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QUAIL FARMING AS DIVERSIFICATION VENTURE IN RURAL INDIA By Dr. Avishek Biswas Senior Scientist QUAIL FARMING AS DIVERSIFICATION VENTURE IN RURAL INDIA By Dr. Avishek Biswas Senior Scientist Avian Nutrition & Feed Technology Division Central Avian Research Institute Izatnagar, Bareilly-243122 (U. P. ), India

Introduction l Class Family Genus Scientific name : : Aves Phasianidae Coturnix coturnix Japonica Introduction l Class Family Genus Scientific name : : Aves Phasianidae Coturnix coturnix Japonica l Hindi name : “Bater” l l l

History v First domesticated in Japan in 1595. v There are two species of History v First domesticated in Japan in 1595. v There are two species of quail in India: a) The black-breasted quail found in jungle (Coturnix Coromandelica) b) The brown-coloured Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica) v Introduced in India in 1974 from California. v There are 45 species of quail although the Japanese quail is the largest species v Why quail farming? l Hardy l Easy to handle l Adopt to varied environment l Fast growing bird and short generation interval l 3 -4 generations in a year l Pilot animal for genetic, nutritional and physiological studies. l As a source of egg and meat production l Popular in the countries like Japan, Hongkong, Singapore and France.

Advantages of quail farming v Requires minimum floor space v Needs low investment v Advantages of quail farming v Requires minimum floor space v Needs low investment v Quails are comparatively sturdy birds v Can be marketed at an early age ie. five weeks v Early sexual maturity - starts laying eggs in about six to seven weeks of age v High rate of egg laying -280 eggs per year v Quail meat is tastier than chicken and has less fat content. It promotes body and brain development in children. v Nutritionally, the quail eggs are on par with that of chicken eggs. Moreover, they contain less cholesterol. v Quail meat and eggs are a nutritious diet for pregnant and nursing mothers.

Quail farming as economically viable and technically feasible q Very short generation interval q Quail farming as economically viable and technically feasible q Very short generation interval q Quails are very robust to diseases q No vaccination is required q Low space requirement q Early maturity q Very high laying intensity- female starts laying at an age of 42 days Practical Utility q Quail offered an opportunity to alternative the chicken farming q It is useful as table delicacy q Pilot animal for research and education

Difference b/w Male & Female l Females are heavier (200 -250 g) than male Difference b/w Male & Female l Females are heavier (200 -250 g) than male (180 -200 g) l Female: long & pointed feathers with black speckles on the throat and upper breast. l Male: rusty brown throat and breast feathers, cloacal gland. Female/Male Japanese Quail

 Housing Deep litter system Ø 6 quails can be reared in a sq. Housing Deep litter system Ø 6 quails can be reared in a sq. ft. of floor space. Ø After 2 weeks, Quails can be reared in cages. Ø This will help to gain good body weight. Cage System ØEach unit is about 6 feet in length and 1 foot in width, and subdivided into 6 subunits. ØThe cages can be arranged up to 6 tiers high. ØBottom of the cage is fixed with removable wooden plates ØLong narrow feed troughs are placed in front of the cages. ØWater troughs are placed at the back of the cages. ØCommercial egg layers are usually housed in colonies of 10 -12 birds per cage. Age Cage Size No. of birds First 2 weeks 3 x 2. 5 x 1. 5 ft. 100 3 - 6 weeks 4 x 2. 5 x 1. 5 ft. 50

 Feed Management Feed can be formulated as follows. Feed Ingredients Maize Sorghum Deoiled Feed Management Feed can be formulated as follows. Feed Ingredients Maize Sorghum Deoiled Rice. Bran Groundnut Cake Sunflower Cake Soya meal Fishmeal Mineral Mixture Shell grit v v v Chick mash 0 -3 weeks 27 15 8 17 12. 5 8 10 2. 5 - Grower mash 4 -6 weeks 31 14 8 17 12. 5 10 2. 5 5 Feed material should be made of small particles A 5 weeks old quail consumes about 500 gms of feed Quails of 6 month old, consumes about 30 -35 gms of feed per day. Quails require about 400 gms feed for the production of 12 eggs. The particle size is reduced by grinding the feed for one more time.

Feeding l Classified as, Starter (0 -4 wks), Finisher (4 -6 wks) and layer Feeding l Classified as, Starter (0 -4 wks), Finisher (4 -6 wks) and layer or breeder (6 wks onwards). l Starter period is more crucial and needs special management and feeding care. l Balanced and higher nutrient is required l Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an average 1. 75 -1. 80 Nutrients Energy (Kcal /Kg) Protein % Calcium % Phosphorus % Broiler Quails Layer Quail (For Egg) Starter (0 -4 wks. ) Finisher (4 -6 wks. ) Starter (0 -4 wks. ) Grower (4 -5 wks. ) Layer (> 6 wks. ) 2800 2750 2700 27 0. 8 0. 3 24 0. 6 0. 3 24 0. 8 0. 3 20 0. 6 0. 3 19 3. 0 0. 45

Egg production Smaller eggs than chicken l Average at first egg production is about Egg production Smaller eggs than chicken l Average at first egg production is about 50 days l Average egg production 280 -300/year l Eggs laid between 3 -5 pm l Eggs are multicoloured (dark brown, white, buff, blue etc) l Eggs wt. is 10 -12 g l 7 -8% of the hen’s body weight. Composition of Quail Egg (Whole, Raw) l Water Protein Fat Carbohydrate Total ash Calorific Value 74% 13% 11% 1% 1% 649 k J/100 g liquid

Quail meat Dressed quail meat weighs 70 -73% weight of live quail. Ø Ø Quail meat Dressed quail meat weighs 70 -73% weight of live quail. Ø Ø Hundred grams of quail meat is usually obtained from a quail weighing 140 g The Comparision in Composition (Raw Meat) (Ref. : Pande and Srivastava, 1987) Moisture Protein Fat Carbohydrate Minerals Quail 73. 93% 20. 54% 3. 85% 0. 56% 1. 12% Chicken 73. 87% 20. 66% 3. 61% 0. 78% 1. 08% What is the acceptance or popularity of Quail meat and egg? v Quail meat / egg are now widely accepted in India. v Small size of quail egg as alternative to chicken egg. v They make attractive snacks or salad ingredients. v Value possible addition with like brined is products egg pickles, quail eggs etc.

Is quail meat preferred over chicken meat? ü YES q According to Gourmets, it Is quail meat preferred over chicken meat? ü YES q According to Gourmets, it is tastier than chicken. q Quail meat promotes body and brain development in children q Best balanced feed for pregnant and nursing mothers. q Less fat content (Low calorific value) but more of phospholipds. Is quail farming a suitable option in terms of meat and egg production? • Early marketing age • Early sexual maturity • • High rate of lay (280 -300 eggs per year) Occupation of a minimum floor space • Eight to ten birds can be kept in the same space housing a single chicken

Incubation and hatching o Incubators that are used for hatching chicken eggs can be Incubation and hatching o Incubators that are used for hatching chicken eggs can be used o A wire mesh or grid of 1. 5 x 1 inch should be fitted on the setter trays o Incubation period for quail eggs is 18 days. o Eggs should be stored at 130 C at 80% RH for 5 -7 days o Fumigated with formaldehyde gas for 20 minutes before storage. o Incubation requirement are as follows: Duration (Days) Temperature (deg. F) Humidity (%) 0 -14 99. 5 60 15 to 18 98. 5 70 Turning of Eggs Through 45 deg. 5 -6 times a day. Not required

If you are going for such operations of producing chicks at your farm, following If you are going for such operations of producing chicks at your farm, following information may be of help to you: q Male / female ratio in the parent stock should be 1: 2 or less. q during evening hours (Between 3 to 6 PM). q Fertile eggs from the female of age 10 to 20 weeks can be collected q Eggs should be collected very frequently and carefully incubation. Management of quail chicks Ø The day old quail chicks usually weigh 8 -10 g. Ø The quail chicks need more temperature. Ø leads to clustering of young ones, which results in high mortality.

Quail diseases q q q q Quails are very sensitive during first 2 wks Quail diseases q q q q Quails are very sensitive during first 2 wks of their life Quails are not vaccinated No dewormer used Resistant to 8 starins of Eimeria pathogenic to chicken Brooder pneumonia reported in quails (use calcium [email protected] kg/tonnes feed). Ulcerative enteritis (Clostridium colinum) Sterptomycin, bacitricin, and neomycin @50 -100 g/tonnes of feed. Mortality rate 5 -10%

Where to get parent birds or adult quails? 1. Director, Central Avian Research Institute, Where to get parent birds or adult quails? 1. Director, Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Dist. Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, Pin: 243122 2. A. V. M Hatcheries & Poultry Breeding Center Pvt. Ltd. 25 / 327, Rangai Gauder Street, Coimbatore Pin: 641001 3. Director, Central Poultry Breeding Farm, Govt of India located at a. b. Hessarghatta, Bangalore (North)-560088 c. Nayapalli, Bhubaneshwar-751012 d. 4. Aarey colony, Goregaon (E), Mumbai. - 400065 Industrial Area, Chandigarh-160002 M/s Venkateshwar Hacheries Pvt. Ltd. Quail Unit at Naigaon, Pune, C/o Dr. B. V. Rao, IPMT At/PO - Urulikanchan, Pune – 412202

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