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Описание презентации Quotation and Citation Useful words Summary по слайдам
Quotation and Citation
Useful words Summary Citation Foot note Reference List of references Reporting verbs Reference verbs Source Bibliography Works cited
Giving citation References Smith, M. (2009) Power and the State. Basingstoke: Palgrave Mac. MIllan. A quotation (Smith, 2009: 37) – author’s name + date of publication + page Smith argues that the Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) are ‘bad for road safety, the environment and road congestion’ (Smith, 2009: 37). A summary Smith (2009) – author’s name + date of publication Smith (2009) argues that the popularity of the Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) is irrational, as despite their high cost most are never driven off-road.
Examples Wallwork  stated x = y. Huang  agrees with this statement, but Xanadu  does not. In  Wallwork stated that x = y. Then in  he added that x + 1 = y + 1. A proposal for a conference on this topic was put forward by Tang . This is not the first time that such a proposal has been put forward [Himmler, 2012; Goldberg, 2013]. This is not the first time such a proposal has been put forward [6, 27, 33]. This proposal was first put forward in . In  a proposal for a conference on this topic was put forward.
Punctuation: commas, semicolons and parentheses Below are some examples of how to punctuate references within the main text. They should be considered as being typical usages rather than rules. Some journals use (rounded parentheses), others use [square parentheses]. 1. Wallwork, 2015 2. Wallwork and Southern, 2016 3. Wallwork, Brogdon and Southern, 2016 4. Wallwork et al. , 2016 5. Wallwork et al. , 2016; Sanchez, 2017; Poplova, Huang and Sun, 2018 6. Wallwork, 2012, 2014, 2016 1. Wallwork  suggests that … 2. Wallwork  suggests that … 3. It has been suggested that one plus two is equal to four (Moron, 2011).
A reference (reporting) verb Summaries and quotations are usually introduced by a reference verb Smith (2009 ) argues that. . . Janovic (1972) claimed that. . . These verbs can be either in the present or the past tense. The use of the present tense (citational present) suggests that: 1) the source is recent, important and still valid The past indicates that 1)the source is older and may be out-of-date 2) a cited author as an agent (a person who acts) of research activity But there are no hard-and-fast distinctions.
Using Quotations means bringing the original words of a writer into your work. Introductory phrase Author Reference verb Quotation Citation This view is widely shared; as Friedm an stated, ‘ Inflation is the one form of taxation that can be imposed without legislation’ (1974: 93).
Short quotations (2– 3 lines) are shown by single quotation marks. Quotations inside quotations use double: As James remarked, ‘Martin’s concept of “internal space” requires close analysis. ’
Study the following paragraph from an article titled ‘The mobile revolution’ in the journal ‘Development Quarterly’ (Issue 34 pages 85– 97, 2009) by K. Hoffman. p. 87. According to recent estimates there at least 4 billion mobile phones in the world, and the majority of these are owned by people in the developing world. Ownership in the developed world reached saturation level by 2007, so countries such as China, India and Brazil now account for most of the growth. In the poorest countries, with weak transport networks and unreliable postal services, access to telecommunications is a vital tool for starting or developing a business, since it provides access to wider markets. Studies have shown that when household incomes rise, more money is spent on mobile phones than any other item.
(a) Summary Hoffman (2009) stresses the critical importance of mobile phones in the developing world in the growth of small businesses. (b) Quotation According to Hoffman, mobile phone ownership compensates for the weaknesses of infrastructure in the developing world: ‘In the poorest countries, with weak transport networks and unreliable postal services, access to telecommunications is a vital tool for starting or developing a business, since it provides access to wider markets’ (2009: 87). (c) Summary and quotation Hoffman points out that most of the growth in mobile phone ownership now takes place in the developing world, where it has become crucial for establishing a business: ‘. . . access to telecommunications is a vital tool for starting or developing a business, since it provides access to wider markets’ (2009: 87).
Abbreviations in citations In-text citations use the following abbreviations, derived from Latin and printed in italics: et al. (et aliaи) ibid. (ibidem ) op. cit. (opere citato) other abbreviations: vol. (volume) no. (number) pp. (pages) p. (page) et al. : normally used when there are three or more authors. Et al is put in italics in many journals. E t al is followed by a period in some journals. The full list of names is given in the reference list: Many Americans fail to vote (Hobolt et al. , 2006: 137). ibid. : taken from the same source (i. e. the same page) as the previous citation: Older Americans are more likely to vote than the young (ibid. ). . . op. cit. : taken from the same source as previously, but a different page.
Below are some additional examples of various author-prominent citing strategies, which you may find useful for your writing. 1. According to Young (1996), depression can be thought of as a «natural“ response to stress. 2. Depression can be thought of, as Young (1996) suggests , as a «natural“ response to stress. 3. In employing in this context the term «depression, » we refer especially to Young (1996) who treats depression as a «natural» response to stress. 4. Following Young (1996), we consider depression as a «natural» response to stress. 5. In terms of Young (1996), depression is a «natural» response to stress. 6. In Youngs words, depression is a «natural» response to stress (Young, 1996). 7. Drawing on a study of Young (1996), we raise the question of whether susceptibility to depression is tied to a «gene» that expresses itself as hormonal abnormalities seen in depressed people. 8. Young’s research shows that depression is a «natural» response to stress (Young, 1996). 9. This research is based on Young’s vision of depression as a «natural“ response to stress (Young, 1996). 10. Depression as a «natural response» to stress is discussed in Young (1996).
Organising the List of References At the end of an essay or report there must be a list of all the sources cited in the writing. In the Harvard system, illustrated here, the list is organised alphabetically by the family name of the author. in citations only the family name is used: Burford (2001), Gonzalez (1997) in reference lists use the family name and the initial(s): Burford, S. , Gonzalez, J.
The list of references at the end of a paper or a book (usually entitled «references» or «works cited») is in most cases arranged in alphabetical order. It should be clear and consistent. Normally, a list of references includes the following information: a) author’s last name and initials; b) title of work (book of paper in a journal or collection; the distinction between these two kinds of titles must be shown); c) publication date; d) volume number (for journals); e) issue number (for journals); f) editor’s last name and initials (for collections only); g) place of publishing (for books and collections); h) publisher’s name (for books and collections).
However, it is always necessary to check the referencing formats required by a journal or a publishing house where you plan to submit your work.
1. Books. Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and Power. London: Longman. 2. Papers in volumes (book chapters). Reid, W. V. (1992). » How many species will there be? » In Whitmore, T. C. and J. A. Sayer, (eds. ), Tropical Deforestation and Species Extinction. London: Chapman & Hall. 3. Papers (articles) in journals. Dienes, J. K. On the analysis of rotation and stress rate in deforming bodies. Acta Mech. 33, 217 -232 (1979).
4. Other (basic examples). a) unpublished work (conference presentations, dissertations, work in press): Ainsworth, M. (1999). A posteriori error estimation for singularly perturbed problems. Paper presented at the Fourth International Congress on Industrial a n d Applied Mathematics. Edinburgh, 5 -9 July 1999. Hopkins, A. (1985). An investigation into the organizing and organizational features of published conference papers. Unpublished dissertation. University of Birmingham, UK. b) World Wide Web publications (the date you accessed the source is often included) : Lawrence, S. , and C. L. Giles. (1999). «Accessibility of information on the Web. » Nature, 400 (8), 8 July 1999, http: //www. nature. com. Caron, Bernard, ed. Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Linguists. Paris, 20 -25 July 1997. CD-ROM. Oxford: Pergamon, 1998.
The titles of works in the languages using the Cyrillic alphabet are transliterated and followed by the English translation, usually in square brackets, e. g. : Vassileva, I. (1992). Sajuzni Dumi i Izrazi (Konektori) v Angliiski i Balgarski Naucen Tekst [Conjunctions in English and Bulgarian Scientific Texts], Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Sofia. Slepovitch, V. (2002). Biznes-kommunikatsiya: Kak nayti rabotu s angliyskim yazykom [Business Communication: Job Hunting in English]. Minsk: Tetra. Systems.
1. How many references to books (monographs) are there on the list? 2. How many references to book chapters does the list include? 3. How many journal articles are there? 4. How many volumes of conference proceedings are referred to? 5. How many pieces of unpublished work are there among the entries? 6. How many publications in a language using a non-Roman alphabet are referred to? 7. How many references to joint authorship are made? 8. How many authors are referred to more than once? 9. The works of which author appeared in one year? 10. How many references to electronic sources does the list contain?
Rules for Transliteration of the Cyrillic Characters Using the Latin Alphabet is the newest document on transliteration in the series of GOST standards 1. http: //translit. ru 2. стандарт BGN Список литературы Аве-Лаллемант У. Графический тест «Звезды и волны» . СПб. : Речь, 2002. 240 с. Андреева Г. М. Социальная психология: учебник для студ. высщ. учеб. заведений. М. : Из-во МГУ, 1980. С. 298 -319. Божович Л. И. Личность и ее формирование в детском возрасте: монография. СПб. : Питер, 2008. 400 с. 3. в транслит 4. Ave-Lallemant U. Graficheskiy test «Zvezdy i volny» . SPb. : Rech’, 2002. 240 s. Andreeva G. M. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya: uchebnik dlya stud. vysshch. ucheb. zavedeniy. M. : Iz-vo MGU, 1980. S. 298 -319. Bozhovich L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste: monografiya. SPb. : Piter, 2008. 400 s.
Processing List of References Ave-Lallemant U. Graficheskiy test «Zvezdy i volny» . SPb. : Rech’, 2002. 240 s. Andreeva G. M. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya: uchebnik dlya stud. vysshch. ucheb. zavedeniy. M. : Iz-vo MGU, 1980. S. 298 -319. Bozhovich L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste: monografiya. SPb. : Piter, 2008. 400 s. Ave-Lallemant, U. Graficheskiy test «Zvezdy i volny» [Graphic test “Stars and waves”]. Saint-Petersburg: Rech Publ. , 2002. 240 p. Andreeva, G. M. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya [Social Psychology]. Moscow: MGU Publ. , 1980. pp. 298 -319. Bozhovich, L. I. Lichnost’ i ee formirovanie v detskom vozraste [Personality and its formation in childhood]. Saint-Petersburg: Piter Publ. , 2008. 400 p.
Footnotes and Notes Footnotes are put at the bottom of the page in a book or a journal. 1. What is the title of the work referred to in footnote 7? 2. What is the title of the work referred to in footnote 2? Why is a page number added here? 3. What is the title of the work referred to in footnote 10? 4. What is the difference between the references in footnotes 2 and 7, on the one hand, and footnote 10 on the other? 5. Which footnote adds some special information to the item explained in the body of the text? 6. Which footnote provides comparison with the item discussed in the main body of the text? 8. Which footnote shows that a quotation is borrowed from another work?
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