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Recent Improvement of Integrated Observation Systems in Japan WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Recent Improvement of Integrated Observation Systems in Japan WMO Technical Conference on Meteorological and Environmental Instruments and Methods of Observation TECO-2010 Helsinki, Finland, 31 August 2010 Kenji AKAEDA Observations Division, Observations Department JMA

Severe Weather in JAPAN - torrential downpour / typhoon - Violent Wind Recent Disaster Severe Weather in JAPAN - torrential downpour / typhoon - Violent Wind Recent Disaster Distribution (1998 -2004) Landslide      Precipitation at Nagoya, 2000      1 hour precipitation accumulation Flood

Overview of the Observational Systems in JMA Upper-air Observations Surface Observation GPS  Observation Meteorological Satellite Overview of the Observational Systems in JMA Upper-air Observations Surface Observation GPS  Observation Meteorological Satellite Weather Radar Lightning Monitoring JMA Doppler Lidar Weather forecast Advisory Warning etc. Disaster managers TV stations private weather associations the nation

Surface Observation Network Observatories    〇, +, 〇 AWS       156 1042 (〇 rainfall, Surface Observation Network Observatories    〇, +, 〇 AWS       156 1042 (〇 rainfall, temperature, wind, sunshine 476) (+ rainfall, temperature, wind, sunshine, snowfall 210) (〇 rainfall  356)      Each stations locate in intervals of about 17 km. every 10 sec Center System (JMA Headquarters) every 10 min Observatory AWS Upgrade to observe maximum instantaneous wind speed to monitor typhoon or gusty wind Automated Weather Station

Observatories (unmanned) Observatories QC / HK  AWS QC / HK JMA Headquarters (Tokyo) Data Observatories (unmanned) Observatories QC / HK  AWS QC / HK JMA Headquarters (Tokyo) Data statistics/archive system data archive data statistics QC /QA(nonreal-time) spatial consistency, time-series consistency, climate range checks Web Server observations entered manually (visibility, weather, etc) Data Collection Server Data Sharing/Storage Server CLIMAT data dissemination data processing SYNOP BUFR data dissemination (Publication, CD-ROM, Internet, etc) Data collection/processing system QC / QA(real-time) numeric ranges, intra-consistency checks, to add the quality flag to the datum JMA Computer System for Meteorological Services  JMA users Public GTS Users (Organizations, NMHSs)

Upper-air Observation Network 16 (Average interval = 350 km) 31 (Average interval = 110 Upper-air Observation Network 16 (Average interval = 350 km) 31 (Average interval = 110 km) Kushiro GPS Radiosonde (16) Matsue Wind Profiler (31) Automatic Balloon Launcher (8) 6

Data Flow in Soundings of JMA ABL sites SHIONOMISAKI HACHIJYOUJIMA MATSUE NAZE MINAMIDAITO JIMA WAJIMA Data Flow in Soundings of JMA ABL sites SHIONOMISAKI HACHIJYOUJIMA MATSUE NAZE MINAMIDAITO JIMA WAJIMA KUSHIRO CONTROL CENTER (JMA HQ) For numerical weather prediction models Global Telecommunication System Ishigakijima To  JMA HQ ・Sounding data   ・Status  data To  Sites   ・Control command At CONTROLCENTER  ・Quality control of data  ・Remote-controlling of ABL. DATA Forecast Made for each models MBL sites Manned launched site For weather watches DATA WEB Contents Data Strage WAKKNAI SAPPORO AKITA TATENO FUKUOKA KAGOSHIMA CHICHIJIMA MINAMI TORISIMA

Data flow and QC of Wind Profiler Radome type Standard type CONTROL CENTER( JMA Data flow and QC of Wind Profiler Radome type Standard type CONTROL CENTER( JMA Headquarters) 40 N QC every 10 min 30 N 130 E 140 E JMA is preparing WPR guidance material as IOM publication l at site • ground clutter removal • spectrum width check • migrating bird removal • precipitation effect removal l at Center • quadric surface check • vertical shear check • manual check

Comparison of Rawinsonde and Wind Profiler Measurements Correlation of u- and v- component measurements Comparison of Rawinsonde and Wind Profiler Measurements Correlation of u- and v- component measurements for the wind profiler and the rawinsonde, both located at Hachijyojima in 2008. u-component: avg. -0. 36 m/s std.  2. 13 m/s v-component: avg. -0. 02 m/s std. 2. 06 m/s Differences between wind profiler and rawinsonde wind component measurements (N=7514).

GPS Precipitable Water Observation GEONET (GPS Earth Observation NETwork) AMe. DAS (AWS) GEONET is GPS Precipitable Water Observation GEONET (GPS Earth Observation NETwork) AMe. DAS (AWS) GEONET is comprised of about 1200 GPS observation sites installed b the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan. The main purpose of GEONET is observing crustal movement with earthquakes. 10

Impact of GPS precipitable water on NWP 3 -hour cumulative rainfall predicted by JMA’s Impact of GPS precipitable water on NWP 3 -hour cumulative rainfall predicted by JMA’s 5 -km MSM

Radar Data Flow Radar Data Radar Data Control Center Quality Assured 3 -D Doppler Radar Data Flow Radar Data Radar Data Control Center Quality Assured 3 -D Doppler Velocity Data Quality Assured 3 -D Reflectivity Data Every 5 minutes Nationwide Radar Composite Map Every 30 minutes Rain gauge data by AWS Radarraingauge Composite Map Hazardous wind occurrence probability up to next 1 hour Tornado Nowcasting Lightning activity up to next 1 hour Lightning Nowcasting Rainfall intensity up to next 1 hour Precipitaion Nowcasting Straightforward extrapolation Rainfall up to next 6 hours Data assimilation using 4 D-VAR Messocale Numerical Model Short-term Precipitation Forecasting Non-hydrostatic 5 km Model 12 operated every 3 hours

Sample of Lightning and Tornado Nowcast After 1 h Lightning Nowcast Current Situation After Sample of Lightning and Tornado Nowcast After 1 h Lightning Nowcast Current Situation After 1 h Tornado Nowcast

Summary ØMost of the observational systems are remotely monitored and controled by central system Summary ØMost of the observational systems are remotely monitored and controled by central system and whole data are gathered to the central system. ØQC / QA is important and JMA combines several method to keep data quality. ØAWS improved to output maximum instantaneous wind speed. ØAll radiosonde systems are upgraded to GPS sonde. JMA operates 8 ABL, HGS and 8 normal radiosonde system. ØJMA has stably operated 31 WPR for 10 years. JMA is now preparing WPR guidance material as IOM. ØGPS precipitable water data are routinely used in NWP. Ø 16 radars out of 20 radars are upgraded to Doppler radar. Doppler velocity data are utilized in NWP and monitoring tornadoes. Radar data are also utilized for lightning and tornado nowcasting.

Thank you ! Thank you !

Radiosonde Data Flow GPS satellite signal Radiosonde signal Surface observation data incorporated in the Radiosonde Data Flow GPS satellite signal Radiosonde signal Surface observation data incorporated in the upper air report JMA Headquarters (Tokyo) Calculate of observation ( including quality control procedures such as gross error checks )   Ascent data (PTU, Wind)   Descent data (PTU, Location) A/N Report (for domestic use) Data Storage Server QC / QA (non-real-time) Data Statistics/Archive System QC / QA (non-real-time) JMA  Computer System for Meteorological Services CLIMAT TEMP message GTS Radiosonde stations (16) Users 16

Example of migrating-birds echo Fukui 19 NOV 2002 wind Height (km) (47616) Time (JST) Example of migrating-birds echo Fukui 19 NOV 2002 wind Height (km) (47616) Time (JST) Wind. Time (JST) in JMA Profiler 17

Wind Profiler Data Flow Profiler-3 Profiler-2 Profiler-30 10 minute values of Doppler velocity and Wind Profiler Data Flow Profiler-3 Profiler-2 Profiler-30 10 minute values of Doppler velocity and signal intensity being sent every 10 minutes Profiler-1 WINDAS CONTROL CENTER( JMA Headquarters) Profiler-31 Data quality control and remote control of profilers being made Horizontal and vertical components of wind and signal intensity being sent with BUFR code every 1 hour C O S M E T S (JMA Central Computer) NAPS Every 1 hour Forecast made with Meso-scale model ADESS Every 1 hour Hourly analysis made with Meso-scale model 10 minute data being sent every 1 hour Wind profiler data GTS 18

Nationwide Radar Composite Map Composite Processing Low-Altitude reflectivity of each Radar Z-R Conversion (Z=200 Nationwide Radar Composite Map Composite Processing Low-Altitude reflectivity of each Radar Z-R Conversion (Z=200 B 1. 6) Quality Control Radar-AMe. DAS Processing Calibration Factor of each Radar Calibration Combining (Maximum) Nationwide Radar Echo Composite Data