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Public opinion regarding development co-operation March 2008 Public opinion regarding development co-operation March 2008

Contents n Purpose and methods n Survey summary n Results n n Attitudes toward Contents n Purpose and methods n Survey summary n Results n n Attitudes toward Estonian development co-operation n n Awareness of development co-operation Readiness to deliver aid independently Annexes n Description of the samples and methods used; statistical margin of error n Questionnaire used n Tables 2

Purpose and methods n The purpose of the survey was to chart the awareness Purpose and methods n The purpose of the survey was to chart the awareness about development co-operation among the population and opinion leaders. Where possible, the results of the general population survey were compared with the results of the survey conducted in 2005. * n Period: n n n Population: from 4 -6 March and from 18 -20 March 2008 Opinion leaders: from 5 -10 March 2008 Method: n n n Population: CATI Omnibus Opinion leaders: ad hoc telephone poll Target group of those surveyed and sample size: n Population: 1, 001 Estonian inhabitants aged 15 -74. 40% of the sample is made up of people who have only a mobile phone (no landline). ** n Opinion leaders: 150 politicians, senior civil servants, journalists and representatives of the third sector n The contracting authority of the survey is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The survey findings are property of the contracting authority. *Conducted by Turu-uuringute AS. 3 **According to TNS Emor Omnibus of 2007, 44% of Estonian population aged 15 -74 has only a mobile phone.

Survey summary n Compared to 2005, the percentage of people interested in global issues Survey summary n Compared to 2005, the percentage of people interested in global issues has grown from 57% to 67% of the population. Concurrently, the share of those actively engaged in global and world development issues has not changed (5%). Similarly to the previous survey, people with a higher education and income and people who are entrepreneurs and of Estonian nationality make up a greater share among those who are interested in the world more widely. Across the age groups, those aged 15 -19 and 40 -49 take more interest in global issues than average, and those aged 2029 take less interest than average. n In comparison with the previous survey, the general public could mention fewer key words pertaining to development co-operation. As the previous survey was conducted immediately after the tsunami in South-East Asia and floods in western Estonia, the majority of keywords at that time were associated with those two events. This time, 90% of the respondents could not cite a single keyword. Among the keywords, similarly to the previous time, respondents mentioned “co-operation”, “assistance, ” “humanitarian aid” and “assistance to less developed countries”. As a new topic, the environment and related keywords emerged: environmental problems, environmental protection, green thinking, global warming, and energy problems. These are topics practically daily covered in the media. n Among opinion leaders, similarly to the previous survey, a much greater number of keywords were connected with development co-operation. Only 16% of the respondents could not cite a single keyword. This figure was highest among people in the media field, 32% of whom could not associate development co-operation with anything. Similarly to the previous time, the keywords most frequently mentioned were “consulting”, “exchange of experiences”, “partnership”, and “training” (20%). In addition a number of different countries were mentioned: Georgia, Ukraine, African countries and Moldova. Respondents also mentioned the fact that Estonia, formerly a recipient country, has now become a country that itself provides assistance. The rest of the keywords were mentioned by 5% or fewer of the respondents. 4

Survey summary n The awareness of the term “fair trade” was surveyed for the Survey summary n The awareness of the term “fair trade” was surveyed for the first time in 2008. As one could expect, the opinion leaders were much more conversant with this term than the population in general: 13% of the opinion leaders and 60% of the population had not heard the term. Twenty-eight per cent of the population and 31% of the opinion leaders had heard the term without knowing its exact meaning and 8% of the population and 41% of opinion leaders knew the principles of fair trade as well as the trademark Fairtrade. Only 4% of the population and 12% of opinion leaders have bought fair trade products at least once. n Lack of familiarity with the term fair trade is more common among non-Estonians (73% compared to 54% of Estonians) and people aged 20 -29 and 60 -74. Among people with basic and secondary education, the number is the same as the average for the population, while among people with higher education it is somewhat less (54%). Across the social status, entrepreneurs have a greater-than-average awareness. The income of people does not make a difference in their awareness in the given issue. Among opinion leaders, the number of those who do not know the term is greater among the journalists (26%). The group that is the most well-informed about the term (and the most likely to have bought fair trade products) are representatives of the third sector. A plurality of politicians (42%) know the principles of fair trade, while 35% have only heard the term. n Up-to-dateness with Estonian development co-operation has not increased from three years ago. Eighty-one per cent of the population are well-informed about the topic or “informed to a certain extent”. Of those, 7% are well-informed and 17% do not know anything about the topic. The socio-demographic characteristics of people who are not informed about the topic are the same as indicated the previous survey: while the contingent that is not informed is bigger among non. Estonians and among those with a lower income and education level. Across the age groups, the emphasis has from those aged 20 -39 dropped to those aged 15 -29, of whom one in four people is not at all informed about the topic. Of opinion leaders, only 1% does not know anything about the topic and that is made up of the representatives of the media field. 5

Survey summary n As examples of Estonian development co-operation, Afghanistan was the most frequently Survey summary n As examples of Estonian development co-operation, Afghanistan was the most frequently mentioned by inhabitants (a number of them mentioned it in connection with medical aid), followed by Africa (either in general or in terms of concrete countries: Sudan, Kenya, Somalia), Iraq and Georgia. The tsunami in Asia was mentioned by 5% of the population. The opinion leaders mentioned Georgia predominantly (primarily in connection with the consulting in the government sector, developing e-state) as well as Afghanistan (some mentioned assistance to the medical field, similarly to the population), and Africa and Moldova. n The opinion leaders first and foremost (97%), and likewise three out of every four people in the general public, believe that Estonia has to provide assistance to poorer and less developed countries. Among the population, the support for development co-operation has grown by 11% within 3 years and that can be attributed to the higher living standards. With regard to development co-operation, 21% of the population and 1% of opinion leaders are of a more dismissive opinion. Among those who do not consider rendering assistance necessary there averagely more non-Estonians (35%), people aged 60 -74 (27%), inhabitants of Tallinn and of other bigger cities (because of the bigger share of non-Estonians in those cities) and pensioners. Level of income accounts for only very slight differences between the attitudes of people in the given issue. n The arguments in favour of Estonian development co-operation are a bit different in the case of inhabitants and opinion leaders. The inhabitants mentioned assistance to people in need, a moral obligation to render assistance and the benefits for developing relations with countries providing assistance. Although the given question was posed in a slightly different way, the first three arguments have remained the same. Three per cent of the inhabitants also spontaneously mentioned that assistance should be rendered due to the fact that Estonia has in years past received a great amount of assistance. The opinion leaders most often cited the moral obligation to render assistance, ensuring peace and security through development co-operation, and the fact that Estonia is sufficiently developed to afford to render assistance to others. Here, the politicians emphasized the security aspect, which was also cited by the third sector more often than average. The politicians also slightly more often cited the benefits that development co-operation could hold for Estonia’s international reputation. 6

Survey summary n Those who found that Estonia should not engage in development co-operation Survey summary n Those who found that Estonia should not engage in development co-operation were predominantly (81%) of the opinion that there are many people in need in Estonia who should be given aid. n Although the amount allocated for development co-operation by Estonia has grown considerably in three years (from 8 million kroons or from 6 kroons per resident to 180 million kroons or 130 kroons per resident per year), the share of inhabitants who support further increasing the amount (from 20% to 27%) has only slightly grown. One-half of all inhabitants would keep it at the same level and only 6% would like to reduce the amount (instead of the earlier 10%). Among the opinion leaders, 51% are in favour of increasing the amount; this is supported primarily by politicians and officials as well as by the representatives of non-governmental organisations (56%). Among inhabitants, increasing the amount enjoys more than average support among those aged 15 -29, people with primary or basic education and students. Income also has an effect on attitudes, but only a minor one: in the lower income group increasing the amount is supported by 21% and in the higher income group by 33% of the inhabitants. Gender, nationality and place of residence do not play a role in the given issue. n While in 2005 respondents found that Estonia should provide assistance primarily to Asian countries, presumably due to then-recent Asian tsunami, in this survey predominantly Africa was mentioned. The CIS, South-Eastern Europe and Asian countries were mentioned by half as many people. The vision of opinion leaders of countries in need of assistance is different: in the first place the countries of the CIS and South-Eastern Europe should be rendered assistance. Africa was mentioned only at third place. The most often the CIS was mentioned in particular by the representatives of the third sector (88%); that target group also mentioned South-Eastern Europe more than the average. Similarly to the population, the journalists cited African countries (50%) more than the average. 7

Survey summary n In the survey, nine fields of development co-operation were mentioned to Survey summary n In the survey, nine fields of development co-operation were mentioned to the respondents and they were asked to state whether Estonia should deal with those fields. Among the population as well as opinion leaders, at least one-half support all the fields (they believe that Estonia should definitely or probably deal with the field). Differences in support for each field are marginal, and only the support for trade with developing countries was backed least of all by the inhabitants as well as by the opinion leaders. As to particular fields that the general public believes should definitely be supported by Estonia, combating diseases, the reducing of child mortality rates and ensuring environmentally sustainable development were mentioned in the top three. The opinion leaders firmly supported supporting education, combating diseases and reducing child mortality rates. n The survey also posed a question about the respondents’ own readiness to provide assistance or the experience of providing assistance. Inhabitants have primarily given aid/are ready to give aid with non-monetary donations (food, clothes, commodities), and a minor part of them monetarily as well (donations or buying fair trade products). The readiness of different resident groups is different. Young people (up to 29 years of age) are more ready than average to contribute their knowledge and free time as well as monetary donations, while older people would donate primarily by non-monetary means. Estonians are more prepared to donate money (to buy fair trade products as well) while among non-Estonians there is less preparedness to do anything at all. n The opinion leaders would be ready to contribute by applying their knowledge and free time, and are ready to buy fair trade products. Seventeen per cent of inhabitants and 3% of opinion leaders have so far not done anything. The target groups of different opinion leaders differ slightly in their readiness as to the way of providing assistance. Politicians as well as officials are above all ready to contribute their knowledge, the journalists would above all make monetary contributions and the third sector, their knowledge, free time and buying of fair trade products. The latter was mentioned by 73% of the representatives of the third sector (average 53% of opinion leaders). 8

Awareness of development co-operation Awareness of development co-operation

The population’s interest in global issues has grown (% of all respondents, n=1001) POPULATION The population’s interest in global issues has grown (% of all respondents, n=1001) POPULATION 2008 POPULATION 2005 10

Population: spontaneous keywords associated with development cooperation (% of all respondents; no multiple-choice answers Population: spontaneous keywords associated with development cooperation (% of all respondents; no multiple-choice answers were provided) POPULATION, n=1001 cooperation, unity, mutual understanding, trust, friendship assistance, econ. assist. to less devel. countries, hum. assist. energy problems, energy-related cooperation environment, env. protection, green thinking, waste sorting global warming, climate change normal, positive European Union, NATO Georgia, Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Iran, Russia, Kosovo wars, security, peace advancement, constructive, progress, development, better future other cannot say 11

Opinion leaders: spontaneous keywords associated with development cooperation (% of all respondents; no multiple-choice Opinion leaders: spontaneous keywords associated with development cooperation (% of all respondents; no multiple-choice answers provided) OPINION LEADERS, n=150 advice, exchange of experience, training, partnership, cooperation Georgia Ukraine African countries Moldova Estonia has gone from a recipient of assistance to a provider of assistance Humanitarian assistance, crisis regions assistance to development countries, assistance by developed countries to less developed countries Financial assistance European Union, EU assistance, EU as the biggest provider of assistance Afghanistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Foreign Affairs democratisation, strengthening democracy development assistance providing assistance projects, programmes, benefits Russia medical assistance fair trade Kosovo Third World, developing countries positivity bureaucracy Belarus military assistance, missions International organisations other cannot say 12

The term fair trade is unknown for most of the population (% of all The term fair trade is unknown for most of the population (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008, n=1001 OPINION LEADERS 2008, n=150 13

Awareness of Estonia’s development cooperation has not increased (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008 Awareness of Estonia’s development cooperation has not increased (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008 POPULATION 2005 14 OPINION LEADERS 2008

Spontaneous examples of Estonia’s development cooperation (% of all respondents; no answer versions) POPULATION, Spontaneous examples of Estonia’s development cooperation (% of all respondents; no answer versions) POPULATION, n=1001 OPINION LEADERS, n=150 Afghanistan Georgia Africa Afghanistan Iraq African countries, Sudan, Kenya Georgia Moldova Tsunami in Asia, Indonesia, Tai Tsunami in Tai, Indonesia Assistance in the event of natural disasters and catastrophes Balkan countries, Kosovo Assistance to Asian countries Ukraine Armenia Iran Assistance in hum. catastrophes and crises Iraq Kosovo CIS countries Moldova Pakistan peacekeeping missions, military assistance Finno-Ugric nations Ukraine other cannot say, do not remember 15

Attitudes towards Estonia’s development cooperation Attitudes towards Estonia’s development cooperation

Both the population and the majority of opinion leaders think that Estonia should render Both the population and the majority of opinion leaders think that Estonia should render assistance to less developed countries (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008 POPULATION 2005 17 OPINION LEADERS 2008

Reasons for Estonia’s development cooperation % of those who consider assistance necessary) POPULATION, n=755 Reasons for Estonia’s development cooperation % of those who consider assistance necessary) POPULATION, n=755 To help people in need It’s our moral obligation It contributes to the development of our relations with these countries, incl. econ. relations To improve the international image of Estonia It helps to stop the spread of diseases, such as HIV, AIDS Estonia is a developed country and we can afford it Because Estonia is an EU member It helps improve the situation of women and children in these countries It contributes to ensuring international security and peace It helps prevent illegal immigration Other reason Cannot say OPINION LEADERS, n=146 It is our moral obligation It contributes to ensuring international security and peace Estonia is a developed country and we can afford it To increase Estonia’s international reputation It contributes to the development of our relations with these countries, incl. econ. relations To help people in need It helps to improve the situation of women and children in these countries It helps stop the spreading of diseases, such as HIV, AIDS Because Estonia is an EU member It helps prevent illegal immigration 18

Reasons why Estonia should not engage in development cooperation (% of those who do Reasons why Estonia should not engage in development cooperation (% of those who do not consider assistance necessary) POPULATION, n=218 We have our own poor to help We do not enough resources to share with the poor and less privileged Their problems are not our fault The situation in these countries is not our business as they are far away other Cannot say OPINION LEADERS, n=1 We have our own poor to help 19

The amount allocated from the state budget should stay at the same level or The amount allocated from the state budget should stay at the same level or be increased From the Estonian state budget, 180 million kroons or 130 kroons per inhabitant is allocated each year for development and humanitarian assistance. Should Estonia POPULATION 2008 POPULATION 2005 20 OPINION LEADERS 2008

States that Estonia should render assistance to first (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008, States that Estonia should render assistance to first (% of all respondents) POPULATION 2008, n=1001 POPULATION 2005, n=998 African countries Developing countries in Asia CIS, except Russia African countries SE Europe, Balkan countries SE European countries, Balkan countries developing countries in Asia CIS, except Russia Middle Eastern countries Latin American developing countries Latin American dev. countries Russia None of them OPINION LEADERS 2008, n=150 CIS, except Russia SE Europe, Balkan countries African countries Middle Eastern countries Developing countries in Asia Russia Latin American developing countries None of them 21

Areas that the Estonian development cooperation should cover (% of all respondents) POPULATION, n=1001 Areas that the Estonian development cooperation should cover (% of all respondents) POPULATION, n=1001 fighting HIV/AIDS and other diseases decreasing child mortality ensuring environmentally friendly development promoting education supporting indigenous peoples decreasing poverty and famine ensuring human rights, incl. gender equality developing democratic institutions and information society supporting development countries’ trade OPINION LEADERS, n=150 promoting education fighting HIV/AIDS and other diseases decreasing child mortality developing democratic institutions and information society ensuring environmentally friendly development supporting natives decreasing poverty and famine ensuring human rights, incl. gender equality supporting development countries’ trade 22

Readiness to help Readiness to help

Readiness / experience to provide assistance (% of all respondents) POPULATION, n=1001 Is ready Readiness / experience to provide assistance (% of all respondents) POPULATION, n=1001 Is ready to help / has helped with a non-monetary donation (food, clothes, commodities, etc. ) Is ready to help / has helped with money (monetary donations, charity purchases, etc. ) Is ready to buy / has bought fair trade products Is ready to help / has helped with knowledge or is ready to invest / has invested time Has not done anything / is not ready to do anything Cannot say OPINION LEADERS, n=150 Is ready to help / has helped with a non-monetary donation (food, clothes, commodities, etc. ) Is ready to help / has helped with money (monetary donations, charity purchases, etc. ) Is ready to buy / has bought fair trade products Is ready to help / has helped with knowledge or is ready to invest / has invested time Has not done anything / is not ready to do anything Cannot say 24

Annexes Annexes

Description of the methods and the sample of the population survey n Survey population Description of the methods and the sample of the population survey n Survey population of the CATI-bus: inhabitants of the Republic of Estonia aged 15 -74 (a total of 1, 046, 357 people, Statistical Office as of 01. 2007). n Sample: 1, 001 people. In the sampling, we use the proportional model of the survey population. We assume that a telephone poll will enable access to the whole target group to be studied or that all people belonging to the survey population will have an equal opportunity to become a respondent. n Principles of sampling: 60% of the sample is formed by people who have a landline telephone. We find them using the register of the significant digits of telephone numbers by way of random choice; the last three numbers are generated by the computer. For the selection of respondents at homes we use the young men-young women rule. Fifty-seven per cent of people in the cities and 46% in the countryside have landline telephones (Emor’s CAPI-bus 2007). 40% of the sample consists of people who have only a mobile phone (44% of those among Estonian inhabitants aged 15 -74). Source: TNS Emor’s CAPI-bus 2007. To find them, we make a random choice in TNS Emor’s database of pre-selected people. n We compare the structure of the sample formed in the course of the survey to the corresponding indicators for the survey population. If necessary, we weight the sample in order to ensure that it is representative sample. 26

Annexes Description of the population survey n The survey was carried out at Emor Annexes Description of the population survey n The survey was carried out at Emor survey centre with 30 work places. The course of the survey and the proportion of the sample is verified by a special software program, Bellview Fusion. n CATI-method (phone interviews conducted by phone): n questionnaire questions are on the computer screen and the interviewer enters the answers immediately into the computer. Filters and rotations are programmed, thus decreasing errors during the interview. n All of our interviewers have passed a training programme. For more complex projects, we carry out a special training. n 33 trained interviewers from AS Emor participated in the interview. The average length of interviews was 5. 5 minutes. n In total, 5, 933 contacts were established, of which: n in 1, 001 cases an interview was carried out; n in 418 cases the interview was refused; n in 383 cases there was no representative of the target group was available or present; n in 392 cases no interview was carried out as the quota was full; n in 3638 cases no contact was achieved; n in 83 cases the number was that of a company; n in 18 cases the interview was cancelled. 27

Annexes Description of the methods used in the opinion leader survey and the sample Annexes Description of the methods used in the opinion leader survey and the sample n The survey was carried out as an ad hoc phone survey. n The size of the sample is 150 opinion leaders who were divided equally between three target groups: n Politicians and officials. This target group includes in the present survey members of and advisers in Parliament, boards of parties represented in the Parliament, leaders at ministries. n Media. Journalists from TV, the press, radio as well as information portals and news agencies are represented in the survey. As to radio and press, both national and local level is represented. The preferred target group is comprised by editors and journalists who report news and deal with issues related to foreign affairs, social and political subjects. n Third sector. The list of organisations was compiled in accordance with the needs of the customer. n The contact base for samples was compiled by AS Emor on the basis of public information available in Internet. 28

Annexes Description of the interview used in the opinion leader survey n The survey Annexes Description of the interview used in the opinion leader survey n The survey was carried out in the Emor survey centre with 30 work places. The course of the survey and the proportion of the sample is verified by a special software program, Bellview Fusion. n Four specially trained interviewers from AS Emor participated in the interview process. The average length of an interview was 10 minutes. n In total, 512 contacts were established, of which: n In 150 cases an interview was carried out; n In 15 cases the interview was refused; n In 66 cases there was no representative of the target group was available or present; n In 25 cases no interview was carried out as the quota was full; n In 250 cases no contact was achieved; n In 6 cases the interview was cancelled 29

Annexes Reliability limits of results n Example for using the table: 85% of respondents Annexes Reliability limits of results n Example for using the table: 85% of respondents agree with the statement and 15% do not. The size of the sample is 1000 persons, thus the reliability limit of the results is +/- 2. 21%, i. e. 82. 8 -87. 2% of the target group agree. 30

Annexes Project team The following persons participated and were responsible in various stages: n Annexes Project team The following persons participated and were responsible in various stages: n Customer representative: Marje Pihlak n Survey schedule and report prepared by: Jaanika Hämmal n Sample prepared by: n Questionnaire programmed by: Kalev Mitt n Interviews coordinator: n Questionnaire translated into Russian by: Maria Repkina n Data processing: Kalev Mitt n Graphic design: Maire Nõmmik Katre Seema Kaja Nebel 31