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Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems Johan Lahtivuori, Quality Manager at Mobile Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems Johan Lahtivuori, Quality Manager at Mobile Switching Systems Unit, L M Ericsson in Finland Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 1 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Outline l Introduction l Process Compliance – What is Quality – The role of Outline l Introduction l Process Compliance – What is Quality – The role of an Operation System – Quality Organisation – Quality Assurance l Quality Management – Planning & Reporting – Management by Facts l Quality Control – Why reviews? – Type of reviews – Preparation rate experience – Select your process with care – Check for compliance through audits and assessments – Type of findings l Preventive Quality Work – Risk analyses and follow-up – Prediction of possible problem products – Root Cause Analyses l Quality is an Endless Journey – The experience battery – A safe improvement journey … and some noted experiences Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 2 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality is. . . Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 3 Johan Quality is. . . Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 3 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Challenge: How to Get Happy Customers High Operation System Customer Satisfaction Customer Focus Commitment Challenge: How to Get Happy Customers High Operation System Customer Satisfaction Customer Focus Commitment Competence Right product on-time with right quality Low Resources Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 4 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Operation System - Base for Customer Satisfaction l Right Sized Operation System – – Operation System - Base for Customer Satisfaction l Right Sized Operation System – – – Efficient work processes Planning and tracking Quality control during design Verification after design A learning organization cus Fo er nt m sto itme e Cu mm nc e Co mpet Co s rce sou Re Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 5 uct d pro ith t igh me w ity R ti al on- ht qu rig High Customer Satisfaction Low Operation System Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Operation Systems Can Be Misused (= Not Used) l Too much: – – bureaucracy Operation Systems Can Be Misused (= Not Used) l Too much: – – bureaucracy police function statistics, statistics long and boring documents Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 6 l Too little: – – – no planning, only fire fighting unnecessary work re-inventing the wheels unclear tasks lack of information flow Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Our Operation System (= Quality System) l Available on Intranet (WWW), includes for example Our Operation System (= Quality System) l Available on Intranet (WWW), includes for example – – – Responsibilities & Authorities Operational Plans Improvement Programs Performance Follow-up Process Management and Process Environment – Project Management – Competence Management – Quality Assurance l ISO 9001 Certified Goals, Policies, Organisation Improvement, Metrics, Follow-up Processes & Project People – Preliminary ISO 9001: 2000 used internally Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 7 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality Organisation = Quality is Everyone’s Job Line Organisation Line Managers Process Owners Quality Quality Organisation = Quality is Everyone’s Job Line Organisation Line Managers Process Owners Quality Manager Product Committees, . . . Development Group Project Management Team Project Members Main Project Reviews Quality Coordinator = Quality Makers Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 8 Happy Customer Quality Coordinator = Quality Assurance Elements Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

No quality in, no quality out l Miracles with respect to quality usually not No quality in, no quality out l Miracles with respect to quality usually not happen in SW design – if the input is of low quality, so is the output l “Miracles” can happen from time aspect – overtime and deviations from agreed work flow – might result in employee dissatisfaction l it is a relief to get ready, not an accomplishment l What do we do? – Focus on requirement capturing and impact analyses – Develop the work flow towards an incremental approach: start when you can, control total project and changes – Cross functional teams: requirement, system, code and test aspects from beginning to the end Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 9 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality Assurance Means … to know and show where we are going (Quality Management) Quality Assurance Means … to know and show where we are going (Quality Management) to maintain law and order (Process Compliance) to control what will be delivered (Quality Control) to avoid problems and learn from mistakes (Preventive Quality Work) Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 10 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality Management to know and show where we are going Quality Assurance in SW Quality Management to know and show where we are going Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 11 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Project Management by Facts Results and Control Mechanisms Plans & Goals Project Specification Budget Project Management by Facts Results and Control Mechanisms Plans & Goals Project Specification Budget Time Plan Quality Assurance Plan Test Plan Costs Test Data Review Data Work, Work -> Actual Data Delivery Data Progress Data Faults Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 12 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality Planning l Annual goals for the line organisation l Strategies and actions how Quality Planning l Annual goals for the line organisation l Strategies and actions how to achieve the goals l Improvement programs established l Project specific goals and strategies are based on – line organisation visions and goals and – project sponsor’s goals l Priorities are defined per project – Quality <-> Cost <-> Functionality <-> Time l A Quality Assurance Plan deploys the Quality Assurance practices to the project Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 13 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Project Quality Reporting l Monthly Quality Reports by Quality Coordinator – Summary – Goals Project Quality Reporting l Monthly Quality Reports by Quality Coordinator – Summary – Goals and Results – Events in Quality Assurance: l Process Compliance l Preventive Quality Work l Quality Control – Proposals for Quality Improvements l Info shots and seminars for project members – Audit findings, review statistics, instructions, . . . Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 14 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Success Factors Clear goals and strategies An Awaren ess Quality Assurance in SW Engineering Success Factors Clear goals and strategies An Awaren ess Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 15 aly s es Actions Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Good news, bad news and statistics l It is easy to gather a lot Good news, bad news and statistics l It is easy to gather a lot of data, the tough thing is to use it l What do we do? – Provide the users of statistics with analyses of the data, not only the data – Connect the measurements to higher level strategies and visualise it, for example through a Balanced Scorecard approach Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 16 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality Control to control what will be delivered Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Quality Control to control what will be delivered Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 17 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Why reviews? l Would you like to drive in a city where no one Why reviews? l Would you like to drive in a city where no one care about the brakes? Brakes not inspected! l An inspected and approved document makes life easier for everyone l Hints on the road – Plan the reviews – Assign viewpoints, everyone does not need to read everything – Prepare, focus on major remarks – Require and use the feedback Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 18 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Type of Reviews Walkthrough Early on-track indication Get to know the contents Support Alternatives Type of Reviews Walkthrough Early on-track indication Get to know the contents Support Alternatives Early Reviews Approve Product Committees Technical Editors Area Experts Expert Reviews Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 19 Reviews (Inspections) Check / Approve Formal review process Preparations Inspection Record Remark Follow-up Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Defects per Inspected Page vrs Preparation Rate l There is a strong correlation between Defects per Inspected Page vrs Preparation Rate l There is a strong correlation between – the used preparation rate (pages read per hour during preparation) and – the number of major defects found per page. l More defects per page will be found if the preparation rate is kept low. l Optimum preparation rate seem to be at 3 -5 pages per hour. Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 20 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

w Hey, there is no timee for revievs! l Time is constant, the problems w Hey, there is no timee for revievs! l Time is constant, the problems could be – – delays to settle requirements, delays in previous phase it is hard to say NO! to changes in requirements effort estimations are faulty or incomplete pressure and progress are very closely related l delay of code delivery is more visible than delay of specifications l What do we do? – Team work and frequent (weekly) reviews of documents and code l requires investments like team building, – Controlled freedom to teams -> commitment – Increased understanding of benefits with reviews Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 21 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

But no problem, we have the testing. . . l Ratio of faults (x But no problem, we have the testing. . . l Ratio of faults (x %) slipping through tests to a live network is rather constant – the more faults we introduce, the more faults are delivered to customer (and vice versa!) In-service System Test Function Test l Faults should be eliminated as close to introduction as possible - invest early or suffer later High quality is achieved in design, testing makes it excellent Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 22 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Process Compliance to maintain law and order Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Process Compliance to maintain law and order Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 23 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

We shall choose proper way of working Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication We shall choose proper way of working Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 24 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

The chosen way will be checked for compliance l The chosen way is base The chosen way will be checked for compliance l The chosen way is base for – – Estimations Schedules and resource needs Goal setting Expectations and interfaces to associated processes l Known deviations shall be agreed on from start Budget Product Quality Customer Satisfaction Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 25 ON TIME Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Deviations Lead to Problems 50 Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 26 Deviations Lead to Problems 50 Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 26 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Process Compliance Checkpoints Project Audits Tollgate Assessments TG TG Project A Project Operation System Process Compliance Checkpoints Project Audits Tollgate Assessments TG TG Project A Project Operation System Process Audits Product Audits ISO 9001 Audits CMM Assessments Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 27 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Types of Audit Findings and Examples l Deviations – Reviews not done as agreed Types of Audit Findings and Examples l Deviations – Reviews not done as agreed l Shortcuts – Parallel working without endangering project goals l Opportunities for Improvements – Introduce a known good practice to decrease lead time l Need for Information – Not aware of all needed input documents for a design phase l Faults in Processes or Work Instructions – Inconsistency with associated process Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 28 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Preventive Quality Work to avoid problems and learn from mistakes Quality Assurance in SW Preventive Quality Work to avoid problems and learn from mistakes Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 29 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Risk Analyses and Follow-up Changes l Risk analysis is held at start of project Risk Analyses and Follow-up Changes l Risk analysis is held at start of project l Followed-up during the project l New risks added as needed Analyse risks, decide actions Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 30 Follow-up & close risks Add new risks and actions Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Prediction of Potential Problem Products l Based on facts / feelings regarding – impacts Prediction of Potential Problem Products l Based on facts / feelings regarding – impacts on single SW units – design base quality of modified SW units – stability of requirements – SW unit complexity – interface complexity l Actions initiated as needed – expert support, actions to settle requirements, review plan focus , . . . l Status is followed-up during project, for example by amount of faults in tests. Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 31 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Root Cause Analyses of Faults l Fault Description – How it was found and Root Cause Analyses of Faults l Fault Description – How it was found and the visual consequences – The actual fault (in SW, in interactions, …) l Root Causes – When introduced and why – Where should it have been found before testing – Why not found in testing l Counter Measures – Concrete and clear suggestions how similar faults could be avoided in the future. Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 32 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

Quality is. . . Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 33 Johan Quality is. . . Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 33 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

The Experience Battery Change & Improve Continue & Share - + Facts and Figures The Experience Battery Change & Improve Continue & Share - + Facts and Figures s aly An es A learning organisation: Good practices, common problems, common solutions, . . . Planning & Prediction Constants Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 34 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99

A “Safe” Improvement Journey … be prepared for the unexpected. . . Reserve time A “Safe” Improvement Journey … be prepared for the unexpected. . . Reserve time and resources Involve everybody Prioritize in the big picture Make frequent changes a way of life and support it Think return of investment in long term perspective Know your problems and ways to deal with them Quality Assurance in SW Engineering for Telecommunication Systems 35 Johan Lahtivuori 09. 11. 99