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Radiation Mechanisms of Energy Transfer Mass flux. Energy flux- Radiation Mechanisms of Energy Transfer Mass flux. Energy flux-

Radiation: 1. Electromagnetic wave Radiation: 1. Electromagnetic wave

Radiation: 2. particles (photons) Photons have no mass, and travel at the speed of Radiation: 2. particles (photons) Photons have no mass, and travel at the speed of light Energy of a photo h=6. 626068 x 10 -34 m 2 kg / s

Laws of blackbody radiation 1. Plank’s law 6000 K 300 K 2. Wien’s displacement Laws of blackbody radiation 1. Plank’s law 6000 K 300 K 2. Wien’s displacement law

Gray body: Gray body:

Gray body: Radiative equilibrium temperature Gray body: Radiative equilibrium temperature

Absorbtivity Reflectivity Transmissivity Absorbtivity Reflectivity Transmissivity

Surface Remarks Albedo = A Emissivity Soils Dark, wet 0. 05 -0. 40 0. Surface Remarks Albedo = A Emissivity Soils Dark, wet 0. 05 -0. 40 0. 90 -0. 98 0. 20 -0. 45 0. 84 -0. 91 0. 16 - 0. 90 - Light, dry Desert Grass Long (1. 0 meters) Short (0. 2 meters) 0. 26 0. 95 Agricultural crops, tundra 0. 18 -0. 25 0. 90 -0. 99 Orchards 0. 15 -0. 20 0. 15 - 0. 97 - Forests Deciduous (bare) Deciduous (Leaved) 0. 05 -0. 15 0. 97 -0. 99 Small Zenith angle 0. 03 -0. 10 0. 92 -0. 97 Large zenith angle Snow 0. 98 Coniferous Water 0. 20 0. 10 -1. 00 0. 92 -0. 97 Old 0. 40 - 0. 82 - Fresh Ice 0. 95 0. 99 Sea 0. 30 -0. 45 0. 92 -0. 97 Glacier 0. 20 -0. 40

What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation Selective absorption and emission of atmospheric gases 1. What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation Selective absorption and emission of atmospheric gases 1. Energy level of atoms or molecules Quantum jump: transition between different energy levels 2. Different energy form of a molecule or atom

a. Rotational energy CO Rotational energy transition can happen as long as a photon’s a. Rotational energy CO Rotational energy transition can happen as long as a photon’s wavelength is shorter than 1 cm, usually associated with microwavelength. b. Vibrational energy Polar molecule has permanent dipole Non-polar molecule does not have permanent dipole.

Vibrational energy level transition requires a photon's wavelength shorter than 20 micrometer, usually in Vibrational energy level transition requires a photon's wavelength shorter than 20 micrometer, usually in the infrared band. Vibration and rotation sometimes combine together to form vibrationrotation mode, the transition between vibration-rotation modes also involves certain frequencies.

c. Photodissociation Solar ultraviolet photon For photodissociation to occur, the wavelength of a photon c. Photodissociation Solar ultraviolet photon For photodissociation to occur, the wavelength of a photon must be in the ultraviolet band. To dissociate Oxygen the wavelength of radiation must be shorter than 200 nm. Ozone is a loosely bonded molecule. To dissociate a Ozone molecule, the frequency of a photon can be as low as 300 nm.

d. Electronic excitation 1 st Shell 2 nd Shell Electrons may be excited from d. Electronic excitation 1 st Shell 2 nd Shell Electrons may be excited from one shell to another shell by a photon with a sufficiently high energy level. The wavelength is usually shorter than 1 micrometer. e. Photoionization To photoionize a molecule requires the radiation with a wavelength shorter than 100 nm. Photoelectron

M Photoionization Electronic excitation overlap What gases absorb shortwave radiation? Ozone What gases absorb M Photoionization Electronic excitation overlap What gases absorb shortwave radiation? Ozone What gases absorb and emit longwave radiation? Clouds water vapor CO 2 Ozone Methane

Ozone 10 -50 km (stratosphere) Formation of Ozone Depletion of Ozone Sustaining Ozone Ozone 10 -50 km (stratosphere) Formation of Ozone Depletion of Ozone Sustaining Ozone

Ozone Depletion Ozone Depletion

The Ozone Hole Ozone concentration drops sharply over Antarctica The Ozone Hole Ozone concentration drops sharply over Antarctica

The Ozone Hole Cold air -80 C 1. Polar winter leading to the stronger The Ozone Hole Cold air -80 C 1. Polar winter leading to the stronger circumpolar wind belt (polar vortex) to isolate the cold air within it. Polar vortex 2. As the cold temperatures persist over the polar, polar stratospheric clouds form. 3. Chlorine reservoir species HCl and Cl. ONO 2 become very active on the surface of polar stratospheric clouds.

Atmospheric gases absorb all energy at wavelengths emitted from surface except for 8 -11 Atmospheric gases absorb all energy at wavelengths emitted from surface except for 8 -11 micron window known as Atmospheric Window. Oxygen, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor are great absorbers of IR radiation.

Trace gases, other important greenhouse gases CFC-11 CFC-12 HCFC-22 Trace gases, other important greenhouse gases CFC-11 CFC-12 HCFC-22

Rayleigh Scattering The scattering from molecules and very tiny particles (< 1 /10 wavelength) Rayleigh Scattering The scattering from molecules and very tiny particles (< 1 /10 wavelength) is predominantly Rayleigh scattering.

Mie Scattering The scattering from relatively large particles (> 1 wavelength) is predominantly Mie Mie Scattering The scattering from relatively large particles (> 1 wavelength) is predominantly Mie scattering, which is not strongly wavelength dependent and produces a sharper and more intense forward lobe

Red Sunset Red Sunset

Making Radiation Measurements There are three ways to make radiation measurements. • Thermal sensitive Making Radiation Measurements There are three ways to make radiation measurements. • Thermal sensitive devise • Photoelectric cell (photodiode) • Photochemical sensor What is the basic operating principle for thermal devise? 1. How could we use a plate to measure broadband radiation? Illuminate the surface with a bright light, or sun light…

2. What besides radiation will affect temperature of the plate? Convection and conduction 3. 2. What besides radiation will affect temperature of the plate? Convection and conduction 3. how could their effect on the temperature of the plate be removed? Using a glass dome

What is the basic operating principle for the photoelectric cell? A device that converts What is the basic operating principle for the photoelectric cell? A device that converts light into electricity. Phototube is an electron tube in which electrons are excited and emitted by light. The simplest phototube is composed of a cathode coated with a photosensitive material. Light falling upon the cathode causes the liberation of electrons, which are then attracted to the positively charged anode, resulting in a flow of electrons (i. e. , current) proportional to the intensity of the light. Solid-state photodetector is the photoconductor whose resistance changes when it is exposed to light. The solid-state photodetector is small, inexpensive, and uses little power.

What is the basic operating principle for the photochemical sensor? The photochemical sensor utilizes What is the basic operating principle for the photochemical sensor? The photochemical sensor utilizes materials that tend to have chemical reaction due to the absorption of light (including visible, ultraviolet, and infrared). The light excites atoms and molecules (shifts some of their electrons to a higher energy level) and thus makes them more reactive. The bleaching of dyes or the yellowing of paper by sunlight is a good example of photochemical reaction. It is harnessed by plants in photosynthesis and by humans in photography. Broadband Radiation Instruments: Shortwave K Longwave L Total Q=K+L

Upward stream and a downward stream of radiation = -solar incident = reflected solar Upward stream and a downward stream of radiation = -solar incident = reflected solar = emission from sun’s face = emission from atmosphere Net radiation Spectral Radiation Instruments:

What are solar radiation measurements? Direct (beam), diffused (sky), and global (total) What are solar radiation measurements? Direct (beam), diffused (sky), and global (total)

Pyranometer measures global-solar shortwave radiation Solar radiation curve outside atmosphere Solar radiation curve at Pyranometer measures global-solar shortwave radiation Solar radiation curve outside atmosphere Solar radiation curve at the sea level Curve for balckbody at 50000 K Pyranometer sensor

Solar radiation irradiance measurements on a clear day Solar radiation irradiance measurements on a clear day

Shaded Pyranometer measures diffuse solar radiation The pyranometer has a black thermopile sensor protected Shaded Pyranometer measures diffuse solar radiation The pyranometer has a black thermopile sensor protected by two concentric hemispherical optically ground covers. The detector is independent of wavelength of radiation over the solar energy spectrum. Both the pyranometer and the shading disk are mounted on an automated solar tracker to ensure that the pyranometer is continuously shaded.

Protable pyrometer Fixed pyrometer High speed pyrometer Pyrometer — measures global longwave radiation Video Protable pyrometer Fixed pyrometer High speed pyrometer Pyrometer — measures global longwave radiation Video pyrometer

Pyrheliometer measures direct beam used with a solar tracking system to keep the instrument Pyrheliometer measures direct beam used with a solar tracking system to keep the instrument aimed at the sun. A pyrheliometer is used in the same setup with a pyranometer.

Pyrradiometer measures net radiation For exact determination of net radiation in short- and longwave Pyrradiometer measures net radiation For exact determination of net radiation in short- and longwave radiation range (0. 3 to >30 um) with two separately working receivers. The CN 1 -R Net Pyrradiometer measures the net total radiation flux (solar, terrestrial, and atmospheric) downward and upward through a horizontal surface.