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Quickwrite/Patriotic Exercise/Objective Quickwrite- Why do people revolt? (Think about the Glorious, French, L. A. and American Revolutions. Objective: Explain the Causes of the Russian Revolution
Extra Credit l Could your grade use a boost? l Are you a kinesthetic learner? l Can you dance? l If you answered yes to the questions above, then consider this!
People tired of the extravagance of the Czars
While living in squalor
Causes of the Russian Revolution l World War I l Domestic (at home) issues
INVOLVEMENT IN WWI l Russia had entered WWI unwillingly l Czar takes direct command of army (leaves the country in his wife’s hands) l Huge casualties, deserters, and issues back home force Russia out Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. l Nicholas blamed for the war AND the issues at home… such as:
Issues at home l Failure to modernize left millions in serfdom. l Food shortages: – – High inflation meant people couldn’t afford food. Lack of transportation (trains) l Industrial Revolution Issues (i. e. low wages, unsafe conditions, etc) l Lower class suffering! l Lack of any representation – monarchy l Many inspired by Socialist ideas of Karl Marx (Russian Bolsheviks)
Review l Turn to a partner and explain which of the issues at home you think was the most important. You have two minutes to share.
Nicholas Romanov “It is a job I have feared all my life. ” l Last of the Romanovs l Reluctant czar l Family man (wife - grand daughter of Queen Victoria) l First job of royal family – have a male heir. Successful? They finally have a boy but he is afflicted with hemophilia
Quickwrite l Quickwrite- What were the causes of the Russian Revolution? l Objective- What are the causes of the Russian Revolution (Problems at home. Rasputin and March Rev. )
Rasputin- The Holy Healer l A healer is hired to cure the boy. l Tsarina Alexandra is ruling on the advice of Rasputin while Nicholas is at war. l Russians question his intent. – Although able to soothe heir, – Wild behavior and his influence with the czarina will lead to his removal – Many feel that his death would end some of Russia’s problems. But killing him would not be easy!!!
There lived a certain man in Russia long ago (Spoken: ) He was big and strong, in his eyes a flaming But when his drinking and lusting and his hunger glow for power became known to more and more Most people looked at him with terror and with people, fear the demands to do something about this But to Moscow chicks he was such a lovely outrageous dear man became louder and louder. He could preach the bible like a preacher "This man's just got to go!" declared his enemies Full of ecstasy and fire But the ladies begged "Don't you try to do it, But he also was the kind of teacher please" Women would desire RA RA RASPUTIN Lover of the Russian queen There was a cat that really was gone RA RA RASPUTIN Russia's greatest love machine It was a shame how he carried on He ruled the Russian land never mind the czar But the kasachok he danced really wunderbar In all affairs of state he was the man to please But he was real great when he had a girl to squeeze For the queen he was no wheeler dealer Though she'd heard the things he'd done She believed he was a holy healer Who would heal her son No doubt this Rasputin had lots of hidden charms Though he was a brute they just fell into his arms Then one night some men of higher standing Set a trap, they're not to blame "Come to visit us" they kept demanding And he really came RA RA RASPUTIN Lover of the Russian queen They put some poison into his wine RA RA RASPUTIN Russia's greatest love machine He drank it all and he said "I feel fine" RA RA RASPUTIN Lover of the Russian queen They didn't quit, they wanted his head RA RA RASPUTIN Russia's greatest love machine And so they shot him till he was dead (Spoken: ) Oh, those Russians. . .
Czar Abdicates l Czar N. returns and is forced to step down. l A temporary democratic government (the Duma) is put in place. Under house arrest
Monarchy Absolutism Provisional democratic 1 st Revolution Radical Bolsheviks Liberal Moderate Duma Conservative Reactionary Czar
Provisional Govt - Duma l Govt chooses to CONTINUE in WWI! – More dead soldiers. – No changes for the common people (no food, land, etc) l Although Democratic, still much civil unrest.
What could/should Russia do? l Turn to a different partner than last time, and explain what the Russian options might be.
Quickwrite l Why was Rasputin important to the Russian Revolution? l Today’s Objective: What were the causes and course of the Russian Revolution (November Rev. and Lenin).
Rise of the Bolsheviks l Means “Majority” l Russian Socialist labor party l Opponents of “nation of Russia” as well as the Orthodox church. l Wanted a Socialist nation run by workers and soldiers, NOT an assembly.
l IT’S A COUP- Trotsky’s “red army” revolts, ending the DUMA. – Duma doesn’t fight. BLOODLESS revolution l Lenin seized power with Trotsky and Josef Stalin by his side. (NEW PLAYERS) November Revolution or was it October
Bolsheviks- Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin l First 2 acts: 1. They end Russian involvement in WWI. 2. Give peasants land. “private ownership shall be abolished forever”.
Monarchy Communist Absolutism Totalitarian dictatorship 2 nd Revolution Provisional democratic 1 st Revolution Radical Bolsheviks Liberal Moderate Duma Conservative Reactionary Czar
Vladimir Lenin l Russian revolutionary l Leader of the Bolshevik party l 1 st Premier of new Soviet Union l Founder of the Communism in Russia.
Civil War l A war between 2 factions in Russia ensues: – the Reds (Bolsheviks) – the Whites (czar supporters) » West backs Czar-Bad! l Lasts for 3 years! l Romanovs moved from Moscow in fear that they will be restored to power- house arrest. “We will not surrender” to the Czarist forces.
What to do with the family now? The Czar and his family were moved to a place called the “House of Special Purpose”
“In view of the fact that your relatives continue their offensive against Soviet Russia, the Presidium of the Ural Regional Soviet has decided to sentence you to death. ”
USSR l Bolsheviks (Communists) rename Russia USSR: – Union of Soviet Socialists Republic l Bolsheviks rename themselves Communists l Lenin takes control of the country and economy.
Lenin’s Communist State l Society of Terror: Execute Opponents. l State control of economy: industry, banks, and foreign trade. l Single Party Dictatorship: Political parties banned. l Unquestioning obedience of leader: (atheism). l Censorship: Silence critics and foreign views. l Propaganda: promote the Marxists philosophy. Lenin lives… Lenin will live! But actually….
Compare/Contrast l Compare Russian Command economy to the American free market economy.
The end of Lenin l In power for 3 years l 4 strokes over 2 years – dies at 54. l His death leaves USSR in a struggle for succession. l Could he be more powerful in death than in life? How so?
You can still go see him today!
“I suggest the comrades think about a way of removing Stalin from that post and appointing another man in his stead who in all other respects differs from Comrade Stalin in having only one advantage, namely, that of being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite, and more considerate to the comrades. ”
Who will be the Successor ? l l Stalin and Trotsky are Lenin’s chief advisors. Trotsky was favored by many, including Lenin. Stalin moved more quickly to consolidate his power. Trotsky criticized Stalin’s violation of democracy in the party and the failure to develop adequate economic planning.
How should a new successor be chosen? l Brainstorm some ways that a new leader could or should be determined.
Leon l Brilliant intellectual. Trotsky l Important leader of the November Revolution – Founder and commander of the Red Army l Stressed themes of party democracy and economic planning. l Denounced Stalin's theory of “Socialism in one country” l Believed in a world-wide Communist revolution
Quickwrite l Read the board (advance planner, Homework, In Class) l Take out your notes on the Russian Revolution. l Lets check out the Moodle Post
Quickquiz l You may use your notes to answer the following questions regarding the Russian Revolution. Please put a proper heading on your paper. They are due in 5 minutes. 1) What were Stalin’s 2 main goals? 2) What happened to Trotsky when Stalin gains power? 3) What does Stalin do to take control of the economy?
Josef Stalin l People tired of war and looked favorably at Stalin’s building “Socialism in One Country” – Focus on RUSSIA l Put people he trusted in key positions. l Would manipulate his opponents l Ruthless "To choose one's victims, to quench an unrelenting vengeance, and then go to bed. There is nothing sweeter on earth. . . "
Who would you choose?
And the winner is…
Josef Stalin l Stalin means “Man of Steel” l But he was far from Superman in his “Heroic Deeds” l 2 Main Goals – Increase USSR as a world power – Protection: Fear of another invasion
Stalin takes control of the economy l Command economy – government makes all economic decisions l Leaders identify economic needs and determine how to fulfill them l Five Year Plan (two of them in fact) in order to create a goal for the nation to strive towards. – Collectives l Government controls lives – chose jobs, assigned hours l People need permission of the police to travel
/Stalin sent agents of the Soviet secret police to Mexico where Trotsky was living in 1940. They put an ice pick into Trotsky's brain while he was sitting at a table writing. Stalin denied any responsibility
Agricultural Revolution? l Were told what to plant, when to plant, etc l 1938 – 90% of peasants lived on collectives l Roles of peasants as well as women were re-defined… l All geared to serve the state and the greater good.
Is this a good idea? l Every inch of this land is sacred, l And wise Stalin calls on us to protect it l As the foundation of the collective farming system. This all done to convince the people that this was a just cause
Resistance to Collectivization l Resistance to these farms was done by the wealthy peasants or Kulaks. – The Ukranian farmers became Stalin’s target. “Liquidate them as a class” he said. Thousands were shot or sent to work camps (gulags) Millions starve.
Lighting bonfires to thaw the frozen ground
Results of 5 Year Plan? l Mixed results – Increased output in industry – Not enough food- starvation – It appeared to be successful from outside but failed » Set unrealistically high goals » life for some improved but most had low wages and few consumer goods » Often factories would lie about output to avoid crackdowns = lack of reliable numbers A Western capitalist mocks the Five Year Plan, then turns green with envy as he sees that Soviets have successfully industrialized
l People realize no matter how hard they worked they would all benefit the same. l People fearful yet willing to work. l Defiant executed or sent to the gulags (prison/work camps). l 5 Million die in Ukraine. 'Produce More' poster urges Soviet citizens to produce more steel 'So That We Shall Become Stronger'. The production target for the fulfillment of the Five Year Plan ending in 1950 is central in the image. What technique does this and other images you’ve seen use to convince the public of the government’s benefits?
Quickquiz l What was the name of the wealthy peasants Stalin sought to destroy? l What were Collectives? l What was the name of Stalin’s “plan” to improve industialization? l Patriotic Quote: l “I consider trial by jury as the only anchor ever yet imagined by man, by which a government can be held to the principles of its constitution. ” l ~Thomas Jefferson
Quickwrite l DBQ- Write Paragraph 2 of your DBQ l Remember to use your Documents and tie back to your thesis as you write!
l. Use of biased or incomplete information to sway people’s beliefs Propaganda
Soviet Propaganda l Workers and peasants taught the ideals of communism: l NEWS: The Communist Party media is the only media! Pravda (Truth) l ART: Socialist Realism – – Artistic style that praised communist values l Movies: Communist weapon, used to “hide” ideology in entertainment
ART Socialist Realism l Based on the principle that the arts should glorify political and social ideals of communism. l Every artist had to join the "Union of Soviet Artists", which was controlled by the state. The paintings had to be idealizations of political leaders and communistic ideas.
Lenin and Stalin in Summer 1917
Roses for Stalin
Young Steel Workers
Cinema Battleship Potemkin l Persuade the people of the benefits of the Soviet government.
Censorship – Party rewrites history books, suddenly Soviet Union had invented everything – Not only does an “enemy” die but the have a sort of “Second Death”… Stalin orders the remaking of photos to remove them completely from the past
Stalin’s personal form of propaganda… Performing a “Second Death”
Not without certain irony, Nikolai Yezhov, the young man strolling with Stalin, is shot in 1940. It seems only fitting that when Yezhov is removed from the photograph he is replaced by the waters of the Moscow-Volga Canal. Yezhov was commissar of water transport.
Propagandists seize every opportunity to get their message across. In the original of this photo, the sign on the building says, "Watches, gold and silver. " Now it reads, "Struggle for your rights. " Likewise the flag being waved says, "Down with the monarchy - long live the Republic!" has no visible words in the original.
Trotsky and Lenin (top center of stairs) in 1919 photograph of a Red Square celebration is of the anniversary of the revolution. To make it suitable for a 1967 book of Lenin Photos, Trotsky is removed.
Trotsky, left, reads Pravda, the Bolshevik newspaper he once edited. In 1925, Stalin ousts Trotsky as commissar of war. At right, a citizen has scratched Trotsky's picture from his own history book, as part of the citizen's "personal responsibility" to support the Communist Party.
Father to the people l Stalin holding a young Soviet citizen, Gelya Markizova, aged 6, in 1935. Soon afterwards Stalin had her father shot for allegedly plotting against him and then had her mother murdered. l This did not stop this particular touching scene becoming a party banner, for example:
“Great Wise Father”
Obedience to Autocratic Ruler! l God-like omniscient ruler, destined to rule the nation for all eternity. l His portrait is hung in every home and public building. l artists and poets instructed to only produce works that glorified the leader. l Stalin tried to present himself as personally humble and modest. Cities named after Stalin l l l l Oraşul Stalin, 1951 -1961 —Romania Qyteti Stalin, 1950 -1990 —Albania Stalin, 1949 -1956 —Bulgaria Stalinabad, 1929 -1961 —Tajikistan Stalingrad, 1925 -1961 —Russia Stalingrad —, Czech Republic Staliniri, 1934 -1961 —Georgia Stalino, 1924 -1961 —Ukraine Stalinogorsk, 1934 -1961 —Russia Stalinogród, 1953 -1956 —Poland Stalinsk, 1932 -1961 —Russia Stalinstadt, 1953 -1961 —East Germany Sztálinváros, 1951 -1961 —Hungary Remind you of anyone from the ancient world?
A glimpse at the Cult of Personality that Stalin tried to hard to create
Society of Terror l Police terror – As many l Great Purge – term used as 20 million killed for to describe the systematic opposing Stalin. killing of many enemies of the state such as: l Monitored telephone – Bolshevik party members lines, read mail, planted who helped in the informants Revolution of 1917 (free l Many children told on thinkers) parents for “disloyal” comments
Now… without help… Analyze this!
Communism vs Capitalism has been ingrained in our collective culture
Seinfeld and Communism l Santa Claus… why is he receptive to these new ideas? l Which famous Russian communist did Elaine’s boyfriend Ned look like? l Elaine was labeled as someone who named names… what does this mean?
Can you find comparisons to Stalin’s Russia?
Recess ü Comparisons to Stalin? üBureaucratic system üUnquestioning obedience üExpelling the Bolsheviks üCult of personality üSong üStatues üRenaming üGulag ü 5 year plan
Comrade Lenin cleanses the Earth of scum