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Radiation Sensor Characterization for the LHC Experiments Federico Ravotti, Maurice Glaser, Michael Moll CERN Radiation Sensor Characterization for the LHC Experiments Federico Ravotti, Maurice Glaser, Michael Moll CERN PH/DT 2 and TS/LEA F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005

Outline Ø Sensor Catalogue; Ø Quality Assurance (QA) procedure for sensors; Ø Rad. FETs Outline Ø Sensor Catalogue; Ø Quality Assurance (QA) procedure for sensors; Ø Rad. FETs packaging; Ø Sensors readout board for LHC Experiments; Ø Sensors R&D: Ø Readout procedure optimization for BPW 34 p-i-n diodes; Ø New p-i-n diodes from Czech Republic (LBSD); Ø On-line dosimeter based on fibred OSL. Ø Conclusion. F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 2

Sensor Catalogue (www. cern. ch/lhc-expt-radmon/) Specifies sensors suitable for dosimetry in the LHC experiments Sensor Catalogue (www. cern. ch/lhc-expt-radmon/) Specifies sensors suitable for dosimetry in the LHC experiments environment: Ø Mixed-LET radiation field; Ø ~ 5 orders of magnitude in intensity. Ø Many devices tested but only a few selected (e. g. only 2 out of 9 Rad. FETs) 2 x Rad. FETs (TID); [REM, UK and LASS, France] 2 x p-i-n diodes (1 -Me. V Feq); [CMRP, AU and OSRAM BPW 34] 1 x Silicon detectors (1 -Me. V Feq). [CERN RD-50 Mask] F. Ravotti Detailed discussion on the sensors selection criteria see talk at 4 th LHC Radiation Day! 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 3

Sensors QA Procedure Suitable radiation response and intrinsic stability are not enough to guarantee Sensors QA Procedure Suitable radiation response and intrinsic stability are not enough to guarantee reliable measurements over a long time (e. g. 10 y. LHC). Example of different radiation response curves for Thin Oxide Rad. FETs from REM (see Catalogue). Example of Annealing Behaviour at different doses for Thick Oxide Rad. FETs from LAAS (see Catalogue). Compliance with electrical specifications to keep working correctly under irradiation; Homogeneous initial values to insure one by one using their preirradiation characteristics! reproducible measurements; F. Ravotti Sensors must be identified 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 4

Sensors QA Procedure Electrical Tests on the Acceptance Tests purchased sensor batches to complies Sensors QA Procedure Electrical Tests on the Acceptance Tests purchased sensor batches to complies with specifications Issue for TID Measurement (Rad. FETs Packaging) Mounting bare-die sensors in a proper packaging the h For nts wit ut me peri r reado Ex pe pro oards b Functional Verification Test Integration in a specific PCB he or t ts that F en t erim readou p Ex d a nee board circuit “sensor carrier” Functional Verification Test Delivery to the LHC Experiments F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 5

Electrical Tests Ø Rad. FETs: • • Ids – Vds in function of Vgs; Electrical Tests Ø Rad. FETs: • • Ids – Vds in function of Vgs; • Ø Ids – Vgs in linear and saturation regime; Read-time stability of Vth; p-i-n diodes: • Ø I-V in forward bias; • Example of I/V characteristics of not-irradiated BPW 34 diodes. Stability of VF (t); Silicon Detectors: • I-V & C-V in reverse bias; • Stability of bulk IL (t). F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 Example of I/V and C/V characteristics of notirradiated Detectors. 6

Rad. FETs Characteristics Idss VT Sensors Acceptance/Rejection based on: • Vth, 0 • Idss Rad. FETs Characteristics Idss VT Sensors Acceptance/Rejection based on: • Vth, 0 • Idss • Ids-Vds immune to kink effects • Stability of Vth (t). Tech. Spec. document existent F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 7

Rad. FETs Packaging Commercial Packaging (i. e. TO-5, DIL) cannot satisfy all Experiment Requirements Rad. FETs Packaging Commercial Packaging (i. e. TO-5, DIL) cannot satisfy all Experiment Requirements (dimensions/materials) Development / study in-house at CERN 1. 8 mm • High Integration level: up to 10 devices covering from m. Gy to k. Gy dose range; ~10 mm 2 36 -pin Al 2 O 3 carrier • Customizable internal layout; • Standard external connectivity; Packaging under validation (including lids effect) with GEANT 4 model in collaboration with Genova INFN (Riccardo Capra) F. Ravotti Full-Package Geometry designed in GEANT 4 Calculated Radiation Transport Characteristics (0. 4 mm Al 2 O 3): Ø X = 3 -4 % X 0; Ø e cut-off 550 Ke. V; Ø p cut-off 10 Me. V; Ø photons transmission 20 Ke. V; Ø n attenuation 2 -3 %; 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 8

Integration Issues ATLAS ID (RMSB Hybrid) BPW 34 diodes CMS (BCM 1) 4 x Integration Issues ATLAS ID (RMSB Hybrid) BPW 34 diodes CMS (BCM 1) 4 x RADFETs PCB with T control DMILL structure (nth damage) PAD diode PT 1000 p-i-n diode [I. Mandic, JSI] ELMB (ADC) + DAQ [A. Macpherson, CERN] F. Ravotti Rest of ATLAS 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 General-purpose plug-on I/O module for the monitoring and control of subdetector front-end equipment 9

Sensors Readout Board Ø PCB designed to host: Ø 1 x Rad. FETs Packaging Sensors Readout Board Ø PCB designed to host: Ø 1 x Rad. FETs Packaging (5 channels) Ø 5 x p-i-n sensors; Ø 1 x Temperature sensor; Ø Fully customizable; Ø Small size (15 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm); Ø Signals available on a standard connector plug (12 pins) or direct wire connection. Ø Board readable with commercial electronics: Ø Keithley Source-Meter 2400 and Agilent Switch Matrix; Ø Price ~ 130 CHF/channel (if > 60 channels) Ø PCB can be used as passive dosimeter. F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 10

Outline Ø Sensor Catalogue; Ø Quality Assurance (QA) procedure for sensors; Ø Rad. FETs Outline Ø Sensor Catalogue; Ø Quality Assurance (QA) procedure for sensors; Ø Rad. FETs packaging; Ø Sensors readout board for LHC Experiments; Ø Sensors R&D: Ø Readout procedure optimization for BPW 34 p-i-n diodes; Ø New p-i-n diodes from Czech Republic (LBSD); Ø On-line dosimeter based on fibred OSL. Ø Conclusion. F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 11

BPW 34 Readout Optimization 1) Devices not manufactured to be dosimeters (e. g. not BPW 34 Readout Optimization 1) Devices not manufactured to be dosimeters (e. g. not sensitive to low F); i. F = 1 m. A 200 ms 2) Pre-irradiation helps to shift operation point (see our last years talk); To be studied in more detail: A. Influence of readout parameters (current density and pulse length) on diode’s response; B. Long-term annealing of VF as function of IF and Temperature. Feq (1 x 1011 to 1 x 1015 cm-2) Current density: Feq > 2 1013 cm-2 “thyristor - like” behaviour; Keep IF < 50 m. A is a good precaution! Tested readout currents 1 m. A, 10 m. A, 25 m. A F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 12

BPW 34 Readout Optimization Current density (radiation response at 25 m. A vs. 1 BPW 34 Readout Optimization Current density (radiation response at 25 m. A vs. 1 m. A): Feq < 2 1012 cm-2 negligible sensitivity increase; i. F = 25 m. A 100 ms Feq > 2 1012 cm-2; S (25 m. A) > 36 % S (1 m. A); Signs of heating effects Feq ~ 1 1014 cm-2; Pulse Length: Keep the readout-time 200 ms is advisable; after ~ 1 1013 cm-2 IF = 1 m. A; VF = 6. 7 V “optimized” pulse-length of 50 ms. Conclusion: Current density and pulse length have to be adopted to the user requirements (fluence range, current density limitations in electronics, etc…. ) F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 13

BPW 34 Readout Optimization Annealing of VF (IF): Relative change of the voltage less BPW 34 Readout Optimization Annealing of VF (IF): Relative change of the voltage less significant at high injection levels! (detailed study ongoing in the Temperature range 20 – 100 ºC) F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 14

Czech p-i-n diodes (LBSD) Long Base Silicon Diodes from CMI, Prague 1) Cheaper compared Czech p-i-n diodes (LBSD) Long Base Silicon Diodes from CMI, Prague 1) Cheaper compared to the High Sensitivity diodes currently presented in the Catalogue; 2) Two types are produced: one MORE SENSITIVE than the currently used devices; 3) Recommended IF pulse for readout: 25 m. A x 40 ms. Type “Si-1”: • KERMA: 0. 1 -30 Gy (Feq ~ 1. 2 x 1012 cm-2) • n. F sensitivity: ~ 3 m. V/109 cm-2 Type “Si-2”: • KERMA: 0. 01 -5 Gy (Feq ~ 2 x 1011 cm-2) • n. F sensitivity: ~ 3 m. V/108 cm-2 Annealing studies ongoing to include these products into Sensor Catalogue! F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 15

Fibred OSLs System Laser System Driver Quartz Radhard Fibers Laser Light 60 m. W Fibred OSLs System Laser System Driver Quartz Radhard Fibers Laser Light 60 m. W Visible light Oscilloscope ~ 5 mg OSL Crystal 1 m. A/n. W (@ OSL l) 5 V/div 1 MW DC 50 ms/div Tested at the TRIGA Reactor of the JSI, Ljubljana (Slovenia) F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 16

Fibred OSLs System 1) Preliminary Results (last week!!!) show the feasibility of such a Fibred OSLs System 1) Preliminary Results (last week!!!) show the feasibility of such a system in harsh and intense environment; 2) Test condition ~200 m. Gy/s with feq ~1. 9 x 109 cm-2 s-1 (values referred to 250 W reactor power at Z = 0). Dose integrated in 6 sec time. Ø Sensitivity of the tested prototype ~ 0. 1 m. Gy, but minimal sensitivity probably higher; Ø probe edge dimension < 1 mm 2 F. Ravotti 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 17

Conclusion Ø Over 1200 sensors have been procured and ~ 1/3 have been tested Conclusion Ø Over 1200 sensors have been procured and ~ 1/3 have been tested following the QA procedure here described. About 100 samples have been delivered to LHC Experiments; Ø A dedicate packaging and a readout board for the sensors have been produced; Ø R&D on sensors is carried out in parallel: Ø Improvement in the BPW 34 readout protocol; Ø More sensitive p-i-n diodes are under studies added soon to the Sensor Catalogue; Ø F. Ravotti Very promising results obtained in OSL on-line dosimetry! 5 th LHC Radiation Day 29 -11 -2005 18