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Putting Mc. Kinney-Vento into Practice Lorain – Erie – Huron Counties Fall Training September Putting Mc. Kinney-Vento into Practice Lorain – Erie – Huron Counties Fall Training September 23, 2010 National Center for Homeless Education Diana Bowman, Director Ph: 336 -315 -7453 E-mail: [email protected] org

How many children experience homelessness? 10% of all children living in poverty (Urban Institute) How many children experience homelessness? 10% of all children living in poverty (Urban Institute) 1 in 50 children will experience homelessness (NCFH) Over 40% of all children who are homeless are under the age of 5 Over 956, 000 reported enrolled in school 2008 -2009 16, 059 reported enrolled in Ohio in 20082009 National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Where do homeless children live in Ohio? Ohio Primary Nighttime Residence by Category SY Where do homeless children live in Ohio? Ohio Primary Nighttime Residence by Category SY 2008 -09 Doubled-up 60% Sheltered 36% Doubled-up Sheltered Hotels/Motels Unsheltered Hotels/Motels 3% Unsheltered 1% National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Educational barriers Lack of school stability and educational continuity Stress, hunger, fatigue Enrollment requirements Educational barriers Lack of school stability and educational continuity Stress, hunger, fatigue Enrollment requirements (school records, immunizations, proof of residence and guardianship) Lack of access to programs Lack of transportation Lack of school supplies, clothing, etc. Prejudice and misunderstanding National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Mc. Kinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act Reauthorized in 2001 as Title X, Part C of Mc. Kinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act Reauthorized in 2001 as Title X, Part C of ESEA Main themes: üSchool access üSchool stability üSupport for academic success üChild-centered, best interest decision making üCritical role of the local homeless liaison Currently under reauthorization For updates: www. naehcy. org National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Who is Covered? Children who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence— ◦ Who is Covered? Children who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence— ◦ Sharing the housing of others due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or similar reason ◦ Living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, camping grounds due to lack of adequate alternative accommodations ◦ Living in emergency or transitional shelters ◦ Abandoned in hospitals National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Who is Covered? (cont. ) ◦ Awaiting foster care placement ◦ Living in a Who is Covered? (cont. ) ◦ Awaiting foster care placement ◦ Living in a public or private place not designed for humans to live ◦ Living in cars, parks, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, etc. ◦ Migratory children living in above circumstances ◦ Unaccompanied youth who are experiencing the above circumstances National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Huh? Stumpers When is doubled up not homeless? ◦ Why did the family move Huh? Stumpers When is doubled up not homeless? ◦ Why did the family move in together? Crisis or by mutual choice as a plan for mutual benefit? ◦ How permanent is the living arrangement meant to be? ◦ Where would the family live if not doubling up? ◦ Is the living situation fixed, regular, and adequate? Is there time limit on how long a family is considered homeless? ◦ Duration of homelessness varies greatly ◦ Is the living situation fixed, regular, and adequate? National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Determining Eligibility Obtain information Analyze against the definition ◦ ◦ Does the living situation Determining Eligibility Obtain information Analyze against the definition ◦ ◦ Does the living situation fit one of the examples? Is the living situation fixed, regular, and adequate? Seek assistance (State Coordinator, NCHE, colleagues) Guiding principle: case-by-case determination National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Peer-to-Peer Tonya Reed brought her two children to enroll in school. She said she’s Peer-to-Peer Tonya Reed brought her two children to enroll in school. She said she’s just moved back to her parents’ house. Are the kids eligible for services under MV? What additional information would be helpful in making a determination of eligibility? How would you obtain this information? National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

The first step is identification … Outreach is key – posters, key contacts (schools, The first step is identification … Outreach is key – posters, key contacts (schools, shelters, hotels, motels, campgrounds, churches, social services, law enforcement, food banks, medical clinics, laundromats) Make schools welcoming environments School staff awareness Residency enrollment form School district parent handbook Data collection - see where children come from Posters available from NCHE – free in limited quantities National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Where can homeless children attend school? Children and youth experiencing homelessness can, according to Where can homeless children attend school? Children and youth experiencing homelessness can, according to their best interest: enroll in any public school that students living in the same attendance area are eligible to attend stay in their school of origin School of origin — school attended when permanently housed or in which last enrolled Best interest — keep homeless students in their school of origin, to the extent feasible, unless this is against the parents’ or guardians’ wishes National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Feasibility — USDE Sample Criteria Feasibility criteria focus on the best interest of the Feasibility — USDE Sample Criteria Feasibility criteria focus on the best interest of the student Continuity of instruction Age of the child or youth Safety of the child or youth Length of stay at the shelter Likely area where family will find permanent housing Student’s need for special instructional programs Impact of commute on education School placement of siblings Time remaining in the school year 2004 Non-Regulatory Guidance, p. 14 National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

School Selection Students can stay in their school of origin the entire time they School Selection Students can stay in their school of origin the entire time they are homeless, and until the end of any academic year in which they move into permanent housing If a student becomes homeless in between academic years, he or she may continue in the school of origin for the following academic year If a student is sent to a school other than that requested by a parent or guardian, the district must provide a written explanation to the parent or guardian of its decision and the right to appeal NCHE’s Guiding the Discussion on School Selection: http: //center. serve. org/nche/downloads/briefs/sch_sel_checklis t. pdf National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Peer-to-Peer Last December, the Marquez family lost its housing due to a fire and Peer-to-Peer Last December, the Marquez family lost its housing due to a fire and moved in with friends. Over the summer, the father’s brother let the family move into a finished room over his garage. The brother lives in the district adjoining the district where the school of origin is located. The parents want their sons, Juan and Pedro, to continue in their school of origin. Are the boys still eligible under MV? Should the boys continue in their school of origin? What additional information do you need? National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Transportation LEAs must provide homeless students with transportation to and from their school of Transportation LEAs must provide homeless students with transportation to and from their school of origin, at a parent’s or guardian’s request (or at the liaison’s request for unaccompanied youth) If the student’s temporary residence and the school of origin are in the same LEA, that LEA must provide or arrange transportation If the student is living outside of the school of origin’s LEA, the LEA where the student is living and the school of origin’s LEA must determine how to divide the responsibility and cost, or they must share the responsibility and cost equally National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Peer-to-Peer What are some strategies your school district uses to arrange transportation to and Peer-to-Peer What are some strategies your school district uses to arrange transportation to and from the school of origin expeditiously? How do you manage cross district transportation? Think of one out-of-the box idea that would address a challenge for providing transportation for homeless children and youth. National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Enrollment Homeless children and youth have the right to enroll in school immediately, even Enrollment Homeless children and youth have the right to enroll in school immediately, even if they do not have required documents, such as school or medical records, proof of residency, proof of guardianship, or other documents If a student does not have immunizations, or immunization or medical records, the liaison must assist in obtaining them, and the student must be enrolled in the interim The terms “enroll” and “enrollment” include attending classes and participating fully in school activities. National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Enrollment (cont. ) Enrolling schools must obtain school records, but students must be enrolled Enrollment (cont. ) Enrolling schools must obtain school records, but students must be enrolled in school while records are obtained Schools must make records available when a child or youth enters a new school or district SEAs and LEAs must develop, review, and revise policies to remove barriers to the enrollment and retention of homeless children and youth Federal law supersedes state and local laws where there is a conflict [U. S. Constitution, Article VI] National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Dispute Resolution When a dispute arises, the parent or guardian must be provided with Dispute Resolution When a dispute arises, the parent or guardian must be provided with a written explanation of the school’s decision, including the right to appeal When a dispute over enrollment arises, the student must be admitted immediately to the school of choice while the dispute is being resolved The school must refer the student, parent, or guardian to the local liaison The liaison will implement the State’s dispute resolution process National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Classroom Challenges Mobility – loss of what is familiar Hunger, stress, fatigue Lack of Classroom Challenges Mobility – loss of what is familiar Hunger, stress, fatigue Lack of clothing and supplies Lack of educational continuity Behind in school Lack of credits Stigmatization Non-identification No appropriate place to do homework National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Strategies Ensure basic needs are met Orient the child to class routines Connect the Strategies Ensure basic needs are met Orient the child to class routines Connect the child with a “buddy” Enroll the child in extra curricular activities Arrange supplemental instruction Provide opportunities to make up credits Make every day count Be aware of “warning signs” of possible homelessness Provide opportunities to do homework in school National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Homeless Unaccompanied Youth Definition: a youth who meets the definition of homeless and is Homeless Unaccompanied Youth Definition: a youth who meets the definition of homeless and is not in the physical custody of a parent or guardian National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Huh? Stumpers Are all unaccompanied youth considered homeless? How about emancipated youth? Youth doubled Huh? Stumpers Are all unaccompanied youth considered homeless? How about emancipated youth? Youth doubled up without parents? Couch-surfing? Even youth who chose to leave their home? ◦ Is the youth living in a situation that is not fixed, regular, and adequate? ◦ Focus on the living situation, not the cause. ◦ In many cases, there’s more than meets the eye to the youth’s situation at home. National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Support for Unaccompanied Youth Liaisons must help unaccompanied youth choose and enroll in a Support for Unaccompanied Youth Liaisons must help unaccompanied youth choose and enroll in a school, after considering the youth’s wishes, and inform the youth of his or her appeal rights School personnel must be made aware of the specific needs of runaway and homeless youth National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Peer to Peer Chris, a sixteen-year-old, has just come to your school to enroll. Peer to Peer Chris, a sixteen-year-old, has just come to your school to enroll. He said he left home because he can’t get along with his stepfather and is staying with a friend. His mother says he has a perfectly good home and the school should not enroll him. Should you enroll him? How should schools help unaccompanied homeless youth? Educational needs? Beyond education? National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Strategies for Unaccompanied Youth Train staff who work with youth (enrollment staff, secretaries, guidance Strategies for Unaccompanied Youth Train staff who work with youth (enrollment staff, secretaries, guidance counselors, principals, and teachers) on the definition, rights, and needs of unaccompanied youth Develop caretaker forms, self-enrollment, and other forms to replace typical proof of guardianship Become familiar with state and local policies related to unaccompanied youth National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Strategies for Unaccompanied Youth, cont. Provide opportunities to enroll in diverse learning opportunities, yet Strategies for Unaccompanied Youth, cont. Provide opportunities to enroll in diverse learning opportunities, yet don’t assume youth need alternative learning programs Provide a “safe place” to store belongings Provide a trained mentor Permit exceptions to school policies on class schedules, tardiness, absences, and credits Assist with credit accrual and recovery; provide opportunities to make up credits National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Access to Higher Education Homeless youth may be designated as Independent Students in order Access to Higher Education Homeless youth may be designated as Independent Students in order to apply for federal financial aid without parental information (Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007) ◦ Verification Local Liaisons RHYA Shelter Providers Third Parties Financial Aid Administrators – must use MV definition Fee waivers for ACT Summary of Homeless Access Provisions: www. naehcy. org/dl/avg 1011 summary. doc National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Preschool-Aged Children Liaisons must ensure that families and children have access to Head Start, Preschool-Aged Children Liaisons must ensure that families and children have access to Head Start, Even Start, and other public preschool programs administered by the LEA Head Start legislation requires that homeless children are prioritized for enrollment MV and IDEA staff must coordinate on Child Find activities Identification tip: When enrolling school-aged children, ask about younger siblings who may be eligible for preschool programs National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Access to Services Students experiencing homelessness must have access to all educational services for Access to Services Students experiencing homelessness must have access to all educational services for which they are eligible (MV) IDEA requires timely assessment, inclusion, and continuity of services for homeless children and youth who have disabilities Undocumented children and youth are covered by the Mc. Kinney-Vento Act just as other students (Plyler vs. Doe 1982) US Department of Agriculture: Liaisons and shelter directors can secure free school meals for students by providing student names and effective dates National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Title I and Homelessness Homeless children and youth are automatically eligible for Title IA Title I and Homelessness Homeless children and youth are automatically eligible for Title IA services Title I programs must reserve (set aside) funds to serve homeless students Services to homeless students in both Title I and non-Title I schools that are comparable to services provided to non-homeless students in Title I schools Services not ordinarily provided to Title I students can be offered to homeless students if those services are not available from other sources National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Appropriate Expenditures for Title I Set Aside Funds for Homeless Students Instructional services Tutoring Appropriate Expenditures for Title I Set Aside Funds for Homeless Students Instructional services Tutoring programs in shelters Eyeglasses Counseling services Extended learning time School uniforms Student fees for educational activities Not for: Transportation to and from the school of origin Prom dresses Rent and utilities for families National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Putting it all Together: Role of the Local Liaison Identification Awareness Enrollment Linking with Putting it all Together: Role of the Local Liaison Identification Awareness Enrollment Linking with services Informing parents/youth of educational rights Resolve disputes Collaborate with programs and agencies Assist unaccompanied youth National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

Good data helps to make the work manageable … Helps with Understanding your community Good data helps to make the work manageable … Helps with Understanding your community Identifying needs ◦ Determining Title I Homeless Set Aside amount Making the case for additional funding Prioritizing your activities and time Creating a foundation for collaboration Educating Homeless Children and Youth: Conducting Needs Assessments and Evaluating Services A Guide for SEAs, LEAs, and Local Schools: www. serve. org/nche/ibt/sc_eval. php National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche

For more information NCHE website: www. serve. org/nche NCHE helpline: 800 -308 -2145 or For more information NCHE website: www. serve. org/nche NCHE helpline: 800 -308 -2145 or [email protected] org Other national organizations: NAEHCY (www. naehcy. org) NLCHP (www. nlchp. org) A Unique Professional Development Opportunity NAEHCY’s 22 th Annual Conference November 6 -9, 2010 – Houston, TX http: //www. naehcy. org National Center for Homeless Education – www. serve. org/nche