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QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CALIBRATION, TESTING AND COMPARISON OF INSTRUMENTS AND OBSERVING SYSTEMS WMO TECHNICAL CONFERENCE QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CALIBRATION, TESTING AND COMPARISON OF INSTRUMENTS AND OBSERVING SYSTEMS WMO TECHNICAL CONFERENCE ON METEOROLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF OBSERVATION TECO-2005 C. Bruce Baker, NOAA USA

The Backbone Note the stability QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CALIBRATION, TESTING AND COMPARISON OF INSTRUMENTS AND The Backbone Note the stability QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CALIBRATION, TESTING AND COMPARISON OF INSTRUMENTS AND OBSERVING SYSTEMS

Functions of an International/National Backbone • Infrastructure in Place for Quality measurements • Collects Functions of an International/National Backbone • Infrastructure in Place for Quality measurements • Collects open access data and provides consistent quality assurance and control • Distributes data and information (via multiple paths) in real time (varies with parameter) and ensures archival • Abides by national / international standards and fosters the implementation of standards by local and regional observing systems

Key Components • • Management of Network Change Parallel Testing Meta Data Quality and Key Components • • Management of Network Change Parallel Testing Meta Data Quality and Continuity Integrated Environmental Assessment Complementary Data Continuity of Purpose Data and Meta Data Access

VOCABULARY MANAGEMENT Documentation, Performance Measures, and Requirements PROGRAM POLICY Determined by International or National VOCABULARY MANAGEMENT Documentation, Performance Measures, and Requirements PROGRAM POLICY Determined by International or National Policy and Science Driven Directives QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM QUALITY MANUAL Personnel, Hardware, Ingest, and Dissemination Requirements Documents QUALITY CONTROL Automated, Manual, Maintenance RESEARCH Testing, Intercomparisons, Transfer functions Overlapping Measurements QUALITY ASSURANCE Documented Metadata, Performance Measures IMPLEMENTATION Program Infrastructure

 • Functional Requirements – Systems - parameters, ranges, accuracies, resolutions, expandability, design life, • Functional Requirements – Systems - parameters, ranges, accuracies, resolutions, expandability, design life, maintainability – Program - number of systems, cost and schedule targets, communications • Commissioning – Defines decision point – when data are official – Sustained operation, data from each site 95% of the time within one hour and/or successful entry into the archives within 30 days

Configuration Management • Change management of hardware and software items, metadata management responsibilities and Configuration Management • Change management of hardware and software items, metadata management responsibilities and procedures for CCB

Test and Evaluation Phase • Conducted by Evaluation Team • Reviewed by Ad Hoc Test and Evaluation Phase • Conducted by Evaluation Team • Reviewed by Ad Hoc Science Working Group • Six areas Evaluated – – – Site Selection Site Installation Field Equipment and Sensors Communications Data Processing and Quality Control Maintenance

5 Components of Data Quality Assurance (QA) • • • Laboratory Calibration Routine Maintenance 5 Components of Data Quality Assurance (QA) • • • Laboratory Calibration Routine Maintenance and In-Field Comparisons Automated Quality Assurance Manual Quality Assurance Metadata, Metadata Ability to Integrate New technology

Laboratory Calibration • Every sensor is calibrated before deployment to verify and improve upon Laboratory Calibration • Every sensor is calibrated before deployment to verify and improve upon the manufacturer’s specifications • Sensors are routinely rotated back into the lab from the field to be re-calibrated

Routine Maintenance and In-Field Comparisons Site Maintenance Passes Three visits scheduled annually Trouble Ticket Routine Maintenance and In-Field Comparisons Site Maintenance Passes Three visits scheduled annually Trouble Ticket or Emergency Repairs Malfunctioning Sensor Lightning Strike Communication Problems Theft and Vandalism

Site Maintenance Passes Sensor Inspection Air Temperature and Humidity sensors are inspected for dust Site Maintenance Passes Sensor Inspection Air Temperature and Humidity sensors are inspected for dust accumulation, spider webbing and wasp nests. The radiation shields of these sensors are also cleaned.

Trouble Ticket or Emergency Repairs Trouble Tickets • Issued by the Data QA Manager Trouble Ticket or Emergency Repairs Trouble Tickets • Issued by the Data QA Manager • Priorities range from 2 to 30 business days (based on sensor) • QA Manager provides a description of the problem • Technicians complete the form with time of fix, serial numbers of sensors and a description of the repairs made • Technicians may also generate tickets in the field and submit them to the QA Manager

Quality Assurance of Instruments Documented in Anomaly Tracking System Users Manual Reports of Incidences Quality Assurance of Instruments Documented in Anomaly Tracking System Users Manual Reports of Incidences collected, evaluated, maintenance as needed Metadata records updated Quality Control Data Documented in Data Management – Ingest to Access Data ingest Tests for proper message form, communication errors, etc. Automated Limits - Gross limits check Variance - Limits for individual parameters Redundancy - Data inter-comparison relies on multiple sensors Manual -- Handbook of Manual Monitoring

Metadata Management Survey to Operations Metadata Management Survey to Operations

Field Sites Instrument Suite Ingest Processing Unit Communications Device Processing User Community Raw-Data Archive Field Sites Instrument Suite Ingest Processing Unit Communications Device Processing User Community Raw-Data Archive Quality Control Maintenance Notification Flagged-Data Archive offline Communications Network Maintenance Provider Access Internet online

Performance Measures 114 CONUS Geographic Locations Required • • Captures 98% of variance in Performance Measures 114 CONUS Geographic Locations Required • • Captures 98% of variance in monthly temperature, 95% in annual precipitation for CONUS. Average annual error <0. 1ºC for temperature, <1. 5% for precipitation Trend “errors” <0. 05ºC per decade IPCC: projects warming of 0. 1 -0. 3ºC/decade and precipitation changes of 0– 2%/decade for CONUS.

Determine the Actual Long-term Changes in Temperature and Precipitation of the Contiguous U. S. Determine the Actual Long-term Changes in Temperature and Precipitation of the Contiguous U. S. (CONUS) FY 2005 Target: Capture more than 96. 9% and 91. 1% of the temperature and precipitation trends.

RESEARCH RESEARCH

Tretyakov Shield with Ott Tretyakov Shield with Ott

Double Alter with Geonor Double Alter with Geonor

Dew. Track MET 2010 Standard RMY USCRN Shield PMT New ASOS Air Temperature & Dew. Track MET 2010 Standard RMY USCRN Shield PMT New ASOS Air Temperature & RH Monitoring At High Plains Regional Climate Center (Lincoln) MMTS CRS Standard HMP 243 Gill

Network Integration Network Integration

Cross-Network Transfer Functions Cooperative Observer Network (~10, 000 Stations) Cross-Network Transfer Functions Cooperative Observer Network (~10, 000 Stations)

Planned USCRN Stations at end of 2008 (114* stations) Installed Paired Locations Installed Single Planned USCRN Stations at end of 2008 (114* stations) Installed Paired Locations Installed Single Locations As of April 26, 2005 * Does not Include Alaska, Canada, Hawaii, & GCOS stations

Experimental Product Experimental Product

Siting Standards Documents Representativeness • • Network Plan Site Acquisition Plan Site Information Handbook Siting Standards Documents Representativeness • • Network Plan Site Acquisition Plan Site Information Handbook Site Survey Plan Site Survey Handbook Site Survey Checklist Site Acquisition Checklist

Major Principles of Station Siting • • • Site is representative of climate of Major Principles of Station Siting • • • Site is representative of climate of region. Minimal microclimatic influences. Long-term (50 -100 year) land tenure Minimal prospects for human development Avoids agriculture, major water bodies, major forested areas, basin terrain. • Accessible for calibration & maintenance. • Stable Host Agency or Organization. • Follows WMO Climate Station Siting Guidelines

Objective Site Scoring • An objective scoring sheet was developed based on the Leroy Objective Site Scoring • An objective scoring sheet was developed based on the Leroy method. The score for a station becomes part of the metadata for the station • Re-scoring of stations is part of the annual maintenance visit; allows tracking time change in representativeness of station meteorology

International Cooperation , Collaboration and Partnerships • U. S Representative on the Canadian National International Cooperation , Collaboration and Partnerships • U. S Representative on the Canadian National Monitoring Change Management Board • Canadian Reference Climate Network program participates on the USCRN Science Review Panel • USCRN hardware architecture incorporated into Canadian Climate Monitoring Network • Two nations will exchange and co-locate reference climate stations FY 04 First step in international cooperation to have commonality established for surface observing systems to monitor climate change

QUESTIONS • How do we continue to expand International and National Partnerships? ? • QUESTIONS • How do we continue to expand International and National Partnerships? ? • What is the best way for the exchange of information? ? • How do we glue the system of systems together? ? E-Mail: Bruce. Baker@noaa. gov URL: http: //www. ncdc. noaa. gov/oa/climate/uscrn/index. html

Network Characteristics • Benchmark Network for temperature and precipitation • Anchor points for USHCN Network Characteristics • Benchmark Network for temperature and precipitation • Anchor points for USHCN and full COOP network • Long-Term Stability of Observing Site (50+ years) likely to be free from human encroachment • Sensors Calibrated to Traceable Standards • Planned redundancy of sensors and selected stations • Network Performance Monitoring - Hourly and Daily • Strong Science & Research Component