Скачать презентацию Public Relations Chapter 14 2009 The Mc Скачать презентацию Public Relations Chapter 14 2009 The Mc

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Public Relations Chapter 14 © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Public Relations Chapter 14 © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1

CHAPTER OUTLINE • • Defining Public Relations A Short History of Public Relations in CHAPTER OUTLINE • • Defining Public Relations A Short History of Public Relations in the Digital Age Organization of the Public Relations Industry • Departments and Staff • The Public Relations Program • Economics 2

DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS (1 of 2) • Similar to, but essentially different from, advertising DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS (1 of 2) • Similar to, but essentially different from, advertising – Both try to persuade; both use mass media • Main differences – PR is management function; advertising is marketing function – PR uses all forms of communication; advertising does not use interpersonal – PR is not paid for; advertising is 3

DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS (2 of 2) • Promotion vs. publicity • Public relations practitioners DEFINING PUBLIC RELATIONS (2 of 2) • Promotion vs. publicity • Public relations practitioners – Work with public opinion – Are concerned with communication • Target publics (plural) – Perform a management function • World Assembly of Public Relations definition 4

A SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (1 of 2) • • • American Revolution A SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (1 of 2) • • • American Revolution Ivy Lee Creel Committee (President Wilson) Edward Bernays Carl Byoir Fireside Chats (President Roosevelt) 5

A SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (2 of 2) • Social changes prompted growth A SHORT HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS (2 of 2) • Social changes prompted growth of PR – Corporate social responsibility – Increasing consumerism – Complexity of modern organizations – Population growth and workplace specialization • Spin doctor – Specialist in political campaigns and government activities 6

PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE DIGITAL AGE • The Internet has added new dimensions to PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE DIGITAL AGE • The Internet has added new dimensions to Public Relations 7

Communicating with the Audience • Corporate web sites are first line of communication – Communicating with the Audience • Corporate web sites are first line of communication – Organizations, shareholders, consumers • Interactive features of Web 2. 0 8

Communicating with the Media • PR practitioners use the Internet to streamline their media Communicating with the Media • PR practitioners use the Internet to streamline their media efforts – E-mail press releases – E-mail to communicate with journalists – Distribute information via the Web – Target story ideas and press releases to appropriate sources – Database software and e-mail merge 9

New Channels of Feedback • PR agencies use web for feedback on companies, products, New Channels of Feedback • PR agencies use web for feedback on companies, products, issues – Ewatch – Technorati – Epinions – Bizrate – Traditional PR research also done online • Surveys • Focus groups 10

ORGANIZATION OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY (1 of 2) • Internal (in-house) PR department ORGANIZATION OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY (1 of 2) • Internal (in-house) PR department – An arm of management – Advantages • Can work on short notice; more in-depth knowledge of company; less costly • External PR agencies – Advantages • Fresh ideas; objective viewpoints; more services; can bring prestige 11

ORGANIZATION OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY ( 2 of 2) • There are many ORGANIZATION OF THE PUBLIC RELATIONS INDUSTRY ( 2 of 2) • There are many main areas of PR efforts or specialization, including – – – – Business Government/politics Non-profit Entertainment/sports International Crisis management Environmental 12

DEPARTMENTS AND STAFF • Internal PR departments vary; PR director often reports to company DEPARTMENTS AND STAFF • Internal PR departments vary; PR director often reports to company president – May have people in charge of press relations, internal communications, community relations • External PR agencies are more complex; similar to advertising agencies – – – Creative services Research Publicity and marketing Accounts Administration 13

THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM • A typical PR campaign involves several stages. – Stages THE PUBLIC RELATIONS PROGRAM • A typical PR campaign involves several stages. – Stages are separately defined, but in practice are a continuing and overlapping process 14

Information Gathering • Key first step in the process – Search organizational records, trade Information Gathering • Key first step in the process – Search organizational records, trade journals, polls, surveys, advisory committees, personal contacts, and more 15

Planning • Strategic plans – Long-term general goals • Tactical plans – More specific Planning • Strategic plans – Long-term general goals • Tactical plans – More specific – Detail tasks for achieving the strategic goals • Management by objectives (MBO) – Strong trend in PR in recent years – Set observable and measurable goals, and allocate resources to achieve those goals 16

Communication • PR personnel become the source of the communication • The messages are Communication • PR personnel become the source of the communication • The messages are sent using the desired channels – Interviews, press releases, paid advertising, speeches, staged events, blogs, billboards, etc 17

Evaluation • How well did the campaign work? – Questionnaires, polls, surveys, panel discussions, Evaluation • How well did the campaign work? – Questionnaires, polls, surveys, panel discussions, meetings, audience responses – Measure relative success of reaching the stated goal • Different aspects may be measured – Volume of coverage may not mean the campaign was successful – More sophisticated analyses needed to measure impact on audience 18

ECONOMICS • Total PR expenditures are hard to measure – Top 50 US PR ECONOMICS • Total PR expenditures are hard to measure – Top 50 US PR firms collected $1. 1 billion in 2006 • PR industry dominated by giant firms owned by ad agencies • Revenue earned in various ways – Fee for service; monthly retainers; hourly fees; time plus expenses 19