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RAT 430: Teknologi Rekabentuk Bangunan Berkecekapan Tenaga Teknologi Bangunan Berkecekapan Tenaga Kuliah 2 b RAT 430: Teknologi Rekabentuk Bangunan Berkecekapan Tenaga Teknologi Bangunan Berkecekapan Tenaga Kuliah 2 b Dr. Mohd Zin Kandar

Contents of EE Technology Lighting Air-conditioning & MV Toilet & Water conservation Electrical motor Contents of EE Technology Lighting Air-conditioning & MV Toilet & Water conservation Electrical motor Refrigerator and Freezer Water Supply BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN Other EE Features TENAGA TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting l. Lighting – general l. EE Lighting layout l. Lighting sensors l. Lighting Lighting l. Lighting – general l. EE Lighting layout l. Lighting sensors l. Lighting control

Lighting Principles and Terms To choose the best lighting options, you should understand basic Lighting Principles and Terms To choose the best lighting options, you should understand basic lighting terms. This section explains terminology used in the industry 1. Illumination A lumen is a measurement of light output from a lamp, (often called a tube or a bulb). All lamps are rated in lumens. For example, a 100 -watt incandescent lamp produces about 1750 lumens. The distribution of light on a horizontal surface is called its illumination. Illumination is measured in footcandles. A footcandle of illumination is a lumen of light distributed over a 1 -square-foot (0. 09 -square-meter) area. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting Principles and Terms The amount of illumination required varies according to the difficulty Lighting Principles and Terms The amount of illumination required varies according to the difficulty of a visual task. Ideal illumination is the minimum footcandles necessary to allow you to perform a task comfortably and proficiently without eyestrain. The Illuminating Engineering Society says that illumination of 30 to 50 footcandles is adequate for most home and office work. Difficult and lengthy visual tasks—like sewing for extended periods of time— require 200 to 500 footcandles. Where no seeing tasks (i. e. , tasks whose speed and accuracy of completion are affected by quality and quantity of light) are performed, lighting systems need to provide only security, safety, or visual comfort—requiring from 5 to 20 footcandles of illumination. 2. efficacy. This is the ratio of light output from a lamp to the electric power it consumes and is measured in lumens per watt (LPW). TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Efficacy of Common Lamps Efficacy; This is the ratio of light output from a Efficacy of Common Lamps Efficacy; This is the ratio of light output from a lamp to the electric power it consumes and is measured in lumens per watt (LPW). TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting Principles and Terms 3. Lighting Uses Experts divide lighting uses into three categories: Lighting Principles and Terms 3. Lighting Uses Experts divide lighting uses into three categories: n Ambient lighting, Ambient lighting provides security and safety, as well as general illumination for performing daily activities. n Task lighting, The goal of task lighting is to provide enough illumination so that tasks can be completed accurately but not provide so much light that entire areas are illuminated. n accent lighting. Accent lighting illuminates walls so they blend more closely with naturally bright areas like ceilings and windows TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting Principles and Terms 4. Light Quality Light quality describes how well people in Lighting Principles and Terms 4. Light Quality Light quality describes how well people in a lighted space can see to do visual tasks and how visually comfortable they feel in that space. Light quality is important to energy efficiency because spaces with higher quality lighting need less illumination. High-quality lighting is fairly uniform in brightness and has no glare. 5. Glare Eliminating glare (i. e. , excessive brightness from a direct light source) is essential to achieving good lighting quality. Types of glare include direct glare, reflected glare, and veiling reflections. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting Principles and Terms 6. Light Color Lamps are assigned a color temperature (according Lighting Principles and Terms 6. Light Color Lamps are assigned a color temperature (according to the Kelvin temperature scale) based on their "coolness" or "warmness. " The human eye perceives colors as cool if they are at the blue-green end of the color spectrum, and warm if they are at the red end of the spectrum. Generally, sources below 3200 K are considered “warm” while those above 4000 K are considered “cool. ” 7. Color Rendering Index (CRI) - a scale from 0 -100, is a measure of how well a lamp renders color. A lamp with a CRI of 100 makes objects appear as they do in sunlight. CRI can only be compared for lamps of similar color temperature. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Light Sources 1. Incandescent 2. Gaseous Discharge A. Low Pressure Gaseous Discharge Fluorescent Low Light Sources 1. Incandescent 2. Gaseous Discharge A. Low Pressure Gaseous Discharge Fluorescent Low pressure sodium B. High Intensity Discharge (HID) Mercury vapor Metal halide High pressure sodium TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting There are four basic types of lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge Types of Lighting There are four basic types of lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge (HID), low-pressure sodium. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 1. Incandescent lamps are the least expensive to buy but the Types of Lighting 1. Incandescent lamps are the least expensive to buy but the most expensive to operate. Incandescent light is produced by a tiny coil of tungsten wire that glows when it is heated by an electrical current. Incandescent lamps have the shortest lives of the common lighting types. They are also relatively inefficient compared with other lighting types. However, significant energy and cost savings are possible if you select the right incandescent lamp for the right job. 70%-90% of the power consumed is lost as heat. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 1. Incandescent The three most common types of incandescent lights are Types of Lighting 1. Incandescent The three most common types of incandescent lights are n n n standard incandescent, tungsten halogen, and reflector lamps. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent The light produced by a fluorescent tube is caused Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent The light produced by a fluorescent tube is caused by an electric current conducted through mercury and inert gases. Fluorescent lighting is used mainly indoors—both for ambient and task lighting. About 3 to 4 times as efficient as incandescent lighting. Last about 10 times longer than incandescent. But, to gain the most efficiency, you should install fluorescents in places where they will be on for several hours at a time. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent lights need ballasts (i. e. , devices that control Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent lights need ballasts (i. e. , devices that control the electricity used by the unit) for starting and circuit protection. Ballasts consume energy. Can increase the energy savings for existing fluorescent lighting by relamping (e. g. , replacing an existing lamp with one of a lower wattage), replacing ballasts, and replacing fixtures with more efficient models. . TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent Compact fluorescent Ø Energy savings up to 75% over Types of Lighting 2. Fluorescent Compact fluorescent Ø Energy savings up to 75% over incandescent lamps. Ø Longer lamp life equals reduced maintenance costs. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 3. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps provide the highest Types of Lighting 3. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps provide the highest efficacy and longest service life of any lighting type. They are commonly used for outdoor lighting and in large indoor arenas. HID lamps use an electric arc to produce intense light. They also require ballasts, and they take a few seconds to produce light when first turned on because the ballast needs time to establish the electric arc. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 3. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) The three most common types of HID Types of Lighting 3. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) The three most common types of HID lamps are n n n mercury vapor, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium. HID lamps and fixtures can save 75% to 90% of lighting energy when they replace incandescent lamps and fixtures. Significant energy savings are also possible by replacing old mercury vapor lamps with newer metal halide or high-pressure sodium lamps. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Types of Lighting 4. Low-Pressure Sodium Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. Types of Lighting 4. Low-Pressure Sodium Low-pressure sodium lamps work somewhat like fluorescent lamps. They are the most efficient artificial lighting, have the longest service life, and maintain their light output better than any other lamp type. Low-pressure sodium lighting is used where color is not important because it renders all colors as tones of yellow or gray. Typical applications include highway and security lighting. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

EE Lighting accounts for 20% to 25% of all electricity consumed in the developed EE Lighting accounts for 20% to 25% of all electricity consumed in the developed countries. An average household dedicates 5% to 10% of its energy budget to lighting, Commercial establishments consume 20% to 30% of their total energy just for lighting. In a typical residential or commercial lighting installation, 50% or more of the energy is wasted by obsolete equipment, inadequate maintenance, or inefficient use. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Energy Efficiency with Lighting Saving lighting energy requires either reducing electricity consumed by the Energy Efficiency with Lighting Saving lighting energy requires either reducing electricity consumed by the light source or reducing the length of time the light source is on. This can be accomplished by: n n Lowering wattage, which involves replacing lamps or entire fixtures Reducing the light source's on-time, which means improving lighting controls and educating users to turn off unneeded lights Using daylighting, which reduces energy consumption by replacing electric lights with natural light Performing simple maintenance, which preserves illumination and light quality and allows lower initial illumination levels. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Conventional vs Energy Efficiency light bulb TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA Conventional vs Energy Efficiency light bulb TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Conventional vs Energy Efficiency light bulb TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA Conventional vs Energy Efficiency light bulb TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Dimmable Electronic ballasts A solid-state ballast that can provide variable light output in response Dimmable Electronic ballasts A solid-state ballast that can provide variable light output in response to a signal (from a photosenso, for example). A fluorescent lamp is a gas discharge light that requires a ballast (either magnetic or electronic) to provide high initial voltage for start-up and to regulate current during operation. Electronic ballasts use solid-state technology and operate at higher frequencies and efficiencies than do magnetic ballasts. Operating lamps with electronic ballasts reduce electricity use by 10 to 15% over magnetic ballasts for the same light output. Electronic ballasts also offer reduced flicker, lower weight, less noise and longer life than do magnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts are also available as dimming ballasts. These ballasts allow the light level to be controlled between 1% and 100%. Magnetic ballasts are also available with dimming capability, but they cannot be dimmed below 20% and use more electricity than do electronic ballasts. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Dimmable Electronic ballasts Dimmable electronic ballasts can be controlled by photosensors, occupancy sensors and/or Dimmable Electronic ballasts Dimmable electronic ballasts can be controlled by photosensors, occupancy sensors and/or a time clock. It is estimated that the combination of photosensor control and dimmable electronic ballasts can reduce annual electricity use by 50% over non-dimming systems. The combination of all three control methods can save approximately 75% of electricity use. Application Electronic dimmable ballasts are best used where the need for electric light is constantly changing (such as the perimeter zones of offices). If only two or three light levels are needed (high level for occupied/low level for unoccupied), it would be better to use conventional electronic ballasts and control the number of lamps that are operated. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Exit Sign Lighting Ø Due to continuous operation, upgrades offer the potential for huge Exit Sign Lighting Ø Due to continuous operation, upgrades offer the potential for huge reductions in energy and maintenance costs. Ø 40 watt incandescent exit signs with a lamp life of 7000 hours should be retrofitted with a light-emitting diode (LED) sign consuming between 2 -5 watts with a 25+ year life. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Replacing Lamps and Fixtures Replacing Lamps and Fixtures "Relamping" means substituting one lamp for another to save energy. You can decide to make illumination higher or lower when relamping. But be sure that the new lamp's lumen output fits the tasks performed in the space and conforms to the fixture's specifications. When relamping an entire store or office, first test the new lamps in a small area to ensure adequate illumination, occupant satisfaction, and compatibility of the new lamp and the old fixture. Matching replacement lamps to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Buying new fixtures made for new lamps produces superior energy savings, reliability, and longevity compared with relamping. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Replacing Lamps and Fixtures Use linear fluorescent and energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in Replacing Lamps and Fixtures Use linear fluorescent and energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in fixtures to provide high-quality and high-efficiency lighting. Fluorescent lamps are much more efficient than incandescent bulbs and last 6 to 10 times longer. Although fluorescent and compact fluorescent lamps are more expensive than incandescent bulbs, they pay for themselves by saving energy over their lifetime. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting circuit design Response to daylight level 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK Lighting circuit design Response to daylight level 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA 1

Lighting circuit design PSALI 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA Lighting circuit design PSALI 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA 1

Improving Lighting Controls Lighting controls are devices for turning lights on and off or Improving Lighting Controls Lighting controls are devices for turning lights on and off or for dimming them. The simplest type is a standard snap switch. Other controls are photocells, timers, occupancy sensors, and dimmers. Snap switches, located in numerous convenient areas, make it easier for people in large, shared spaces to turn off lights in unused areas. Photocells turn lights on and off in response to natural light levels. Photo-cells switch outdoor lights on at dusk and off at dawn, for example. Advanced designs gradually raise and lower fluorescent light levels with changing daylight levels. Mechanical or electronic time clocks automatically turn on and off indoor or outdoor lights for security, safety, and tasks such as janitorial work. TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

Lighting circuit design Daylight sensor 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN Lighting circuit design Daylight sensor 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA 1

Lighting circuit design Movement / occupant sensor 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK Lighting circuit design Movement / occupant sensor 1 2 2 Section Plan TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA 1

RE lighting RE lighting

SM-110 watt Solar Panel & APM Mount 100 LED Fight Fixture Morning. Star Sun. SM-110 watt Solar Panel & APM Mount 100 LED Fight Fixture Morning. Star Sun. Light Controller 8 A 27 AGM Batteries Lockable Battery Box Light Post Mounting Arm (Mounts to any Standard Pole; Pole Not Included) Panels and post arm. BANGUNAN easily to any standard Pole TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK mount BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

EE lighting installation (case study) EE lighting installation (case study)

ENERGY-10 Optimisation LEO Building KTAK/no Daylight use 125 KTAK KWh/m 2 year 111 100 ENERGY-10 Optimisation LEO Building KTAK/no Daylight use 125 KTAK KWh/m 2 year 111 100 75 67 64 50 25 18 25 11 TEKNOLOGI Cooling REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA Lights Other Total

TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

LEO Building Improved Energy Performance by Review of Design Criteria Topic Standard KTAK LEO LEO Building Improved Energy Performance by Review of Design Criteria Topic Standard KTAK LEO Actual data in Requirement LEO Design Temperature 23 o. C Lighting Power 20 W/m 2 16 W/m 2 8 -10 W/m 2 Small Power 27 W/m 2 20 W/m 2 6 - 8 W/m 2 Illuminance 500 lux ~ 400 lux 24 o. C TEKNOLOGI REKABENTUK BANGUNAN BERKECEKAPAN TENAGA

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