- Количество слайдов: 14
Quantitative research This kind of research often uses a survey to collect data about how many people hold similar views or display particular characteristics. Normally, the information is collected from a small proportion ( a sample) of a target market group. The views of the whole target group are then based on the responses from the sample. The above is the main definition of quantitative data however data that is measurable is fundamentally this kind of data e. g. size of environment , ergonomics/anthropometrics, size of objects/products. This data will form important requirements in the design specification. Qualitative research This kind of research collects data about how people think and feel about issues or why they take certain decisions. Qualitative research explores consumer behaviour and is conducted among a few individuals. It is often used to plan further quantitative research to see if the views of a few are representative of the whole target market group. The areas of research that should be identified are style, aesthetics , shape- decorative elements, colour , texture, appearance and finish. A requirement that is subjective and depends on who you are asking rather than a specific fact as with Quantitative
CAD Use of CADD– computer aided design drawing CAD involves the use of computers to model product ideas 2 D or 3 D and either view them on screen or print them out for review and reference. CAD modelling is a key part of industrial design process because it enables manufacturers to test and modify ideas in 2 D and simulate products on screen in 3 D. These virtual products can be shown to clients, who can then choose which one they would like to see as a product prototype. This reduces the need for actually making a range of prototypes before final production, saving time costs. One of the major uses of CAD is producing working drawings to support manufacturing specifications and production. ( This enables large scale manufacturing processes to be structured based on this computerised technical data in x-y-z co-ordinates CAM).
CAD Designers and manufacturers can use CAD in various ways to: • Store style and colour information • Create, model and modify designs ideas quickly and easily • Apply texture, rendering or shading to drawings to create virtual products (wood grain, shiny or rough surfaces, lighting effects, etc). • Present a virtual 3 D animation of a product using multimedia. • Make accurate working drawings for manufacturing specifications and make changes easily and quickly. • Calculate the volume/quantities and therefore cost of materials required to produce product. • Identify all design aspects of the product , style (appearance ) - function to ensure product fulfils all requirements of the specification • Produces coded information of drawn component parts to drive CNC /CAM machines in a fully computer integrated system/automated system. • The use of ICT enables CAD information to be sent electronically anywhere in the world between clients, designers and manufacturers , so that design decisions can be made quickly.
Scale of Production • • Scale of Production is decided by the type and number of products to be made. The chosen scale of production enables manufacturers to produce products quickly and efficiently. It can include : One-off ( low volume or jobbing production ) Batch production High volume (mass production, flow-line production) Continuous production
One-off ( custom made /jobbing/ bespoke / haute couture) One-off production is used for very different reasons and it depends entirely on the nature of the product. Designing and making a single product to a client’s requirements. It may be a stadium for the World cup/Olympics or a wedding dress or a very specialised piece of equipment for a disabled person. As a result of this level of production the associated cost tends to be much higher because the materials used, labour required, skills, design and production costs, since only one is being made. The customer is however prepared to pay this increased cost to enable them to own a new original product which will be envied by others where it is clothing, buildings, furniture and ocean going liner. The product should be of the highest standard in construction and materials. The area where this would not apply would be electronics where research and development of new technology is extremely expensive and therefore requires large scale production to be achieved to recoup this initial investment.
Batch Production Batch production can be described as the production of identical products of specified quantities in ‘batches’. Batches can vary from a few products to several thousands and changes in market demand can be met easily with little time delay because everything involved in the production process – tooling, machinery and people—is kept as flexible as possible. Once batches of products are complete tooling and machines are again available for use on the production of the next batch ( this period is known as downtime and should be kept as short as possible). Ranges of furniture can fall into this category where the legs may be identical , but the tops and any other draws could be different shapes and sizes. Once a particular batch has been produced, the tooling can be changed to make the next size. IKEA / HABITAT.
Mass production is used for manufacturing large quantities of manufactured products, for stock or to order. High volume production (long runs) follows expensive ‘tooling up’ costs. The individual tasks required of the work force are reduced to simple tasks to reduce the chances of errors and therefore a low-semi skilled work force can be employed. On very large scale manufacturing automation is developed to improve accuracy and quality. Continuous production is used to manufacture very high volume products such as plastic pipes , injection moulded products and high tolerance engineered products. This type of production is highly automated and uses machines that can run continuously. Continuous production machines use sensors to control the quality of the product as well as to monitor machine safety. This ensures the production of identical high quality products. Assembly is the process of putting a product together using separate parts or components. Each process in the product’s assembly is carefully planned and written as a work schedule matching the materials and equipment required with the assembly processes used. Product manufacturers use assembly processes such as joining components parts and combining sub-assemblies. The assembly process needs to be : Easy and fast, to make products at a profit Cost-effective, making use of standard components where possible to reduce costs. Efficient, using waste management techniques to reduce waste.
Just in Time (JIT) Just In Time (JIT) manufacturing makes use of information and communication technology ICT to help plan the ordering of materials and components so they arrive at a factory just in time for production. This is a complex system that requires careful planning between a manufacturer and its suppliers. JIT is often used in quick response manufacturing, where goods are produced quickly in the exact quantities needed to fulfil consumer demand. JIT is used in combination with QRM because it: • Reduces the need for stockpiles of raw materials waiting to be used • Reduces the space needed for keeping raw materials in stock • Reduces the levels of finished goods put into stock waiting to be sold • Reduces the amount of money tied up in stock.
Cost A comparison of how costs change as the level of production increases High Labour costs Low Efficiency High General Tooling Specialised High Unit costs Low High Labour intensity Low Capital investment High
Health & Safety Health and Safety (H&S) at work is the responsibility of employers and employees. The Health and Safety at work Act 1974 requires manufacturers to follow strict rules and regulations and to have H&S system in place. They must undertake a risk assessment to make the work place a safe as possible. Employees are required to follow safety procedures to reduce risk when using materials, machinery and manufacturing processes. Manufacturers are also required to ensure a product’s safety so that no harm can come to the user or the environment during the normal use. Products should pass strict British and European tests and display labels ( Kite mark / CE label).
Safety • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • • Five-step risk assessment Identify Hazard Who might be harmed &how Evaluate potential for risk Record Review. Equipment / signage-information Safety procedures – safety wear
Stages of Production Preparation / Processing / Assembly / finishing / Packaging & Distribution Preparation • Buying-in of materials and components • Preparation of materials, components, tools, equipment and machinery. • The production of working drawings and layout plans, jigs and templates. • Processing can include: • Cutting of component parts • Drilling, turning, cutting or abrading, moulding forming casting • Finishing of sub-assemblies. Assembly can include: • Sub-assembly, e. g. assembling a working mechanism • Joining components or sub-assemblies, using welding or soldering, mechanical fastenings or adhesives.
Finishing • Decorative finishing, such as painting to improve the appearance of the product. • Functional finishing, such as plating, coating or sealing to improve the product’s quality and resistance to the environment. Packaging • Labelling with labels, tags and bar codes to identify product type, price information and stock details. • Packing in an outer layer to protect the product • Packing in boxes for easy transportation • Features that help to sell the product such as photo, the brand logo and instructions. • Comprehensive logistics organised to distribute the write number of products to the • customers.