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QUIT 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE SECTION GRAPH MAP 1 Kennedy and the Cold War SECTION 2 The New Frontier SECTION 3 The Great Society VISUAL SUMMARY
HOME 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the achievements and challenges of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations
HOME 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society INTERACT WITH HISTORY Against the backdrop of an intense space race between America and the Soviet Union, the 1960 presidential election approaches. The leading candidates are a young, charismatic senator and the ambitious, experienced vice-president. The new president will face tremendous responsibilities. Abroad, the Soviet Union is stockpiling nuclear weapons. At home, millions suffer from poverty and discrimination. What are the qualities of effective leaders? Examine the Issues • How can a leader motivate and influence the public? • What skills are needed to persuade legislators? • What enables a leader to respond to crises?
HOME 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society TIME LINE The United States The World 1960 John F. Kennedy is elected president. 1960 Seventeen African countries gain independence. 1961 U. S. launches the Bay of Pigs invasion. 1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in outer space. 1962 John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the earth. U. S. and USSR face off in the Cuban missile crisis. 1962 The drug thalidomide is pulled from the market after it is found responsible for thousands of birth defects in Europe. 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated; Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president. 1964 Lyndon B. Johnson is elected president. Congress passes the Economic Opportunity Act and Civil Rights Act. 1965 United States troops enter Vietnam. 1965 Ferdinand Marcos becomes president of the Phillipines. continued. . .
HOME 20 The New Frontier and the Great Society TIME LINE The United States The World 1966 Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister of India. 1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court. 1967 Israel wins Arab territories in the Six Day War. 1968 Richard M. Nixon is elected president. 1968 Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia.
HOME 1 Kennedy and the Cold War KEY IDEA Foreign affairs dominate the presidential campaign of 1960 and the administration of John F. Kennedy faces some of the most dangerous Soviet. American confrontations of the Cold War. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
HOME 1 Kennedy and the Cold War OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Kennedy administration faced some of the most dangerous Soviet confrontations in American history. America’s response to Soviet threats developed the United States as a military superpower. TERMS & NAMES • John F. Kennedy • hot line • Limited Test Ban Treaty • flexible response • Berlin Wall • Fidel Castro ASSESSMENT
HOME 1 Kennedy and the Cold War ASSESSMENT 1. List two outcomes for each of these events: first Kennedy-Nixon debate, Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban missile crisis, and construction of the Berlin Wall. Increased Cold War tensions United States embarrassed Berlin Wall Bay of Pigs Cuba moved closer to Soviets. Debate Kennedy won support. TV became important in politics. Cuban Missile Crisis Symbolized Communist oppression World at brink of nuclear war Soviets backed down. continued. . .
HOME 1 Kennedy and the Cold War ASSESSMENT 2. How well do you think President Kennedy handled the Cuban missile crisis? Think About: • Kennedy’s decision to impose a naval “quarantine” of Cuba • the nuclear showdown between the superpowers • Kennedy’s decision not to invade Cuba ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Well-handled: The Cuban missiles were removed, nuclear was averted, and there was no military engagement. Not well-handled: He risked nuclear war over the crisis. continued. . .
1 HOME Kennedy and the Cold War ASSESSMENT 3. What kind of political statement was made by the United States’ support of West Berlin? ANSWER The United States was telling other nations, the Soviet Union especially, to keep their hands off West Berlin. End of Section 1
GRAPH HOME MAP 2 The New Frontier KEY IDEA With the stirring phrase “the New Frontier, ” Kennedy outlines a broad vision for progress, but Congress enacts few of his initiatives. His efforts are ended by his tragic assassination. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
GRAPH HOME MAP 2 The New Frontier OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW While Kennedy had trouble getting his ideas for a New Frontier passed, several goals were achieved. Kennedy’s space program continues to generate scientific and engineering advances that benefit Americans. TERMS & NAMES • Warren Commission • mandate • New Frontier • Alliance for Progress • Peace Corps ASSESSMENT
GRAPH HOME MAP 2 The New Frontier ASSESSMENT 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List five programs of the New Frontier. Peace Corps Civil rights bill The New Frontier Alliance for Progress Tax cut Moon program continued. . .
GRAPH HOME MAP 2 The New Frontier ASSESSMENT 2. Why do you think Congress was so enthusiastic about allocating funds for the space program but rejected spending in education, social services, and other pressing needs? ANSWER It was largely a matter of pride, since the Soviets had already sent a cosmonaut into space. continued. . .
GRAPH MAP 2 HOME The New Frontier ASSESSMENT 3. Why do you think Kennedy lost popularity for supporting civil rights? ANSWER Kennedy lost popularity for supporting civil rights because people in some sections of the country opposed granting civil rights to African Americans. continued. . .
GRAPH MAP 2 HOME The New Frontier ASSESSMENT 4. Do you think President Kennedy was a successful leader? Think About: • the reasons for his popularity • the goals he expressed • his foreign policy • his legislative record ANSWER Successful: popular; focused on projects that Congress would support; peacefully handled the missile crisis; arranged for the test-ban treaty Not successful: tended to react to events rather than lead; did not get his legislative program enacted before his death End of Section 2
HOME 3 The Great Society KEY IDEA Lyndon B. Johnson drives the most ambitious legislative agenda through Congress since the New Deal. The landmark decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren reflect the era of liberal activism. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
HOME 3 The Great Society OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The demand for reform helped create a new awareness of social problems, especially on matters of civil rights and the effects of poverty. Reforms made in the 1960 s have had a lasting effect on the American justice system by increasing the rights of minorities. TERMS & NAMES • Lyndon Baines Johnson • Great Society • Immigration Act of 1965 • Medicare and Medicaid • Warren Court • Economic Opportunity Act • reapportionment ASSESSMENT
HOME 3 The Great Society ASSESSMENT 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four or more Great Society programs and Warren Court rulings. Great Society Programs Warren Court Rulings 1. Civil Rights Act of 1964 1. Brown v. Board of Education 2. Economic Opportunity Act 2. Baker v. Carr 3. Elementary and Secondary Education Act 3. Escobedo v. Illinois 4. Medicare and Medicaid 4. Miranda v. Arizona continued. . .
HOME 3 The Great Society ASSESSMENT 2. Explain how Lyndon Johnson’s personal and political experiences might have influenced his actions as president. Think About: • his family’s background and education • his relationship with Franklin Roosevelt • his powers of persuasion ANSWER Johnson’s upbringing might have taught him about the hardships of those in need; as a New Dealer, he learned how the government could help people in need; in Congress, he learned the importance of political connections and clout and the skills to negotiate political deals. End of Section 3