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PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN WILDLAND RECREATION MANAGEMENT & PLANNING (Assignment #5) Credit for content of PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN WILDLAND RECREATION MANAGEMENT & PLANNING (Assignment #5) Credit for content of many of these slides & their organization plus results of MDNR research: Dr. Maureen Mc. Donough, Dept. of Forestry, MSU

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS n n n The Administrative Procedure Act (1946) National Environmental Policy Act LEGAL REQUIREMENTS n n n The Administrative Procedure Act (1946) National Environmental Policy Act (1969) Council on Environmental Quality Regulations

CEQ REGULATIONS n n n Environmental regulations made available before decisions are made Encourage CEQ REGULATIONS n n n Environmental regulations made available before decisions are made Encourage and facilitate public involvement in decisions that affect the quality of the human environment Make diligent efforts to involve the public in preparing and implementing NEPA procedures

CEQ REGULATIONS n n n Allow the public to help shape the content of CEQ REGULATIONS n n n Allow the public to help shape the content of the study by participating in scoping Give the public an opportunity to review the analysis and any underlying documents Require the agency to respond to public comments and make these comments available to the public in a final document

RESULTS OF FEDERAL LEGAL REQUIREMENTS n n Public expectations for procedural rights 3 newspaper RESULTS OF FEDERAL LEGAL REQUIREMENTS n n Public expectations for procedural rights 3 newspaper articles as examples n n MI Dept. of Env. Quality MI School Board Snowmobiles in Yellowstone Part of agency culture: your ROS/LAC readings stress importance

INGHAM CO. PARKS DEPT. MISSION STATEMENT “The Ingham County Parks Board and Department will INGHAM CO. PARKS DEPT. MISSION STATEMENT “The Ingham County Parks Board and Department will provide quality outdoor recreation opportunities and facilities for all segments of our population. We will strive to enhance the quality of life for park visitors and county residents through active citizen involvement, planned acquisition, preservation, and professional management of park lands. ”

WHY NOT PUBLIC “INVOLVEMENT”? n n n “Participation” is stronger & clearer, more active WHY NOT PUBLIC “INVOLVEMENT”? n n n “Participation” is stronger & clearer, more active It’s the term the agencies are using Participation is really a spectrum of behaviors (reading: no participation to formal partnerships, citizen boards, planning commissions) n In-between: labor, public comment, etc.

OBJECTIVES OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n n Meet legal requirements Information exchange Conflict resolution Better OBJECTIVES OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n n Meet legal requirements Information exchange Conflict resolution Better decision making

WHO IS THE PUBLIC IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION? n n n No “general public” for WHO IS THE PUBLIC IN PUBLIC PARTICIPATION? n n n No “general public” for planning Many different publics (reading: stakeholders) Publics vary depending on the issue

HOW TO IDENTIFY PUBLICS (reading: “stakeholders”) n Interest groups n n Formally organized groups HOW TO IDENTIFY PUBLICS (reading: “stakeholders”) n Interest groups n n Formally organized groups whose role is to serve as surrogates for a much larger group of people who feel represented by these groups Those directly affected

WHAT MAKES IT WORK n Insure divergent interests are heard n n n Not WHAT MAKES IT WORK n Insure divergent interests are heard n n n Not exclusionary (reading: principle of “inclusivity”) Federal requirements to include minority and low income communities Well publicized access to decision making process Interactive: not one-way Fairness

Who participates now? n 90. 9 % Caucasian n n 93. 8% male n Who participates now? n 90. 9 % Caucasian n n 93. 8% male n n (78. 6%) (51%) 76% over 40 years old (87. 3% over 30) n (64%)

WHY AREN’T PEOPLE PARTICIPATING? n Interest vs. opportunity WHY AREN’T PEOPLE PARTICIPATING? n Interest vs. opportunity

INTEREST? n n Too busy Satisfied with decisions made by experts Don’t have sufficient INTEREST? n n Too busy Satisfied with decisions made by experts Don’t have sufficient knowledge and expertise to participate Experts should make decisions

OPPORTUNITY? n No idea that opportunities to participate exist. “We are totally unaware of OPPORTUNITY? n No idea that opportunities to participate exist. “We are totally unaware of forestry agencies. ”

“We are in the phone book. They just need to call. ” (Forester) “Who “We are in the phone book. They just need to call. ” (Forester) “Who ya gonna call? ” (Citizen)

PLANNING OBLIGATIONS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n Demonstrate all interests have been taken seriously PLANNING OBLIGATIONS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n Demonstrate all interests have been taken seriously

n n n “The DNR holds the obligatory public hearings and then does what n n n “The DNR holds the obligatory public hearings and then does what they have already decided. ” “All too often the decisions are made in Lansing prior to public input. ” “I would really like to know what use the DNR is making of the conclusions reached in these meetings. ”

PLANNING OBLIGATIONS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n n Present information in such a way that PLANNING OBLIGATIONS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION n n Present information in such a way that publics can draw informed conclusions Two PP methods on display: Feb. 26 n “Open House”: Isle Royale NP revised fishery, water resource, and wilderness & backcountry mgt. plans n n Rm. 183 NR Bldg. , 6: 30 -9 pm “Public Meeting”: Huron-Manistee NF Plan Revision Process n Rm. 221 NR Bldg. , 6 -10 pm

CRITERIA FOR A FAIR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS n n Equal access Representation Benefit all CRITERIA FOR A FAIR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS n n Equal access Representation Benefit all citizens equally Neutrality*** n n Accuracy, logic, honesty Influence*** n n Opportunity to voice concerns Direct participation in decision making Serious consideration of citizen input Influence on decision outcomes

ISSUES n n The selection of public participation methods Perceptions of fairness, equity and ISSUES n n The selection of public participation methods Perceptions of fairness, equity and justice The role of publics in decision making Challenges to professional autonomy

SELECTION OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION METHODS n Assignment 5 n n n Why are you SELECTION OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION METHODS n Assignment 5 n n n Why are you doing this? (purpose) What is your overall strategy? What methods will be used for: n n n n Generating public interest Keeping stakeholders informed of mgt. activities Identifying issues and concerns Resolving concerns or conflicts Monitoring & evaluating the mgt. plan over time Help from the readings: Box 10. 2, 10. 6, 10. 8 + 3 words Handout: example from Huron-Manistee NF