- Количество слайдов: 15
Reasons for Confederation 1. Political Deadlock and the Great Coalition 2. You. Tube - I Am Canadian
Parties in the Legislative Assembly Canada West Canada East Liberal-Conservative Party John A. Mac. Donald Le Parti Bleu George-Etienne Cartier vs. Reform Party vs. Le Parti Rouge George Brown A. A. Dorion
1. Political Deadlock and the Great Coalition • Union of the Canada’s (Act of Union 1840), resulted in no political party getting the support of majority of the Legislative Assembly. • Equal Representation resulted in a Political Deadlock because of equal # of reps. from Canada West and Canada East voted against each other and no legislation could be passed. Needed a Double Majority. • To form a government with a majority, at least one party from each section had to co-operate in a coalition.
The Great Coalition • In the 1860’s, this proved difficult and resulted in frequent elections and changes of government. • In 1864, George Brown announced he was willing to work with his political enemies (hug it out) • Members willing to work together and could stay in power long enough to pass laws and make improvements
Members of The Great Coalition George Brown Clear Grits Thomas D’arcy Mc. Gee Galt Independent John A. Mac. Donald Conservatives George E. Cartier French
Reasons for Confederation 2. Railway • Mac. Donald keen making Canada on a nation stretching coast to coast • Railway would support trade and prevent US annexation. In case of war (from USA), a railway would move troops quickly from colony to colony. • Mail and goods travel to colonies much quicker; share building costs. • Give merchants from Montreal a means of getting their goods out of Canada East even in the winter (St. Lawrence River freezing)
3. Trade with the United States • Because British North American colonies were part of the British Empire, they received favoured status when they traded with Britain (low taxes or no tariffs). • Purpose of Tariffs: Prevents other countries from underselling our products. • Problem: In 1846, Britain entered a period of free trade. They could now buy goods from whichever country sold them at the lowest price. Mercantilism over, Corn Laws repealed. • Result: British North American colonies lost their special status with Britain; economic hardship occurred.
3. Trade with the United States • Solution: From 1854 to 1865, there was free trade between the British North American colonies and the United States under the Reciprocity Treaty. RECIPROCITY TREATY • BNA colonies could sell their products to the US without paying tariffs when products entered or left the country. • This allowed agricultural products and raw materials to be sold across the border without high tariffs being paid. • The colonies had stronger trade links with the United States than with each other.
Reciprocity Treaty • Gave USA the right to fish in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and PEI waters. • Gave Newfoundland fish, NS coal, NB timber, Cdn flour, free access to USA.
3. Trade with the United States • Problem: In 1865 the US ended the Reciprocity Treaty; colonies realized they needed to trade among themselves to open markets and improve economic situation. • People in the colonies of British North America began to think of joining together so they could trade among themselves with no tariffs. • They hoped this would increase their economic prosperity. • Corn Laws (access for Cdn. Grains) repealed. • Would Britain still get lumber from New Brunswick?
4. Threat of American Expansion • Idea that if they united, they would be better able to defend themselves. • The relationship between the British North American colonies and the US was uneasy because Britain had supported the South in the American Civil War. • After obtaining lands formerly controlled by Spain, Mexico, France and Great Britain, many Americans believed it was their fate to occupy all of North America. “Manifest Destiny” You. Tube - Manifest Destiny • Vancouver Island BC could be taken over by the United States. • Picture below is a battle between Fenians and British soldiers in 1866 at Ridgeway (near Niagra)
4. Threat of American Expansion • Fenian (Irish Catholics who lived in USA) wanted to end British rule over Ireland. Decided to attack Britain’s colony in Canada, (British North America) Canadian Military - Fenian Raids • Fenians made several armed raids across the BNA border; more of a psychological threat; politicians pushing for Confederation used this to push Nationhood idea. The Fenian Raids • Assassinated D’arcy Mc. Gee, one of Fathers of Confederation, who was bitterly opposed to the Fenian Raids (one of few Canadian politicians to be assassinated).
5. Changing British Attitudes • In the mid 1860’s, Great Britain’s attitude towards her colonies began to change. • Since the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, the policies of mercantilism were no longer in effect. • Opinion was divided as to whether the colonies were still a benefit to Great Britain. • Very expensive to govern overseas (gov’t buildings, salaries, armies, forts, administration). • British governors in each of the colonies were told to encourage the colonies to unite (Confederation) • Britain’s decision to encourage union was important because the BNA colonists were intensely loyal to Britain.
5. Changing British Attitudes In Favour of Colonies Against Keeping Colonies • Source of raw materials • Burden on British tax-payers • Market for manufactured goods • Felt BNA should pay for their own government and defense • Opportunity to emigrate
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