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Quality Rating & Improvement Systems that are culturally and linguistic appropriate for Latinos and English Language Learners Antonia Lopez Director, Early Care and Education National Council of La Raza June 5, 2008
Latino Children in the US • Four and a half million Latino children, ages 0 -5 in US – 22% of all children • 56% below 200% of federal poverty level • 50+ have one LEP parent in household • 33% linguistic isolation – no one over 13 speaks English fluently • 93% are US citizens – – – 48% with legal non-citizen parents 19% with naturalized parents 26% with undocumented parents
Regions of Origin for Immigrant Parents of Children Under Age Six (2002) • Asia 23% 1, 400, 000 • African & Middle East 6% 363, 000 • Europe & Canada 7% 423, 000 • Latin America & Caribbean 64% 3, 700, 000
Top Three Countries of Birth for the Foreign-Born Population by State (all ages), 2000* • • • • Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado DC Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Louisiana Michigan Minnesota *CLASP, Reaching All Children? , January 2006 Philippines – 24% Mexico – 66% Mexico – 44% Mexico – 49% El Salvador – 22% Cuba – 24% Mexico – 33% Vietnam – 15% Mexico – 11% Mexico – 16% Korea – 11% Canada – 4% El Salvador – 6% Philippines – 8% Germany – 5% Jamaica – 4% Mexico – 7% India – 5% Poland – 9% Germany – 5% Honduras – 10% Canada – 10% Laos – 10% Canada – 8% Germany – 2% Germany – 5% Vietnam – 5% Canada – 4% China – 3% Haiti – 7% Vietnam – 4% India – 6% India – 5% Mexico – 8% India – 7% Vietnam – 6%
Top Three Countries of Birth for the Foreign-Born Population by State (all ages), 2000 • • • New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio I Oklahoma Pennsylvania South Carolina Vermont Virginia Washington Wyoming India – 8% Mexico – 72% D. R. – 11% Mexico – 40% India – 8% Mexico – 43% India – 7% Mexico – 27% Canada – 34% El Salvador -10% Mexico- 24% Mexico – 35% D. R. – 6% Germany – 4% China – 6% India – 4% Germany – 8% Vietnam – 8% Italy – 6% Germany – 7% UK – 8% Korea – 7% Canada – 8% Canada – 10% Philippines – 5% Canada – 2% Jamaica - 6% Germany – 4% Mexico – 6% Germany – 5% Korea – 5% UK – 6% Germany – 7% Philippines – 6% Philippines – 8% Germany – 7%
The achievement gap for young Latino children begins at an early age and persists… * 49% of do not recognize letters at start of kindergarten (23% white-Latino gap) * 22% do not understand relative size at start of kindergarten (22% white-Latino gap)
The achievement gap for Latino children… One study of test scores in California showed that at least 80% of the achievement gap at grade 4 is present before school even starts… * 56% score below basic on the reading NAEP in 4 th Grade * 44% Score below basic on reading NAEP in the 8 th Grade, 2003 By 2015, 75% of Latinos ages 16 -25 will not have a high school diploma
Common Myths About Young English Language Learners* Myth 1: Learning two languages during the early childhood years will overwhelm, confuse, and/or delay a child’s acquisition of English. Myth 2: Total English immersion from Pre. Kindergarten through Third Grade is the bet way for a young English Language Learner to acquire English. *Challenging Common Myths About Young English Learners, FCD Policy Brief Advancing PK-3, No. Eight by Linda Espinosa, January 2008
Common Myths About Young English Language Learners Myth 3: Because schools don’t have the capacity to provide instruction in all the languages represented by the children, they should provide English-only instruction. Myth 4: Native English speakers will experience academic and language delays if they are enrolled in dual language programs.
Common Myths About Young English Language Learners* Myth 5: Spanish speaking Latinos show social as well as academic delays when entering kindergarten. Myth 6: Latino English language learners are less likely to be enrolled in Pre-Kindergarten programs, because of their families’ cultural values.
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language Learners 1: All young children are capable of learning two languages. Becoming bilingual has long-term cognitive, academic, and social cultural, and economic benefits. Bilingualism is an asset. 2: Young ELL students require systematic support for the continued development of their home language. 3: Loss of the home language has potential negative long -term consequences for the ELL child’s academic social, and emotional development, as well as for the family dynamics.
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language Learners 4: Teachers and programs can adopt effective strategies to support home language development even when the teachers are monolingual English speakers. 5: Dual language programs are an effective approach to improving academic achievement for ELL children while also providing benefits to native English speakers.
The development of language and literacy skills in a child’s first language is important for the development of skills in a second language and, therefore should be considered the first step in the range of expectations for children learning English as a second language (International reading Association and NAEYC, 1998). Children who have the skills to understand communicate in their home language will transfer their knowledge to their learning of a second language, resulting in a more effective and efficient secondlanguage learning process. (Cummins 1979; Wong Fillmore 1991) The transfer of knowledge applies to the structure of language and early literacy skills such as concepts about print, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and writing in alphabetic script (Cardenas-Hagan, Carlson, and Pollard- Durodola 2007; Cisero and Royer 1995; Durgunoglu 2002; Durgunoglu, Nagy, and Hancin-Bhatt 1993; Gottardo and others 2001; Muntaz and Humphreys 2001). Recent brain research suggests that the development of two languages benefits the brain through the increase of density of brain tissue in areas related to language, memory, and attention (Mechelli and others 2004). Bilingual children have higher rates of engagement in particular parts of the brain (Kovelman, Baker, and Petitto 2006). This increased brain activity may have long-term positive effects (Bialystok, Craik, and Ryan 2006).
Refuting the Myths About Young English Language Learners 6: Hispanic Spanish-speaking children enter Kindergarten with many social strengths that are the result of positive parenting practices that need to be acknowledged and enhanced. 7. Hispanic parents value high-quality early education and will enroll their young children if programs are affordable and accessible.
A Perfect Storm… The confluence of systems that contain unresolved cultural and linguistic issues that impact on the participation and access to high quality programs for EL children, families and communities Licensing - facility regulation and health and safety Inadequate “field-community” outreach to provide recruitment and application support for EL communities. Initial orientation conducted only in English; inadequate number of home language speaking staff to provide technical assistance and training through and beyond the application stage, i. e. , compliance visits and compliance resolution Lack of resources and training typically provided to English speaking providers. Child development, nutrition, small business practices, marketing and parent engagement. Lack of human and material resources to support EL applicants to meet essential health and safety requirements, i. e, first aide, pediatric CPR, child abuse reporting requirements and other require training
A Perfect Storm… The confluence of systems that contain unresolved cultural and linguistic issues that impact on the participation and access to high quality programs for EL children, families and communities Overlapping arenas…. Gaps grow, inequity distribution of resources Environmental Rating Scales Licensing Ideologically Driven Curriculum Early learning Foundations Teacher Qualification and Competencies
A Perfect Storm…. The unintended consequences of culturally and linguistically inappropriate application of ERS systems may contribute to excessive financial burden on program providers and cultural discontinuity and language loss among children and families. Side Bar: Sembrando Semillas Initiative - A process for identifying Latino Family Values Respect Family Carino – Nurturance Attention Empathy Cooperation Responsibility Self Confidence Self Reliance-Resilience Education (character) Language Ancestral Wisdom Cultural Traditions Spirituality Honesty Hard Work Education – academic success
A Perfect Storm… Increased Teacher and Staff Qualifications without adequate access to on-going and long term support, are projected to have negative results in retaining and professionalizing a culturally and linguistically diverse workforce. Issues include provision of: – Culturally and linguistically appropriate coursework – Tuition and materials support, including access to computers and technology – Course alignment and articulation among community college, 4 year public and private institutions – Bilingual, culturally competent college faculty at each IHE – Access to appropriate and timely placement tests, academic tutoring, career counseling and advising beyond ECE courses – Development of “peer groups and cohorts” – Course sequence and class schedules that support working and non traditional students
A Perfect Storm… Early Learning Foundations that do not address the needs of English language learners and their families: – Are ultimately fundamentally flawed and resulting in a failure to address the school readiness needs of immigrant children and society for a well educated citizenry. – Inadequately prepare EL children to acquire English language fluency levels required for long-term school success (academic English) – Will likely result in first language loss or stagnation with lifelong negative consequences to the child, their family and community. – Fail to build on family strengths and culturally appropriate continuity and engagement
A Perfect Storm: Ideologically driven curriculum • • English-only Myths based Anti-immigrant bias Deficit view of family Ethnocentric values framework Low social and academic expectations for children Cultural experiences reduced to artifacts and isolated events
Sembrando Semillas Six Research Based Guiding Principles
1. A child’s home language is a crucial foundation for cognitive development * Several decades of research indicate that a child’s first language is the best key to literacy. * Knowledge, concepts, and skills established in the home language support and contribute to the development of the child’s second language. (Durgunoglu, Nagy and Hancin-Bhatt, 1993; Escamilla, 2000; Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1999; Tqabors, 1997; Tabors and Snow, 2001: Vgotsky, 1985).
2. A learning environment that facilitates social-emotional growth and affirms a child’s culture and language is essential for full participation and healthy identify development. *respect and integrate the key role of a child’s culture and language to her social-emotional and identity development. *support young children in bridging across and integrating home and school contexts. Bowman, Burns, & Donovan, 2000; bowman & Stott, 1994; Day & Parlakian, 2003; Kauffman, 2002; Luria, Parlakian, 1976; Rqaver, 2002; Phillips, 1995). Rqaver,
3. One language is enhanced by another * The early years are a unique window of opportunity for development of native-like fluency in two or more languages * Young children have the capacity to learn multiple languages simultaneously. (Hakuta & Garcia, 1989; NAEYC, 1995: Slavin & Cheung, 2004; Tabors, 1997; Tabors & Snow, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002).
4. Linguistic and cultural congruity build strong home-school partnerships and support parents as a child’s first teacher. drawing upon the knowledge, expertise and cultural capital of families as assets, the teacher is better able to understand the child, the context in which the child functions and the family’s values and culture; the parents come to know the culture of the school. home and classroom activities complement and reinforce each other. builds parents confidence and capacity to effectively support their children’s social-emotional, physical and language/literacy development at home.
5. Assessments that are culturally and lingistically appropriate are essential to ensure the child has access to developmentall appropriate and high quality early education. (Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders & Christian, 2004; Mc. Laughlin, Blanchard & Osani, 1995; NAEYC & NAECS/SDE, 2005; Raver & Zigler, 2004; Shephard, Kagan & Wurtz, 1998).
6. High quality, research-based professional development is needed for teachers to meet the needs of preschool age English Learners and their families
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists* 1. Knowledge of the characteristics, components, benefits, and limitations of research-based program models of bilingual education (e. g. , dual-language, one-way immersion, two-way immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance, heritage language). *Excerpts from the CSET Bilingual Methodology Bilingual Culture Examinations, November 2007.
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 2. Understanding of theoretical foundations, practices, limitations, and effects of the deficit perspective of bilingual education (e. g. , viewing the primary language as an obstacle, limiting use of the primary language, promoting assimilation into the target culture). 3. Understanding of theoretical foundations, practices, limitations, and effects of enrichment perspective of bilingual education (e. g. , viewing the primary language as a right and an asset, promoting the development of bilingualism and biculturalism, promoting acculturation into the target culture).
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 4. Understanding of the roles of code-switching and language mixing in the development of bilingualism and early biliteracy. 5. Knowledge of developmental processes of bilingualism and biliteracy to select appropriate language use and usage (e. g. , translation, language allocation model) when interacting with students at different developmental stages of bilingualism and biliteracy. 6. Understanding of transferability of language and literacy skills between the primary and target languages, including ways in which language transfer can be affected by the level of compatibility between the primary language and English.
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 7. Understanding of concepts of intercultural communication, including cultural differences in patterns of nonverbal communication (e. g. , distance between speakers, eye contact), patterns of oral discourse (e. g. , overlapping, turn-taking, volume of voice, use/role of silence forms of address, respect, greetings). 8. Understanding of cultural influences (e. g. , different values regarding cooperation and competition, different expectations and preferences in teacher-child and child interaction, different attitudes toward conformity and individuality).
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 9. Knowledge of intercultural communication and interaction that is linguistically and culturally inclusive and responsive to provide literacy and content instruction (e. g. , role-playing intercultural encounters, discussion of current events related to a variety of cultures, respecting child’s primary language/dialect, using child’s primary language and home culture to promote language and early literacy and content area learning). 10. Knowledge of effective strategies to communicate assessment results to families and to provide guidance on ways in which families can support their children’s learning at home and at the early education center.
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 11. Knowledge of strategies to identify opportunities for families to contribute their funds of knowledge and expertise within the program and across the school community, including participation in a variety of program forums and organizations. 12. Knowledge of language structures (e. g. , word roots, prefixes, suffixes), forms (e. g. , registers), and functions (e. g. , informing, describing, persuading) to develop and delivery effective language instruction in the primary and target languages.
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 13. Understanding of ways in which child’s life experiences (e. g. , immigrant or refugee experiences, out-of-school time experiences, role in family and with siblings and extended family) can be used to foster learning and early literacy in the primary and target languages.
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 14. Understanding of the beliefs and values of different groups, including indigenous groups that are members of the child/family population they serve are members of the community. 15. Recognize how cultural and social traditions affect teaching and learning practices and expectations of the diverse families (e. g. , oral tradition, rote learning, observation).
Selected Recommendations for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities for bilingual teachers & QRIS rating specialists: 17. Knowledge of strategies for interpreting the results of primary- and target-language assessments to plan, organize, modify, and individualize educational plan for an individual child as well as a group of children. 18. Knowledge of strategies for reviewing and evaluating materials to identify potential areas of offense or bias (e. g. , race, class, gender, religion, country of origin) and to ensure appropriate representation of linguistic and cultural diversity within and across language and cultural groups.