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Quick-write What comes to mind when you think about William Shakespeare? 1 Quick-write What comes to mind when you think about William Shakespeare? 1

William Shakespeare 1564 -1616 Born in Stratford The 3 rd of 8 kids Married William Shakespeare 1564 -1616 Born in Stratford The 3 rd of 8 kids Married at age 18 (Anne Hathaway, his wife, was 26) Worked as an actor Published 37 plays: *Comedies *Tragedies *Histories *156 Sonnets (poems) 2

Shakespeare’s Sonnets English 7 3 Shakespeare’s Sonnets English 7 3

Today we will: 1. Become familiar with Shakespeare’s language. 2. Identify the characteristics of Today we will: 1. Become familiar with Shakespeare’s language. 2. Identify the characteristics of Shakespeare’s sonnets. 3. Analyze a Shakespearean sonnet. 4

The Globe Theatre 1599 5 The Globe Theatre 1599 5

The New Globe Theatre 1999 6 The New Globe Theatre 1999 6

What is a sonnet? Iambic what? • A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem in What is a sonnet? Iambic what? • A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem in iambic pentameter often about LOVE. Oh dear, this is going to be a weird lesson! • It usually argues a point or solves a problem. Ex: You must love me because… 7

Iambic Pentameter • Iambic Pentameter is the rhythm and metre in which poets and Iambic Pentameter • Iambic Pentameter is the rhythm and metre in which poets and playwrights wrote in Elizabethan England. It is a metre that Shakespeare uses. 8

Heartbeat. • Quite simply, it sounds like this: dee DUM, dee DUM. • It Heartbeat. • Quite simply, it sounds like this: dee DUM, dee DUM. • It is the rhythm of the human heart beat. 9

Pentameter? • An ‘iamb’ is ‘dee Dum’ – it is the heart beat. • Pentameter? • An ‘iamb’ is ‘dee Dum’ – it is the heart beat. • Penta is from the Greek for five. • Meter is really the pattern • So, there are five iambs per line! • (Iambic penta meter ) 10

 • It is percussive and attractive to the ear and has an effect • It is percussive and attractive to the ear and has an effect on the listener's central nervous system. An Example of Pentameter from Shakespeare: but SOFT what LIGHT through YONder WINdow BREAKS 11

Syllables • What is a syllable? • Well, there are three syllables (separate sounds) Syllables • What is a syllable? • Well, there are three syllables (separate sounds) in the word syllable! • I am a pirate with a wooden leg. • How many syllables are there? • Go to the store to buy a loaf of bread. • How many syllables are there? 12

Syllables 10 syllables 5 stressed and 5 unstressed dee DUM dee DUM dee DUM Syllables 10 syllables 5 stressed and 5 unstressed dee DUM dee DUM dee DUM I am a pirate with a wooden leg. dee DUM dee DUM Go to the store to buy a loaf of bread. What is this called again? 13

“But soft, what light through yonder window breaks. ” --Romeo and Juliet II, ii. “But soft, what light through yonder window breaks. ” --Romeo and Juliet II, ii. • At the bottom of your hand-out, identify the stressed and unstressed syllables. (Remember, the first syllable in iambic pentameter is ALWAYS unstressed!) 14

 dee DUM dee DUM dee DUM “But soft, what light through yonder window dee DUM dee DUM dee DUM “But soft, what light through yonder window breaks. --Romeo and Juliet II, ii. This rhythm is iambic pentameter! Well done! 15

Back to sonnets. • Well, it is a poetic form. • But it has Back to sonnets. • Well, it is a poetic form. • But it has a certain structure as well as a rhyming pattern. 16

Rhyming patterns • The Shakespearean sonnet has three quatrains followed by a couplet, the Rhyming patterns • The Shakespearean sonnet has three quatrains followed by a couplet, the scheme being: abab cdcd efef gg. • More head scratching? 17

Quatrain? • Quatrains are four line stanzas of any kind. • Couplets are two Quatrain? • Quatrains are four line stanzas of any kind. • Couplets are two line stanzas of any kind. • I have divided the following sonnet into the three quatrains. Can you label the quatrains? (The couplet has been labelled for you. ) 18

Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (A) Thou art more Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (A) Thou art more lovely and more temperate. (B) Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, (A) And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. (B) Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, (C) And often is his gold complexion dimmed, (D) And every fair from fair sometime declines, (C) By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed; (D) But thy eternal summer shall not fade (E) Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st (F) Nor shall death brag thou wander’st in his shade (E) When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st (F) So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, (G) So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. (G) 19

Let’s Review… • 1. What is a sonnet? • 2. How many lines does Let’s Review… • 1. What is a sonnet? • 2. How many lines does it have? • 3. What is the rhyming pattern of a Shakespearean sonnet? • 4. What is the special meter called that was used by Shakespeare? 20

But What Does All This Mean? Let’s look at the last two lines: So But What Does All This Mean? Let’s look at the last two lines: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, (G) So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. (G) The last two lines are usually the solution to the problem. As long as people are alive to read this poem, This poem will keep you alive and beautiful. 21

But What Does All This Mean? With your partner, translate a single line of But What Does All This Mean? With your partner, translate a single line of iambic pentameter into contemporary language. *Use the definitions under the poem to help you. 22

Translation Should I compare you to a summer’s day? You are lovelier than summer Translation Should I compare you to a summer’s day? You are lovelier than summer and you don’t change. Sometimes summer can be stormy and kill May flowers, And summer doesn’t last very long. Sometimes summer is too hot, Questions for Discussion And every summer must end, And everything beautiful fades, • What reasons does the speaker Because this is the course of nature. give for not comparing his lover to But your youth will not fade a summer’s day? (Quatrains 1&2) And you will not lose your beauty. You will always be beautiful • What is special about the lover’s Even after you die. beauty? (Quatrain 3) As long as people are alive to read this poem, This poem will keep you alive and beautiful. • In the end, what will keep the lover alive and beautiful? (Couplet) 23

Huzzah! Thou hast done it! 24 Huzzah! Thou hast done it! 24

Reflection What are two (2) things you learned about sonnets today? What is one Reflection What are two (2) things you learned about sonnets today? What is one (1) question you still have? THANK YOU FOR LEARNING WITH US TODAY! 25