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Reading to Develop Your Ideas Book 2
Unit 1 Human Relationship
New words and expressions for Reading One l l l l ream: If you say that there are reams of paper or reams of writing, you mean that there are large amounts of it. (INFORMAL) Their specific task is to sort through the reams of information and try to determine what it may mean. . . reams of work to do 大量的 作要做 premise: A premise is something that you suppose is true and that you use as a basis for developing an idea. (FORMAL) The premise is that schools will work harder to improve if they must compete. . . = assumption
l l adversarial: If you describe something as adversarial, you mean that it involves two or more people or organizations who are opposing each other. (FORMAL) In our country there is an adversarial relationship between government and business.
l l l whereby: A system or action whereby something happens is one that makes that thing happen. (FORMAL) [关系副词]凭那个; 由此. . . the system whereby Britons choose their family doctors and the government pays those doctors. . . They voted to accept a deal whereby the union will receive nearly three-quarters of a million pounds from the International Miners Organisation.
l l defuse: If you defuse a dangerous or tense situation, you calm it. The organization helped defuse potentially violent situations. . . sandwich: If you sandwich two things together with something else, you put that other thing between them. If you sandwich one thing between two other things, you put it between them. Sandwich the two halves of the sponge（海绵蛋糕） together with cream. . .
l l perspective: A particular perspective is a particular way of thinking about something, especially one that is influenced by your beliefs or experiences. He says the death of his father 18 months ago has given him a new perspective on life. . . Most literature on the subject of immigrants in France has been written from the perspective of the French themselves. . . I would like to offer a historical perspective.
l l judgmental: If you say that someone is judgmental, you are critical of them because they form opinions of people and situations very quickly, when it would be better for them to wait until they know more about the person or situation. We tried not to seem critical or judgmental while giving advice that would protect him from ridicule. . .
l l loaded: A loaded question or word has more meaning or purpose than it appears to have, because the person who uses it hopes it will cause people to respond in a particular way. That’s a loaded question（言外有意的、话中 有话的问题）. Avoid politically loaded terms. 避免使用有政治色彩的词语。
l l unemotional: If you describe someone as unemotional, you mean that they do not show any feelings. British men are often seen as being reserved and unemotional. . . She began to read in a brisk, unemotional voice. . . ≠ emotional
l l concession: If you make a concession to someone, you agree to let them do or have something, especially in order to end an argument or conflict. The King made major concessions to end the confrontation with his people.
l collaboratively: Collaborative effort/ work/ project etc is a job or piece of work that involves two or more people working together to achieve something. “Collaboratively” is the adverb form.
Check Your Vocabulary l l l 1. Fisher and Ury’s theory is based on the belief that the “win or lose” model does not work when two sides try to reach an agreement. 2. Use positive statement surrounding ideas that are negative. 3. You can often successfully resolve differences if you try this collaborative approach.
New words and expressions for Reading Two l l l field trip: [countable] (学生)实地考察旅行 an occasion when students go somewhere to learn about a particular subject, especially one connected with nature or science a geography field trip
l l l rib: Your ribs are the 12 pairs of curved bones that surround your chest. Her heart was thumping against her ribs. . . poke: If you poke someone or something, you quickly push them with your finger or with a sharp object. Lindy poked him in the ribs. = jab
l l l cut it/that out: spoken used to tell someone to stop doing something because it is annoying you Hey, you guys, cut it out — Mom’s trying to get some sleep. shove: If you shove someone or something, you push them with a quick, violent movement. He shoved her out of the way. . . He’s the one who shoved me. . . She shoved as hard as she could.
l l l fling: If you fling something somewhere, you throw it there using a lot of force. The woman flung the cup at him. . . He once seized my knitting, flinging it across the room.
l l flutter: If something thin or light flutters, or if you flutter it, it moves up and down or from side to side with a lot of quick, light movements. Her chiffon skirt was fluttering in the night breeze. . a butterfly fluttering its wings. . the fluttering white lace handkerchief.
l l dummy: especially American English informal someone who is stupid: No, you dummy. The other hand. grouchy: If someone is grouchy, they are very bad-tempered and complain a lot. (INFORMAL) Your grandmother has nothing to stop her from being bored, grouchy and lonely.
l l haltingly: If you speak or do something in a halting way, you speak or do it slowly and with a lot of hesitation, usually because you are uncertain about what to say or do next. She spoke haltingly of her deep upset and hurt. . .
l l jerk: If you jerk something or someone in a particular direction, or they jerk in a particular direction, they move a short distance very suddenly and quickly. Mr Griffin jerked forward in his chair. . . ‘This is Brady Coyne, ’ said Sam, jerking his head in my direction. . . Eleanor jerked her wrist free. . .
l l l thoughtless: If you describe someone as thoughtless, you are critical of them because they forget or ignore other people’s wants, needs, or feelings. It was thoughtless of her to mention it. . . ≠ thoughtful
Check Your Comprehension l l l 1. What were the students doing when the incident happened? The were waiting in line for their tickets on the field trip. 2. Who started the incident? Why did he do so? It was Ayo who started the incident. As he was hungry, annoyed, and restless, he looked around for something to do. 3. What was Mel’s reaction to Ayo’s behavior? Mel became angry and asked Ayo to stop it.
Check Your Comprehension l 4. What happened to the ticket container? What did the ticket collector do then? The ticket container crashed to the floor and hundreds of tickets were flung toward the ticket collector. The ticket collector yelled at the guys and called them names. The man also grabbed Mel’s arm and pushed him toward the scattered tickets.
Check Your Comprehension l 5. Who was Mr. Rivera? What did he say to those who were involved in the whole incident? Mr. Rivera was the students’ teacher. He arranged their tour. When he knew about the whole incident, he blamed Ayo for his treatment of Mel and told Ayo to stay after school. Next he said to Mel that he could have avoided the problem if he had just moved away rather than trying to get back at Ayo and he also asked Mel and Ayo to go and pick up the tickets. Finally, he criticized the ticket collector for calling the boys bad names.
New words and expressions for Reading Three l l ice storm: a storm in which snow or rain freezes on contact, forming a coat of ice on the surfaces it touches 冰暴，银光风暴：一种雪或雨触地后即结冰的 风暴，在它接触过的表面上都会形成一层冰。
l l clear: When you clear an area or place or clear something from it, you remove things from it that you do not want to be there. To clear the land harvest the bananas they decided they needed a male workforce. . . Workers could not clear the tunnels of smoke. . . Firemen were still clearing rubble from apartments damaged at the scene of the attack.
l l l irate: If someone is irate, they are very angry about something. The owner was so irate he almost threw me out of the place. . . = furious
l l l hysterical: Someone who is hysterical is in a state of uncontrolled excitement, anger, or panic. Police and bodyguards had to protect him as the almost hysterical crowds struggled to approach him. . . physical plant office: 物业办
l l l deposit: A deposit is a sum of money which is part of the full price of something, and which you pay when you agree to buy it. A £ 50 deposit is required when ordering, and the balance is due upon delivery. = down payment
l l bogus: If you describe something as bogus, you mean that it is not genuine. . their bogus insurance claim. . . He said these figures were bogus and totally inaccurate. = phoney
l l l splutter: If someone splutters, they make short sounds and have difficulty speaking clearly, for example because they are embarrassed or angry. ‘But it cannot be, ’ he spluttered. . . Molly leapt to her feet, spluttering and howling with rage.
New words and expressions for Reading Four l l desert: If someone deserts you, they go away and leave you, and no longer help or support you. Mrs Roding’s husband deserted her years ago. . . = abandon “Deserted” is the adjective form.
l l resort: If you resort to a course of action that you do not really approve of, you adopt it because you cannot see any other way of achieving what you want. His punishing work schedule had made him resort to drugs. . .
l l l adoption: [uncountable] the act of starting to use a particular plan, method, way of speaking etc facilitate: To facilitate an action or process, especially one that you would like to happen, means to make it easier or more likely to happen. The new airport will facilitate the development of tourism. . . He argued that the economic recovery had been facilitated by his tough stance. = aid, assist
l l physiological: adj. 生理学的, 生理学上的. . . the physiological effects of stress. distraction: A distraction is something that turns your attention away from something you want to concentrate on. Total concentration is required with no distractions.
l l l disposal: If you have something at your disposal, you are able to use it whenever you want, and for whatever purpose you want. If you say that you are at someone’s disposal, you mean that you are willing to help them in any way you can. Do you have this information at your disposal? . . . If I can be of service, I am at your disposal.
l l l unconsciously：adv. 无意地, 不知不觉地 ’I was very unsure of myself after the divorce, ’ she says, unconsciously sweeping back the curls from her forehead. exercise: If you exercise something such as your authority, your rights, or a good quality, you use it or put it into effect. (FORMAL) They are merely exercising their right to free speech. . . Britain has warned travellers to exercise prudence and care.
l l come into play: 开始起作用 Political considerations do come into play (= have an effect) when making policy. tune in: If you tune in to something such as your own or other people’s feelings, you become aware of them. You can start now to tune in to your own physical, social and spiritual needs.
Check Your Comprehension B l l 1. How often does this seriously affect people’s communication and make them fail in building good relationships? 2. Every time parents and children disagree with each other, specialists often explain that “generation gap” is the reason.
Check Your Comprehension B l l l 3. We are not sure whether the term is an acceptable explanation because the word “generation” is used, but the other word “gap” can be applied when analyzing people’s different opinions. 4. Specialists in communications immediately challenge this belief and view it in a different way. 5. A speaker may not speak as fast as the listener can think.
Check Your Comprehension B l l l 6. Because they have free time to spend by themselves, the listeners probably think of other things and no longer concentrate. 7. As people’s interests vary, when the topic does not attract them, the listeners stop listening. 8. If the speaker does not give a good impression because of his looks or other matters, the listener would probably refuse to follow what the speaker says.
Speed up Your Reading l l stuck-up: If you say that someone is stuck-up, you mean that are very proud and unfriendly because they think they are very important. (INFORMAL) She was a famous actress, but she wasn’t a bit stuck-up.
l l l outburst: An outburst of an emotion, especially anger, is a sudden strong expression of that emotion. . a spontaneous outburst of cheers and applause. . . There has been another angry outburst against the new local tax introduced today. an outburst of laughter 一阵大笑 an outburst of indignation 勃然大怒
l l l strike back: If you strike back, you harm or criticize someone who has harmed or criticized you. Our instinctive reaction when someone causes us pain is to strike back. . . Sometimes, Kappy got angry and struck back at him in whatever way she could. . .
l l leading: The leading person or thing in a particular area is the one which is most important or successful. . a leading member of the community. . .
l l get off lightly: also be let off lightly to be punished in a way that is less severe than you deserve He got off lightly because his father was a lawyer.
l l l raw: Raw weather feels unpleasantly cold. . a raw December morning. = bitter raise a big fuss: to complain or become very angry about something, especially when this is not necessary Josie raised a big fuss because the soup was too salty. I don’t know why you’re raising such a big fuss about it.
l l squarely: directly or in the middle, rather than indirectly or at an angle I kept the gun aimed squarely at his eyes. understudy: An actor’s or actress’s understudy is the person who has learned their part in a play and can act the part if the actor or actress is ill. He was an understudy to Charlie Chaplin on a tour of the USA.
l l studio: a room where radio or television programmes are recorded, CDs are produced, or films are made She’s much happier performing live than in a recording studio.
l l break into: If you break into a profession or area of business, especially one that is difficult to succeed in, you manage to have some success in it. She finally broke into films after an acclaimed （受人称赞的）stage career.
l l audition: v. do a trial performance 试演 I heard your record and I want you to come and audition. n. a trial performance 试演 boom: a deep loud sound that you can hear for several seconds after it begins, especially the sound of an explosion or a large gun
l l come through: If something comes through, it arrives, especially after some procedure has been carried out. The news came through at about five o’clock on election day. We’re still waiting for our exam results to come through. There is news just coming through of an explosion in a chemical factory.
l l taffeta: shiny stiff material made of silk or nylon that is used mainly for making women’s clothes babble: You can refer to people’s voices as a babble of sound when they are excited and confused, preventing you from understanding what they are saying (the confused sound of many people talking at the same time) Kemp knocked loudly so as to be heard above the high babble of voices. . . the babble of a crowded party
out-of-town: happening in another town or city l 发生于外市的（不在纽约市的） l the out-of-town début of a new musical l 一场新音乐喜剧在外市的首次演出 l tryout: an experimental performance of a play before its official opening 预演 l sweet: obviously contrived to charm; precious 矫揉造作的；明显地设法吸引的；做作的 l
l l l bite: [uncountable] strong effect (a special quality in a performance, piece of writing etc that makes its arguments very effective and likely to persuade people) 感染力 The tale will have bite if its characters appear to be real. 倘若故事中得人物显得真实，那么这个故事就有 感染力。
The main idea of the story Through several incidents in childhood, Mary learned from her father how to listen to others’ criticisms, hear the truth in the criticisms, and respect her own opinion. When she grew up, she did as her Daddy advised and made achievements in her career.