [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de Award / Diploma Supplement 9

Suitability – fit for purpose l With its instruments to communicate transparency, i. e. Suitability – fit for purpose l With its instruments to communicate transparency, i. e. ¡ ¡ l Information Package / Course Catalogue Learning Agreement Transcript of Records Diploma Supplement, its linkage with learning outcomes 13 ECTS definitely supports employability [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 10

Suitability – fit for purpose 14 A credit system is not only for university Suitability – fit for purpose 14 A credit system is not only for university learning but has to cover all areas of learning ¡ Formal ¡ Non-formal ¡ Informal l That is for all forms of education and training l l Achieved? [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 11

Suitability – fit for purpose l ECTS – ECVET l APL l APEL l Suitability – fit for purpose l ECTS – ECVET l APL l APEL l „Joint Action“ – Projects, ¡ TELL ¡ ELITE´LLL l University Lyon = Work in progress [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 12

Suitability – fit for purpose l. One credit system for all forms of learning: Suitability – fit for purpose l. One credit system for all forms of learning: l 14 A challenge for ECTS [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 13

CSF 2 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders? gehmlich@wi. fhosnabrueck. de 14 CSF 2 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders? [email protected] fhosnabrueck. de 14

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? • A credit system has Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? • A credit system has to respect the perspectives of – „customers“ • Learners • Teaching and training staff • Employers – And also stakeholders in a wider sense, such as • Parents • Governments (education, training, finance…ministries – issue of governance: Whom should ECTS serve / How should purposes be determined) • Social partners • Society [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 15

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? • Criteria are the expected Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? • Criteria are the expected performance outcome and may be expressed as „return“, „risk“, „stakeholder reaction“ • Achieved? [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 16

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 21 Return • The learner receives a number of Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 21 Return • The learner receives a number of credits • Credits reflect a value expressed as learning outcomes, i. e. competences the learner has acquired • Credits identify the notional time necessary to invest (workload) The return: Qualified Learning Outcomes quantified by credits 21 ECTS is working [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 17

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 22 Risk • Recognition of credits achieved – Identical Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 22 Risk • Recognition of credits achieved – Identical number of credits – Different number of credits • Explanation – Responsibility of the institution which allocates credits for an incoming learner – Difference between absolute and relative credits (compare with purchasing power of the Euro in Euroland) • The risk: – Expectations of applying learners may not be met 22 ECTS is working [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 18

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? 23 Stakeholder reaction (mapping): – Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? 23 Stakeholder reaction (mapping): – To identify stakeholder expectations and power Interest Power Low High Minimal effort Keep informed Parents High Low Employers / Learners Teachers / Trainers Keep satisfied Key players Finance ministries Social partners Administration Accreditation Agencies Quality Assurance „Bologna Process“ (QFW)

Acceptability – fit for stakeholders • Since the development from a transfer to an Acceptability – fit for stakeholders • Since the development from a transfer to an accumulation system: – Increase of interest in the return – Increase of understanding the philosophy, accepting the risk – Interest in „getting involved“ – stakeholder mapping 2 ECTS is acceptable = fit for stakeholders [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 20

CSF 3 Feasibility - fit to live gehmlich@wi. fhosnabrueck. de 21 CSF 3 Feasibility - fit to live [email protected] fhosnabrueck. de 21

Feasibility – fit to live Is the only credit system which has been tested Feasibility – fit to live Is the only credit system which has been tested European-wide l Feasibility Study revealed the possibility to develop the ECTS Transfer System, tested since 1989, into an accumulation system l CSF 3 Feasibiltiy – fit to live = Achieved l Guarantors : l ¡ ¡ European Quality Assurance System (Evaluation / Accreditation) European Qualification Framework based on learning outcomes and credits [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 22

CSF 4 Sustainability – fit for life gehmlich@wi. fhosnabrueck. de 23 CSF 4 Sustainability – fit for life [email protected] fhosnabrueck. de 23

Sustainability – fit for life Bologna-Euro (currency) for education and training l Essential basic Sustainability – fit for life Bologna-Euro (currency) for education and training l Essential basic elements l ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ Based on trust Generally accepted Works as unit of account Respects convertibility Enables recognition Represents value Is Convertible Is compatible (common reference) [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 24

Sustainability – fit for life l Challenges ¡ Merge ECTS and ECVET ¡ Design Sustainability – fit for life l Challenges ¡ Merge ECTS and ECVET ¡ Design a European Qualification Framework in which the levels are described by learning outcomes l which can be achieved with an identified notional workload expressed in credits l ¡ Understand the concept of „purchasing power of credits“ [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 25

Purchasing Chain Perspective Shift of Paradigm Where? /How? Who? /What? • Individuum • accumulates Purchasing Chain Perspective Shift of Paradigm Where? /How? Who? /What? • Individuum • accumulates Income • Saves credits • Work • Learning -formal -non-formal -informal Transformation Process-TQM [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de Currency Outcome/ Can do: Purchasing Power • Buy • Transfer of credits 26

Sustainability – fit for life l The Credit Chameleon ¡ You achieved level B Sustainability – fit for life l The Credit Chameleon ¡ You achieved level B 2 of the Language Competence Framework ¡ Let´s assume for this achievement 900 hours were deemed to be the notional workload ¡ According to the Key Features this would be translated into 30 credits [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 27

Sustainability – fit for life l Do 30 credits count towards the 180 (let´s Sustainability – fit for life l Do 30 credits count towards the 180 (let´s assume a 3 -year BA-programme)? ¡ ¡ ¡ l May they count less? May they count more? May they count exactly 30 at all? Lesson learned: ¡ ¡ Credits can have an absolute and a relative value They always become relative when they are being put into a programme Learning outcomes have to be identified precisely and concisely Credits have a „purchasing power“ [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 28

Sustainability – fit for life l Challenge ¡ Can all subject and generic skills Sustainability – fit for life l Challenge ¡ Can all subject and generic skills be measured in absolute terms? Tuning l Experts l Groups of all stakeholders l ¡ Does this lead to standardised studyprogrammes in certain subject areas? Possible, but better not l Better: standardisation of learning outcomes in a given subject area - if the stakeholders think so l [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 29

Sustainability – fit for life l l What can you do with the credits Sustainability – fit for life l l What can you do with the credits received? Basically: Spend or Save ¡ Spending l To cover immediate needs • Swapping for a paper qualification (to be able to apply for a specific job e. g. ) ¡ Saving l To accumulate with • A specific intention to „barter“ the credits later for something „huge“, e. g. a degree • No specific intention yet • For the fun of it l Actions taken • Transfer to your „learning account“ [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 30

Sustainability – fit for life l. A ¡ currency/credit system therefore is the key Sustainability – fit for life l. A ¡ currency/credit system therefore is the key requirement of life-longlearning concepts l Geared towards • • Learners Values Competences Employability [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 31

Conclusion • ECTS as a transfer and accumulation system is unintentionally basically designed as Conclusion • ECTS as a transfer and accumulation system is unintentionally basically designed as a currency system • All aspects related to a currency system are therefore valid for ECTS as well This relates e. g. to issues such as – „purchasing power“ of the outcomes – Conversion of achievements at institutional, national and international level – Fluctuations of values – Formal, non-formal and informal achievements [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 32

Indicators / Transparency Information process Information Trainability/ Package Learning Agreement Bologna Priorities 2005 Employability Indicators / Transparency Information process Information Trainability/ Package Learning Agreement Bologna Priorities 2005 Employability Academic Recognition Qualifications framework Quality Assurance Product Processes Structure Credit Transfer Credit Accumulation Bachelor Master Doctorate Qualified Learning Outcomes quantified by credits as currency Transcript of Records Transfer / Accumulation Information process [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de Award / Diploma Supplement 33

Conclusion • As with any currency the basic element today is Trust • How Conclusion • As with any currency the basic element today is Trust • How to achieve this for ECTS? – Like in the monetary union: stability criteria – Which means for education and training: • Transparency • Quality (Structure / Process / Product) • Supported by „tuned educational structures“ (see Tuning Project, Joint Quality Initiative, etc. ) [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 34

Conclusion • The challenges for Bologna 2007 – Design one currency: EC(T)S or ECET Conclusion • The challenges for Bologna 2007 – Design one currency: EC(T)S or ECET (European credit in education and training) [email protected] fh-osnabrueck. de 35