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Public and Private Information PAPI Specification, draft 6 1999 -12 -08 DRAFT PRESENTATION “Human Public and Private Information PAPI Specification, draft 6 1999 -12 -08 DRAFT PRESENTATION “Human Information for Learning Technology” Learner Profiles: Personal, Preference, Performance, Portfolio Frank Farance, +1 212 486 4700, [email protected] com Edutool. Com, a division of Farance Inc. , Slides and Document: http: //edutool. com/papi IEEE LTSC 1484. 2 Learner Model WG Standards http: //ltsc. ieee. org/wg 2 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 1

Overview • Status of document • • Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings Overview • Status of document • • Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 2

Status of Document • Major revision of document • Definition of conformance, conceptual model, Status of Document • Major revision of document • Definition of conformance, conceptual model, semantics, bindings, encodings • Current 1484. 2 Working Draft (WD 1) is PAPI 3 – a base document for 1484. 2, dated 1997 -10 -09 • • PAPI 5 was presented at 1998 -12 mtg Incorporation of SIF, XML Compatibility with 1484. 14 SDA, 1484. 15 DCTP Requesting committee approval of PAPI 6 as next Working Draft (WD 2) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 3

Overview • Status of document • Methodology • • Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Overview • Status of document • Methodology • • Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 4

Methodology • Requirements: identify user scenarios • Functionality: what is does • Conceptual model: Methodology • Requirements: identify user scenarios • Functionality: what is does • Conceptual model: how a virtual implementation works • Semantics: detailed descriptions of the meanings of components, transactions, objects, etc. • Bindings: mappings, e. g. , APIs, codings, protocols • Encodings: bit/byte formats, representations 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 5

Why Methodology? • • Reduces business/technical risk Can get progressive/incremental agreement Good for consensus-building Why Methodology? • • Reduces business/technical risk Can get progressive/incremental agreement Good for consensus-building Leverage other successes/failures 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 6

Life Cycle: Typical Timeline Development Summary of Standards Process Consensus Building • • • Life Cycle: Typical Timeline Development Summary of Standards Process Consensus Building • • • Review 1999 -12 -08 Maintenance • Development Phase: 12 -48 months Consensus Phase: 9 -24 months Maintenance Phase: 3 -6 years Review Cycle: revise, reaffirm, or withdraw — every 5 years Typical time: from committee formed to approved standard: 18 -48 months Realistic schedule ==> Good results IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 7

Methodology: Work Flow And Progressive Deliverables The Steps of Building Successful Information Technology Standards/Specifications Methodology: Work Flow And Progressive Deliverables The Steps of Building Successful Information Technology Standards/Specifications “The work flow/steps promote (1) consensus-building, and (2) long-term stability, interpretation, maintenance of the standard/specification. ” Requirements “Interpretation/maintenance is stabilized: each level is dependent on higher levels. ” Functionality Conceptual Model “Interpretation Examples: - Ambiguities in bindings are resolved by interpreting the semantics; - Ambiguities in semantics are resolved by interpreting the conceptual model. ” “Consensus-building is incremental. ” Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 8

Requirements: User/Institution Needs and Desirables • Informative, not part of standard => only conform Requirements: User/Institution Needs and Desirables • Informative, not part of standard => only conform to interoperability • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Administration apps, e. g, campus directory – Learning content access to student info – Record grades IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 9

Requirements: Sources and Influences “Requirements are gathered from industryspecific (application-related) organizations, related industries, and Requirements: Sources and Influences “Requirements are gathered from industryspecific (application-related) organizations, related industries, and other sources. ” Requirements Related Industries Industry-Specific Other Sources HL 7, CORBAMED, TEPR IMS, CSU, UC, SIF, Do. D/ATSC, NYS, IEEE 1484. 1 LTSA Various Vendors And Products Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 “Requirements are only informative (improves reading the standard), not normative, i. e. , not required by conforming implementations. ” IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 10

Functionality: What It Does • Stores, retrieves, searches student information • Partition into functional Functionality: What It Does • Stores, retrieves, searches student information • Partition into functional areas • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Partition into personal, preference, performance, portfolio info – Get/put values/records IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 11

Functionality: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Related Industries OMG, LDAP, VCard, Sandia NL Industry. Functionality: Sources and Influences Requirements Functionality Related Industries OMG, LDAP, VCard, Sandia NL Industry. Specific Requirements Other Sources IMS, IEEE 1484. 2, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 35, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 11 Various Vendors, I 18 N, L 10 N, CAW Functionality Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats “PAPI functionality is based on requirements, with influences from industry-specific organizations, related industries, and other sources. ” Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 12

Conceptual Model: How A Virtual Implementation Works • “Theory of Operation” • Examples: Requirements Conceptual Model: How A Virtual Implementation Works • “Theory of Operation” • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Application opens repository – Authentication – Scan/search for data – Read/write data – Multiple open sessions – Close sessions IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 13

Conceptual Model: Sources and Influences Functionality Conceptual Model Functionality Data Interchange Kerberos, FTP, SMTP, Conceptual Model: Sources and Influences Functionality Conceptual Model Functionality Data Interchange Kerberos, FTP, SMTP, HTTP, Sandia NL, X 12 Related Stds ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 11, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 14 ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 20, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 21, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 32/WG 2 Conceptual Model Requirements Functionality Semantics Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 “The PAPI conceptual model is based on PAPI functionality, with influences from data interchange standards/specifications, and related standards/specifications. ” IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 14

Semantics: Detailed Meaning Of Operations/Transactions • Assertions: sentences using shall, should, or may • Semantics: Detailed Meaning Of Operations/Transactions • Assertions: sentences using shall, should, or may • Inquiries: range of values • Negotiations: heuristics • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Array: list of elements of same type in regular structure – Put. Value: replaces old object, in place IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 15

Semantics: Sources and Influences Conceptual Model Semantics “PAPI semantics are based on the PAPI Semantics: Sources and Influences Conceptual Model Semantics “PAPI semantics are based on the PAPI conceptual APIs, Codings, Protocols model, protocols, programming languages, and related standards/specifications. ” Conceptual Model Language-Related Stds Protocols C, C++, SQL, LISP, Javascript, POSIX, Tcl, APL FTP, HTTP, MIME, RFC 822, CORBA, W 3 C P 3 P ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 11, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 32/WG 2, NCITS L 8, NCITS T 2 Semantics Requirements Functionality Bindings: APIs Conceptual Model Bindings: Codings Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 16

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [1/6] • Semantics are “bound” to APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [1/6] • Semantics are “bound” to APIs, codings, and protocols • Designing for all three produces more coherent, harmonized design • Different stakeholders have different foci: – – some want only APIs some want only codings some want only protocols some want a combination • APIs, codings, and protocols can “re-use”, “retarget”, or “re-apply” existing standards 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 17

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [2/6] • Motivation for not standardizing APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [2/6] • Motivation for not standardizing APIs: – Only interested in system-to-system interoperability, i. e. , focus is on codings or protocols • What happens if APIs are not standardized? – Each application develops its own “libraries” – Code and application reusability is greatly decreased because no common API or API framework – Much effort is spent “reinventing the wheel” by building low-level subsystems that provide services normally supplied by APIs 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 18

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [3/6] • Motivation for not standardizing APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [3/6] • Motivation for not standardizing codings: – Programmers only use (standard) APIs – Codings are not necessary because databases are proprietary – Too hard: vendor, user, institutional variants/extensions • What happens if codings are not standardized? – Each application develops its own data model and representation – Exchanging data among systems becomes impractical because of data model incompatibilities – Data representation incompatibilities much data “mediation” and conversion 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 19

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [4/6] • Motivation for not standardizing APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [4/6] • Motivation for not standardizing protocols: – Only (standard) APIs are necessary, protocols are vendors’ “value-added” feature, thus proprietary – Only (standard) codings are necessary. . . “just point me to the data”, protocols are lower implementation details • What happens if protocols are not standardized? – Each (proprietary) implementation develops its own protocols to communicate across wide area networks – Proprietary solutions produce “islands” of interoperability – Wide area, multi-vendor solutions become impossible 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 20

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [5/6] - Std APIs may be APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [5/6] - Std APIs may be implemented via std or proprietary Protocols - Std Protocols may be accessed by std or proprietary APIs - Both std APIs/Protocols improve wide area interoperability Semantics Bindings: APIs Requirements Harmonized standard. Functionality APIs, Codings, and Protocols promote: - Application portability - Data portability Conceptual Model - Multi-vendor, “open” solutions Semantics - Wide area, end-to-end interoperability Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 Bindings: Protocols - Std APIs may use std or proprietary Codings - Std Codings may be used by std or proprietary APIs - Both std APIs/Codings improve portable apps/data Bindings: Codings - Std Protocols may use std or proprietary Codings - Std Codings may be exchanged via std or proprietary Protocols - Both std Protocols/Codings improve system interoperability IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 21

APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [6/6] • Common APIs: – Application APIs, Codings, Protocols — All Three Are Required [6/6] • Common APIs: – Application portability – Separation of application and low-level implementation • Common codings: – Representation of information – File/exchange formats, portable data • Common protocols: – Necessary for multi-vendor and wide area networking – Internet relies on common protocols, not common APIs • Common APIs, codings, protocols: – All are necessary 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 22

Codings vs. Encodings • Codings: the structure and representation of information – Examples: XML, Codings vs. Encodings • Codings: the structure and representation of information – Examples: XML, Tcl, tabbed, object-oriented, Java binding • Encodings: the bit/byte representation and format – Examples: ASCII, ISO 10646, IEEE floating point, UNIX x 86 calling conventions • Both coding and encoding example: – “The name shall be coded in XML as and encoded in ASCII. ” 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 23

Bindings: Mappings to Other Standards Frameworks • Bindings to APIs • Bindings to codings Bindings: Mappings to Other Standards Frameworks • Bindings to APIs • Bindings to codings (information organization) • Bindings to protocols • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – APIs: C/C++, VB, Perl, Javascript – Codings: XML, TCL – Protocols: HTTP, DCTP IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 24

Encodings: Bit/Octet Data Representation and Format • Not to be confused with “codings” • Encodings: Bit/Octet Data Representation and Format • Not to be confused with “codings” • Examples: Requirements Functionality – POSIX/Win 32 subroutine linkage – ASCII, ISO 8859 -1, UTF 8 – IETF text format Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 25

Bindings -> Encodings [1/6] “Semantics, programming languages, related standards, other specifications influence PAPI APIs Bindings -> Encodings [1/6] “Semantics, programming languages, related standards, other specifications influence PAPI APIs represented as calling conventions. ” Language-Related C/C++, VB, Perl, Java/Javascript, LISP, Tcl Conceptual Model Semantics Related Stds Other Sandia NL, Various Vendors and Products ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 11 LID, LIA, LIPC, OMG CORBA Bindings: APIs Requirements Functionality Semantics APIs Calling Conventions Language/Protocol-Related OS-Related C/C++, JVM, RPC, RMI, RSH, RCMD, EDI POSIX, ELF, Win 32, INETD Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 Encodings: Calling Conventions IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 26

Bindings -> Encodings [2/6] APIs -> Calling Conventions • APIs include. . . – Bindings -> Encodings [2/6] APIs -> Calling Conventions • APIs include. . . – Programming language interfaces – Command line interfaces – Remote procedure calls • Calling Conventions include. . . – Subroutine/module linkage – Process environment – Name resolution, network transport 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 27

Bindings -> Encodings [3/6] Semantics Codings Data Formats “Semantics, information codings, and related standards/specifications Bindings -> Encodings [3/6] Semantics Codings Data Formats “Semantics, information codings, and related standards/specifications influence PAPI codings represented as data formats. ” API/Comm Stds/Specs C/C++, LISP, Tcl, APL, tab-separated, COM, CORBA Semantics Stds Activity Related Stds SGML, HTML, XMI, ASN. 1, CDIF, NCITS T 2, T 3, L 8 ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 2, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 34 Bindings: Codings Requirements Related Stds Activity ISO 8859 -1, 10646, JIS X 208, X 209, Unicode, ASN. 1 ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 22/WG 14, Functionality Conceptual Model ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 35, IETF Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 Encodings: Data Formats IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 28

Bindings -> Encodings [4/6] Codings -> Data Formats • Codings include. . . – Bindings -> Encodings [4/6] Codings -> Data Formats • Codings include. . . – Record structures – File structures – Directory/folder structures • Data Formats include. . . – Character sets, character set extensions – Local, regional, remote pointers/linkage – Namespace, scoping, and syntax conventions 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 29

Bindings -> Encodings [5/6] Semantics Protocols Communication Layers “Semantics, networking protocols, related standards/specifications influence Bindings -> Encodings [5/6] Semantics Protocols Communication Layers “Semantics, networking protocols, related standards/specifications influence PAPI protocols represented as comm layers. ” Related Stds/Specs CGI, AICC CMI, EDI, CORBAMED, TELNET, FTP Semantics HTTP, DCTP, CORBA, Web. DAV, IEEE 1596. 5, Ce. Bus IETF, W 3 C, TIA, NCITS, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 6, ISO-IEC/JTC 1/SC 25 Bindings: Protocols Requirements Functionality Stds Activity Stds/Specs Communication Features Octet Encodings ISO OSI, TELNET, FTP, IEEE 1596. 5 ASCII, ISO 8859 -1, ISO 10646, UTF 8 Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 Encodings: Various Communication Layers IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 30

Bindings -> Encodings [6/6] Protocols -> Communication Layers • Protocols include. . . – Bindings -> Encodings [6/6] Protocols -> Communication Layers • Protocols include. . . – Application, presentation, session layers – Transaction sets – Network replication, publish/subscribe • Communication Layers include. . . – Presentation, session, transport, network layers – Distributed object/data/process frameworks – Connectivity/reliability frameworks 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 31

PAPI and Related Standards IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI Normative Wording Requirements IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI and Related Standards IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI Normative Wording Requirements IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI Informative Wording IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI, IEEE 1484. 14 XML Functionality IEEE 1484. 2, 1484. 14, And Other Standards IEEE 1484. 2 PAPI, IEEE 1484. 14 SDA Normative Wording Conceptual Model IEEE 1484. 14 SDA Informative Wording Semantics IEEE 1484. 15 DCTP, IEEE 1484. 16 HTTP Various Standards Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 32

Profiles and Related IMS Work IMS Profile Spec Normative Wording Profile, Metadata, Enterprise, Runtime Profiles and Related IMS Work IMS Profile Spec Normative Wording Profile, Metadata, Enterprise, Runtime Requirements IMS Profile Spec Informative Wording Functionality IMS Formats, XML, And Other Standards Conceptual Model Papers, Operational Environments Runtime Services, Data Management Various Standards Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 33

Comparison of PAPI To Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) • PAPI apps: learning tech, content/mgmt Comparison of PAPI To Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) • PAPI apps: learning tech, content/mgmt servers • Repositories: personal, preference, performance, portfolio; allow extensions • Transactions: get/put/list/ search; federated database • Bindings: OO, non-OO APIs, codings, protocols • Codings: XML/non-XML 1999 -12 -08 • SIF apps: attendance, cafeteria, library, admin • Objects: student, school, contact, teacher • Actions: queries, events, messages • Examples: enrollment change, student et al update, publish/subscribe http: //www. schoolsinterop. org/ne ws. And. Events. asp IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 34

Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Participants • Chancery Software • Computer Curriculum Corporation • Follett Schools Interoperability Framework (SIF) Participants • Chancery Software • Computer Curriculum Corporation • Follett Software • Jackson Corp • Jostens Learning Corp. • Learning Tools International • Microsoft Corp • Misty City Software • NCS (National Computer Systems) 1999 -12 -08 • Netel Educational Systems • Nichols Advanced Technologies • Pentamation Enterprises • People. Soft • Phone. Master, a division of US Telecom • SNAP Systems • SRB International • TRO Learning • Winnebago Software IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 35

Overview • Status of document • Methodology • Requirements • • • Functionality Conceptual Overview • Status of document • Methodology • Requirements • • • Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 36

Requirements: User/Institution Needs and Desirables • Informative, not part of standard => only conform Requirements: User/Institution Needs and Desirables • Informative, not part of standard => only conform to interoperability • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Administration apps, e. g, campus directory – Learning content access to student info – Record grades IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 37

Summary of Stakeholders • Application developers: – write programs, software, scripts, web content, multimedia Summary of Stakeholders • Application developers: – write programs, software, scripts, web content, multimedia content, clients, servers, etc. , for information technology systems • Institutional administrators: – manage business, policy, regulatory, etc. issues for information technology systems that serve a large number of users and employees • Security implementers and administrators: – information security, physical security, financial security, and personal security, etc. 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 38

Summary of Stakeholders • Regulators: – write programs, software, scripts, web content, multimedia content, Summary of Stakeholders • Regulators: – write programs, software, scripts, web content, multimedia content, clients, servers, etc. , for information technology systems • Users: – manage business, policy, regulatory, etc. issues for information technology systems that serve a large number of users and employees 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 39

Stakeholders Issues: Functionality • Does the standard describe enough functionality to write useful applications Stakeholders Issues: Functionality • Does the standard describe enough functionality to write useful applications that have few dependencies on proprietary interfaces? 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 40

Stakeholders Issues: Functionality • Does the standard describe enough functionality to write useful applications Stakeholders Issues: Functionality • Does the standard describe enough functionality to write useful applications that have few dependencies on proprietary interfaces? 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 41

Summary of Stakeholders • Regulators, legislators, and politicians: – concerned about the use of Summary of Stakeholders • Regulators, legislators, and politicians: – concerned about the use of technology and, according to societal values, its positive and negative effects upon users, institutions, businesses, government, national security, and other areas • Users and records owner: – information technology systems and the proper creation, correction, or destruction of records, their potential use and security, and their usefulness 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 42

Summary of Functional Requirements [1/4] • An administrative application that: – prints report cards Summary of Functional Requirements [1/4] • An administrative application that: – prints report cards – prints mailing labels for all learners in an institution – provides a campus directory – provides emergency contact information – determines if a learner is enrolled in an institution and/or has paid the required monies – transfers grades from one institution to another institution in a secure environment (confidential, tamper-proof) – compiles usage and attendance records • A back office system that transfers information between the registrar and the profile repositories 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 43

Summary of Functional Requirements [2/4] • A learning technology application that: – combines the Summary of Functional Requirements [2/4] • A learning technology application that: – combines the components of content delivery, management, and recordkeeping into a single application – separates the components of content delivery, management, and recordkeeping into individual, separate applications – uses learner histories from more than one repository (distributed repositories of learner information) – uses learner information from multiple repositories with separate, independent security administration systems • An information structure that supports grouping of individual learners 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 44

Summary of Functional Requirements [3/4] • A web-based, local area network, standalone, or nomadic Summary of Functional Requirements [3/4] • A web-based, local area network, standalone, or nomadic application that: – accesses the learner's history to determine the most productive learning experience – records bookmarks, lesson grades, and commentary • A learning technology application that adapts to a learner's physical limitations, e. g. , blindness, deafness • A learning technology application that adapts to the learner's culture, e. g. , language, conventions, units of measurement, currency • A learning technology application on a remote campus that – uses learner history from the home campus – records learner history at the home campus 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 45

Summary of Functional Requirements [4/4] • An employment system that: – offers employees resumes, Summary of Functional Requirements [4/4] • An employment system that: – offers employees resumes, works, and accomplishments to prospective employers – searches for learners with appropriate skills • Integration of applications in various environments: personal computer, workstation, scripting languages, compiled languages, operating systems, content delivery systems, database systems, network systems, nomadic systems, security systems, learner identification systems, administration systems • A learning content development application that correlates learner performance to learner content effectiveness 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 46

Overview • Status of document • Methodology • Requirements • Functionality • • • Overview • Status of document • Methodology • Requirements • Functionality • • • Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 47

Functionality: What It Does • Stores, retrieves, searches student information • Partition into functional Functionality: What It Does • Stores, retrieves, searches student information • Partition into functional areas • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Partition into personal, preference, performance, portfolio info – Get/put values/records IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 48

Learner Information, Profile Information, PAPI, Extensions General Learning Technology Information Learner Profile Information Learner Learner Information, Profile Information, PAPI, Extensions General Learning Technology Information Learner Profile Information Learner Personal Info Learner Preference Info PAPI Learner Personal PAPI Learner Preference Extensions Learner Profile Information Outside The Scope Of PAPI Learner Performance Extensions PAPI Learner Portfolio Extensions Learner Performance Info 1999 -12 -08 Extensions Learner Portfolio Info IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 49

Learner Information, PAPI, Extensions General Learning Technology Information Learner Information PAPI Learner Performance Learner Learner Information, PAPI, Extensions General Learning Technology Information Learner Information PAPI Learner Performance Learner Relations Info PAPI Learner Relations Extensions PAPI Learner Security Extensions Learner Security Info Extensions Learner Performance Info Learner Profile Information Learner Personal Info PAPI Learner Personal Learner Portfolio Info PAPI Learner Portfolio Extensions PAPI Learner Preference Extensions Learner Preference Info Extensions 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 50

Comparison of PAPI to LTSA • Why? – Show relationship to related specs • Comparison of PAPI to LTSA • Why? – Show relationship to related specs • Mapping LTSA PAPI – LTSA components PAPI information types – Shows related portions of LTSA • Mapping PAPI LTSA – PAPI information types usage in LTSA components • Mapping to other frameworks, too 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 51

LTSA Layer 3: System Components [using Yourdon system notation and LTSA diagrams] * LTSA LTSA Layer 3: System Components [using Yourdon system notation and LTSA diagrams] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query • • • Behavior Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Query, Catalog Info, Locator, Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences * Thanks to Chris Dabrowski at NIST for ideas on this type of analytical technique for stakeholders, as demonstrated in his GII work in ANSI IISP: http: //www. ansi. org/iisp 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 52

LTSA Mapping Example: Web-Based Learning Browser Demonstrates Tight Integration of Components * Note: Other LTSA Mapping Example: Web-Based Learning Browser Demonstrates Tight Integration of Components * Note: Other mappings may co-exist. Multimedia Delivery * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) A bstraction ¯Implementation Human 1999 -12 -08 Human Interface e. g. , X Windows Win 95 sm ent Presentation Tool (browser) Evaluation Performance (current) Learner Records Student Records (database) Courseware Database IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, servers) (web © 1999 Edutool. Com 53

Learner Profiles * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato Learner Profiles * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Primary design issues: learner preferences, performance info, assessment info, learner records • Secondary design issues: evaluation, coach 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 54

Mapping of LTSA to PAPI Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery ato Learning Preferences r Learning Mapping of LTSA to PAPI Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery ato Learning Preferences r Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Learner Personal Info PAPI Learner Personal Coach As se e ssm Evaluation nt (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records Learner Preference Info PAPI Learner Preference Extensions PAPI Learner Performance Extensions PAPI Learner Portfolio Extensions Learner Performance Info 1999 -12 -08 * LTSA Notation Interaction Context Loc Behavior Learner Portfolio Info IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 55

Learning Preferences [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 2 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Learning Preferences [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 2 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Learning Preferences - may be a superset of Multimedia PAPI Learner Preferences Delivery Learner Entity Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Learning Preferences: • • Learner Entity’s preferences (styles, language, etc. ) as input to system Coach can negotiate and/or restrict Learner Entity’s preferences Surrogates: e. g. , parent learner entity, teacher system Other possible surrogates: e. g. , parent system, learner system, mentor learner entity • LTSA PAPI: • Storing and retrieving Learner Personal and Learner Preference information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 56

Evaluation [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Evaluation: Learner - Evaluation [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Evaluation: Learner - consumes PAPI Learner Performance Multimedia Entity - may consume PAPI Learner Preference - produces PAPI Learner Performance Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Evaluation: • • Receives Behavior Receives Learning Content (context of Learner Entity’s Behavior) Stores Performance info based on Evaluation of Behavior Produces Assessment given to Coach • LTSA PAPI: • Creating, storing, retrieving of Performance and Portfolio information • May retrieve Preference information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 57

Performance Information Stored/Retrieved By Evaluation [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 2 -way data flow”] * Performance Information Stored/Retrieved By Evaluation [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 2 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Behavior LTSA Performance info: Context Interaction Delivery be a superset of PAPI Learner Performance - may include PAPI Learner. Learning Portfolio Lo cat or Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Performance Info Stored By Evaluation: • Evaluation of Behavior: can emit Performance info • Stored in Learner Records • LTSA PAPI: • Storing and retrieving Performance and Portfolio information • May retrieve Preference information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 58

Learner Records [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data store”] * LTSA Notation Learner Multimedia Entity Learner Records [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data store”] * LTSA Notation Learner Multimedia Entity LTSA Learner Records store all Learner PAPI Delivery Behavior information types: - Personal, Preference, Performance, Portfolio Interaction Context LTSA does not explicitly diagram use of Personal and Portfolio info Learning Lo cat or Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Learner Records: • Stores Performance information as Learner Entity history • Retrieves and stores Learner Entity history records for Coach • LTSA PAPI: • Storing and retrieving Preference, Performance, and Portfolio information • May store and retrieve Personal information, but this data flow is outside the scope of the LTSA notation 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 59

Performance/Preference Info Received By Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] * Performance/Preference Info Received By Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation Learner Multimedia Historic Preference/Performance info: Entity LTSA Delivery - includes PAPI Learner Preference - includes Interaction. PAPI Learner Performance Context - may include PAPI Learner Personal, if permitted Learning Lo cat or Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse Behavior sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Historic Performance/Preference Info Received By Coach: • Coach gets Learner Entity history by retrieving Performance information from Learner Entity’s Learner Records • Can select strategies based on history • LTSA PAPI: • Retrieving Preference, Performance, and Portfolio information • May retrieve Personal information, if permitted 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 60

Performance/Preference Info Stored By Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] LTSA Performance/Preference Info Stored By Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] LTSA New Preference/Performance info: Learner - includes PAPI Learner Performance Multimedia Entity - may include PAPI Learner Portfolio - may include PAPI Learner Personal, if permitted Interaction Context Delivery - may include PAPI Learner Preference, if permitted Learning Lo cat or Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse * LTSA Notation Behavior sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA New Performance/Preference Info Stored By Coach: • “bookmarks” (incomplete sessions) • certifications (milestones, completion of module) • objectives (outlines for future sessions) • LTSA PAPI: • Storing Performance, and Portfolio information • May store Personal and Preference information, if permitted 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 61

Assessment Information [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Assessment Information [LTSA component, a “Yourdon 1 -way data flow”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Assessment info is coded (or Learner interchanged) identically as LTSA Multimedia Entity Performance info: - a superset of PAPI Learner Performance - may include PAPI Learner Portfolio Interaction Context Behavior Delivery Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA Assessment Information: • Evaluation process can emit Assessments: “where there learner is at” • Coach can use Assessment information, along with other information, to select appropriate learning experience • LTSA PAPI: • A data flow of Performance information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 62

Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity LTSA Coach: Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity LTSA Coach: Multimedia - sends/receives LTSA Learning Preferences Delivery Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query • Behavior 1 Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records Sends, receives, and “negotiates” Learning Preferences with Learner Entity 1 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 63

Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] LTSA Coach: Learner -Multimedia Assessment info receives Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] LTSA Coach: Learner -Multimedia Assessment info receives LTSA - receives LTSA Performance info. Entity - receives LTSA Preference info Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query • * LTSA Notation Coach ent Evaluation sm 2 Asses Performance (current) 3 (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Learner Records Receives current Assessment information, Preferences, and Performance information (history and objectives) for future learning experiences 2 3 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 64

Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner LTSA Multimedia. Coach Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner LTSA Multimedia. Coach Entity - searches for appropriate learning content Delivery Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query 4 • 4 Behavior Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records Queries to the Learning Resources: – Queries sent to search for appropriate material – Catalog Info (learning content metadata) returned as “found” Learning Content – Extracts the Locators (e. g. , URLs) from the returned Catalog Info (learning content metadata) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 65

Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Multimedia Coach - Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation LTSA Multimedia Coach - identifies/launches learning content Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato 5 r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query • Learner Entity Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records Locators (similar to web URLs) are sent to Delivery process to identify (but not transfer) Learning Content • Note: Delivery is responsible for retrieving and Learning Resources is responsible for transferring Learning Content 5 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 66

Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Coach [LTSA component, a “Yourdon data process”] * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • LTSA PAPI: • • • Creation of Performance and Portfolio information. Storing Performance and Portfolio information. Retrieving of Preference information. May store Preference information, if permitted. May store and retrieve Personal information, if permitted. 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 67

LTSA PAPI Summary [1/3] • LTSA Learning Preferences map to PAPI Personal and Preference LTSA PAPI Summary [1/3] • LTSA Learning Preferences map to PAPI Personal and Preference information – Security boundaries are not diagrammed in the LTSA, so the LTSA does not distinguish between public (Preference) and private (Personal) information • LTSA Performance information maps to PAPI Performance and Portfolio information – PAPI Performance information is primarily intended for consumption by automated systems – PAPI Portfolio information is primarily intended for consumption by humans 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 68

LTSA PAPI Summary [2/3] • LTSA Assessment information – Similar to LTSA Performance Information LTSA PAPI Summary [2/3] • LTSA Assessment information – Similar to LTSA Performance Information – Maps to the same PAPI features • LTSA Learner Records – Stores and retrieves LTSA Performance information – Maps into PAPI codings and exchange (APIs and protocols) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 69

LTSA PAPI Summary [3/3] • LTSA Evaluation – Primarily creates LTSA Performance information and LTSA PAPI Summary [3/3] • LTSA Evaluation – Primarily creates LTSA Performance information and LTSA Assessment information – Might retrieve LTSA Performance information from the LTSA Learner Records • LTSA Coach – Creates, stores, and retrieves all types of PAPI information – LTSA Coach maps into PAPI codings and exchange (APIs and protocols) of PAPI Personal, Preference, Performance, and Portfolio information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 70

Mapping of PAPI to LTSA Learner Personal Info Learner Preference Info PAPI Learner Personal Mapping of PAPI to LTSA Learner Personal Info Learner Preference Info PAPI Learner Personal PAPI Learner Preference Extensions PAPI Learner Performance PAPI Learner Portfolio Extensions Learner Performance Info Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Learning Preferences ato r Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Behavior * LTSA Notation Interaction Context Loc 1999 -12 -08 Learner Portfolio Info Coach As se e ssm Evaluation nt (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com Learner Records 71

Mapping Of PAPI Personal Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Personal Info Learner Mapping Of PAPI Personal Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Personal Info Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery * LTSA Notation Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 72

Mapping Of PAPI Preference Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Preference Info Learner Mapping Of PAPI Preference Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Preference Info Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery * LTSA Notation Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 73

Mapping Of PAPI Performance Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Performance Info * Mapping Of PAPI Performance Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Performance Info * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 74

Mapping Of PAPI Portfolio Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Portfolio Info * Mapping Of PAPI Portfolio Information To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Portfolio Info * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 75

Mapping Of All PAPI Components To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Performance&Portfolio PAPI Learner Mapping Of All PAPI Components To LTSA System Components PAPI Learner Performance&Portfolio PAPI Learner Personal&Preference Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Coach Resources Query * LTSA Notation A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 76

Mapping Of All PAPI Components To LTSA System Components Personal/Security/Relations/Preference Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Mapping Of All PAPI Components To LTSA System Components Personal/Security/Relations/Preference Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Performance/Portfolio Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Coach Resources Query * LTSA Notation A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Processes: Learner Entity, Evaluation, Coach, Delivery • Stores: Learner Records, Learning Resources • Flows: Behavior, Assessment, Performance (past, present, future), Indexes (query, content, and locator), Learning Content, Multimedia, Learning Preferences 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 77

Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality • Conceptual model • • Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality • Conceptual model • • Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 78

Conceptual Model: How A Virtual Implementation Works • “Theory of Operation” • Examples: Requirements Conceptual Model: How A Virtual Implementation Works • “Theory of Operation” • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Application opens repository – Authentication – Scan/search for data – Read/write data – Multiple open sessions – Close sessions IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 79

Relationship to Web-Based Systems • Why? – Common implementations • Show relationships: – Profile Relationship to Web-Based Systems • Why? – Common implementations • Show relationships: – Profile servers relative to web-based components – Profile servers and APIs 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 80

An Architecture Of Web-Based Profile Services and Systems Browser Content World Wide Web “Bus” An Architecture Of Web-Based Profile Services and Systems Browser Content World Wide Web “Bus” of Browsers and Web/Content Servers Accessing Content: App Content Servers Content APIs Browser Subroutine, Object, and Plug-in “Bus” PAPI APIs PAPI Protocols Nomadic “Bus” Of PAPI Servers Content Server 2 Remote Campus Content Protocol Accessing Learner PAPI: App PAPI Servers 1999 -12 -08 Content Server 1 Sometimes. Connected (Nomadic) Always-Connected PAPI Servers Local Personal Campus Server IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 81

Relationship to Distance Learning And Distributed Learning Systems • Why? – Significant implementation and Relationship to Distance Learning And Distributed Learning Systems • Why? – Significant implementation and engineering issues • Show relationships: – Content delivery vs. records exchange – Information flows among components – Scaling to multiple campuses • Walkthrough of PAPI and related info exchange 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 82

Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Learning * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Learning * LTSA Notation Learner Entity Multimedia Delivery Behavior Interaction Context Loc ato r Learning Preferences Learning Locator Content Catalog Info Learning Resources Query Coach A s sse sm Evaluation ent (history) Performance/ Preferences (new) Performance (current) Learner Records • Primary design issues: distributed and nomadic communication of all “flows” (behavior, performance, multimedia, etc. ) • Secondary design issues: processes and stores components • NOTE: Take note of primary design issues (red/bold) – How does this slide differ from all others? – Answer: All flows are primary, everything else is secondary – A technical definition of distance/distributed learning: primary design issues concern “flows”, all other LTSA components are secondary 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 83

LTSA: Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Learning • From LTSA Distance and Distributed Learning: – LTSA: Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Learning • From LTSA Distance and Distributed Learning: – Varying network capability – Sometimes connectivity (nomadic users) – Resources not centralized (distributed systems) • Primary design issue: – PAPI functionality implemented in context of distance and distributed learning design constraints • PAPI design issues: – Nomadic use (irregular connectivity) – Security (several scenarios) – Federations of repositories (distributed data) • Example configuration: compare web-based content delivery to secure records exchange 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 84

PAPI: Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Systems • Separated components – No or loose integration PAPI: Distance, Distributed, and Nomadic Systems • Separated components – No or loose integration of components • Slow or uneven performance – Communication speeds may be relatively slow – Speeds may vary significantly • High cost – Relatively high communication cost • Sometimes-connectivity, nomadic access – Components aren’t always “on-line” – Sometimes components able to connect, sometimes not • Heterogeneous administration – Cost, security, reliability, availability – Multiple, independent organizations 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 85

Profile Information in Distance/Distributed Learning Content Delivery vs. Records Exchange Home / Home Campus Profile Information in Distance/Distributed Learning Content Delivery vs. Records Exchange Home / Home Campus Learner User Interface, Browser Content Delivery (e. g. via web) Records Exchange Via PAPI Profile Server Remote Campus Content/ Mgmt. Server Learning Content * Ad Hoc Notation Profile Server Back Office 1999 -12 -08 Back Office IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 86

Profile Information in Distance Learning — An Example Configuration Home / Home Campus User Profile Information in Distance Learning — An Example Configuration Home / Home Campus User Interface, Browser Learner N M N 1999 -12 -08 M G G M Profile Server N, G, M, W N N, G G Content/ Mgmt. Server M N = Personal Info (e. g. , Name address) Back Office Remote Campus W G =Performance Info (e. g. , Grades) Learning Content M = Preference Info (e. g. , My configuration) * Ad Hoc Notation G G W = Portfolio G Info (e. g. , Work) IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com Back Office G 87

Types Of Profile Information and Their Movement (Conceptual Model) Home / Home Campus Legend Types Of Profile Information and Their Movement (Conceptual Model) Home / Home Campus Legend / Mnemonic: User Interface, Browser Learner N = Personal M Re ques R Info (e. g. , Name, NS t Pre 1 fere 2 address) nces M Login, S = Security Info R = Relations Info Enrollment N S R Check Profile M = Preference Info Server N S (e. g. , My config. ) R G =Performance W 4 Info (e. g. , Grades) Back G W =Portfolio Info (e. g. , Works) 1999 -12 -08 Office G Grades can be sent to back office (e. g. , registrar) Remote Campus Content/ Mgmt. Server Learning Content 3 M Requests performance history from its (remote) profile server and M other (home, etc. ) profile servers Profile G Server G 5 Portfolio: links to G work/accomplishments IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com Back Office 88

Can Scale to Multiple Campuses — Profile Servers Are Not “Middleware” Home / Home Can Scale to Multiple Campuses — Profile Servers Are Not “Middleware” Home / Home Campus User Interface, Browser Learner N M Personal Info: single, private copy N Back Office N, G 1999 -12 -08 Multiple Remote Campuses G Content/ Mgmt. Server M M N M Profile Server N, G, M, W G Performance Info: send to/from campus federation Learning Content Preference Info: send to multi-campus, single source * Ad Hoc Notation G Back Office G Portfolio Info: multi-campus G IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com G 89

Can Scale to Multiple Tier Campus Tier 1: Learner at Home Learner User Interface, Can Scale to Multiple Tier Campus Tier 1: Learner at Home Learner User Interface, Browser Profile Server G, M, W 1999 -12 -08 Content/ Mgmt. Server Profile Server Back Office N, G * Ad Hoc Notation Tier 2: Main Campus N, G, W Main campus may “front end” content for remote campus Tier 3: Remote Campus Content/ Mgmt. Server Profile Server Learning Content Both main campus and remote campus can serve content G Performance: stored, forwarded, retrieved on all profile servers IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com Back Office G 90

Can Scale to Multiple Tier Campus Tier 1: Learner at Home Learner User Interface, Can Scale to Multiple Tier Campus Tier 1: Learner at Home Learner User Interface, Browser Tier 2: Main Campus Content/ Mgmt. Server Tier 3: Remote Campus Content/ Mgmt. Server Learning Content Both main campus and remote campus can serve content Profile Server Back Office * Ad Hoc Notation 1999 -12 -08 Main campus may “front end” content for remote campus Profile Server Performance: stored, forwarded, retrieved on all profile servers IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com Back Office 91

A Walkthrough of Profile Information Schematic of Learner PAPI Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: A Walkthrough of Profile Information Schematic of Learner PAPI Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: X, N, M, G, W Out of Scope Info (X) Learner PAPI Info Within Conceptual Model PAPI Info Outside Conceptual Model Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 92

A Walkthrough of Profile Information Schematic of PAPI Learner Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: A Walkthrough of Profile Information Schematic of PAPI Learner Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: X, N, S, R, M, G, W Out of Scope Info (X) Learner PAPI Info Within Conceptual Model PAPI Info Outside Conceptual Model Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Back Office Internet Profile Server Secure Local/Home Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Profile Server Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 93

Learner Sign-On and Personal Information: Only Over Secure Links and/or Local Intranet 1 A: Learner Sign-On and Personal Information: Only Over Secure Links and/or Local Intranet 1 A: Learner may sign on using “local” tool [OOS] 1 B: Browser may be used to sign on [OOS] Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learner X OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI X N 2: Browser requests personal info from profile server. Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office N Profile Server 3 B: Profile server may forward to back office N Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office 3 A: Profile server gets request 3 C: Profile server returns personal info Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 94

Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s name Name. View = Learner. New. View. Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s name Name. View = Learner. New. View. By. TLH(“name”, “primary”); Name = Name. View. Get. Value. By. LH( “Short. Informal. Name||Long. Informal. Name||Given. Name”); Learner. Name = Name. Get. String(); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 95

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH password GIVEAUTH password hashed “asbkjed” SET CODING XML GETVAL name RESULT Côté Joseph 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 96

Learner Signs On Remote Content Server: Validate Enrollment and/or Payment 6: Remote content server Learner Signs On Remote Content Server: Validate Enrollment and/or Payment 6: Remote content server may have direct access to back office to validate enrollment/payment [OOS] Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 4: Learner may use browser to sign on remote content server [OOS] OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI X Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. N Internet Back Office Profile Server 5 A: Remote content server may access remote profile server for anonymous “personal” info -- only identified by student ID Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 N Back Office 5 B: Profile server may forward to back office N Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 97

Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s ID ID = Learner. Get. Value. By. Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s ID ID = Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(“id”); Learner. ID = ID. Get. String(); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 98

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH password GIVEAUTH password hashed “asbkjed” SET CODING XML GETVAL id RESULT 1234567 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 99

Back Office Systems May Have Private Communication Outside of PAPI OOS = Out of Back Office Systems May Have Private Communication Outside of PAPI OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI Learner Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. 7: Some back office systems may have private connections among themselves to validate learner enrollment/payment [OOS] Internet Back Office Profile Server Back Office X Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 100

Remote Content Server and/or Browser Request Preference Info from “Home” Profile Server 8: Remote Remote Content Server and/or Browser Request Preference Info from “Home” Profile Server 8: Remote content server requests preference info from “home” profile server Learner Internet Back Office 9 B: Remote profile server may keep cached copy of preference info 9 A: Home profile server supplies preference info Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 M Profile Server Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. M M M Back Office Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 10: Browser may request preference info, too Learning Content, free Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 101

Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s preferences Output. Media. View = Learner. New. Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s preferences Output. Media. View = Learner. New. View. By. TLH(“outputmedia”, “primary”); Output. Media = Output. Media. View. Get. Value. By. LH( “audio|video”); Count = Output. Media. Length(); for ( i = 0 ; i < Count ; i++ ) { Supported. Media[i] = Output. Media. Get. String(i); } 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 102

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-only SET Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-only SET CODING XML CV preference GETVAL outputmedia RESULT 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 103

Learner Updates His/Her Preference Info: Tools Outside Scope of PAPI 11: Learner may use Learner Updates His/Her Preference Info: Tools Outside Scope of PAPI 11: Learner may use special/secure tools to update his/her preference info [OOS] Learner Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, etc. M Internet M Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, pay Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 104

Sample SDA API Usage // Put learner’s preferences // Put locale information Learner. Put. Sample SDA API Usage // Put learner’s preferences // Put locale information Learner. Put. Value(“preference/locale”, “Canada-French”); // Put media preferences Learner. Put. Value(“preference/device/text-input”, “kbd”); Learner. Put. Value(“preference/device/text-output”, “crt”); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 105

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH Sample DCTP Protocol Usage RESOLVE /home/C%e 2 t%dc RESULT 1 OPEN 1 read-write NEEDAUTH password GIVEAUTH password hashed “asbkjed” SET CODING XML PUTVAL preference/locale “Canada-French” 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 106

Content Server Chooses Learning Content Based Upon Performance Information 14: Content server chooses appropriate Content Server Chooses Learning Content Based Upon Performance Information 14: Content server chooses appropriate learning content based upon learner’s history/objectives Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 12: Remote content server reads performance info (learner’s history, objectives, etc. ) from one or more profile servers 13 B: Remote profile server may forward to home profile server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, etc. G Profile Server 13 C: Home profile server may be consulted for performance info Learning Content, pay G Internet G Back Office Learning Content, free Back Office 13 A: Remote profile server may be consulted for performance info Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 107

Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s performance List = Learner. List(“performance/math-02/session-*”); Average = Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s performance List = Learner. List(“performance/math-02/session-*”); Average = 0; Average. Count = 0; for ( i = 0 ; i < List. length ; i++ ) { Grade[i] = Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+”/metric”); if ( Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+ ”/coding-scheme”) == “numeric-grade” ) { Grade. Value[i] = Grade[i]. Get. Integer(); Average += Grade. Value[i]; Average. Count++; } } Average = Average. Count > 0 ? Average / Average. Count : 0; 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 108

Learning Content Delivered By Content Server To Browser OOS = Out of Scope for Learning Content Delivered By Content Server To Browser OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI Learner 15: Content is retrieved by content server [OOS] Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 16: Content is sent to browser via, say, HTTP/HTML [OOS] Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. X Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 109

Content Delivery: Pay-Per-Use Content 17: Payment is made for usage, content is retrieved by Content Delivery: Pay-Per-Use Content 17: Payment is made for usage, content is retrieved by content server [OOS] OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI Learner Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Learning Content, etc. Profile Server 19: Content is sent to browser via, say, HTTP/HTML [OOS] Learning Content, pay X Browser, User Interface Back Office X Internet Back Office Profile Server 18: Content server may use back office for payment validation or E-commerce [OOS] Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 110

Content Delivery: Interactions Between Learning Content and Content Server OOS = Out of Scope Content Delivery: Interactions Between Learning Content and Content Server OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI Learner Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 21: Content is sent to browser via, say, HTTP/HTML [OOS] Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. X Internet Back Office Profile Server Back Office 20: Learning content may be active, i. e. , it interacts with content server [OOS] Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 111

Self-Directed Learning Is Possible: Learner Influences Decision-Making of Content Server OOS = Out of Self-Directed Learning Is Possible: Learner Influences Decision-Making of Content Server OOS = Out of Scope for PAPI 22: Learner may direct/control the learning experience [OOS] Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. X Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 112

Content Server Records Performance Information Before/During/After Learning Experience 23: During/after learning experience, content server Content Server Records Performance Information Before/During/After Learning Experience 23: During/after learning experience, content server may create performance info Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learner 24: Remote content server writes performance info to one or more profile servers 25 C: Home profile server may store performance info Learning Content, etc. G Profile Server 25 B: Remote profile server may forward to home profile server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, pay G Internet G Back Office Learning Content, free Back Office 25 A: Remote profile server may store performance info Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 113

Sample SDA API Usage // Put learner’s performance Learner. New. Object(“performance/math-02/session-03”); Learner. Change. View( Sample SDA API Usage // Put learner’s performance Learner. New. Object(“performance/math-02/session-03”); Learner. Change. View( “performance/math-02/session-03/19990809101112”, “A+”); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 114

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage LIST session-01 session-02 NEW list session-03 PUTVAL session-03 <PERFORMANCE> <DATE_TIME>19990809101112</DATE_TIME> Sample DCTP Protocol Usage LIST session-01 session-02 NEW list session-03 PUTVAL session-03 19990809101112 A+ letter 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 115

Learner May Bookmark/Suspend Session: Content Server Records As Performance Information 26: Learner may bookmark Learner May Bookmark/Suspend Session: Content Server Records As Performance Information 26: Learner may bookmark or suspend a session Learner Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 27: Remote content server records bookmark/suspend by writing performance info to one or more profile servers Back Office 28 C: Home profile server may store performance info G Profile Server 28 B: Remote profile server may forward to home profile server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, etc. G Internet G Learning Content, pay Back Office 28 A: Remote profile server may store performance info Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 116

Sample SDA API Usage // Put bookmark/suspend Learner. New. Object(“performance/math-02/session-03”); Learner. Put. Value(“performance/math-02/session-03” “Short. Sample SDA API Usage // Put bookmark/suspend Learner. New. Object(“performance/math-02/session-03”); Learner. Put. Value(“performance/math-02/session-03” “Short. Informal. Name||Long. Informal. Name||Given. Name”); Learner. Name = Name. Get. String(); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 117

Sample DCTP Protocol Usage LIST session-01 session-02 NEW list session-03 PUTVAL session-03 <PERFORMANCE> <DATE_TIME>19990809101112</DATE_TIME> Sample DCTP Protocol Usage LIST session-01 session-02 NEW list session-03 PUTVAL session-03 19990809101112 A+ letter 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 118

Direct Communication Between Content Server And Profile Server Via APIs Learning Content, free Learner Direct Communication Between Content Server And Profile Server Via APIs Learning Content, free Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 29: Remote content server may communicate directly with remote profile server via APIs Internet G Back Office G Learning Content, etc. G Profile Server Learning Content, pay Back Office 30: Remote profile server may replicate performance info to other servers Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 119

Content Server Continues Choosing Learning Content and Reading/Writing Performance Info 31 A: Content server Content Server Continues Choosing Learning Content and Reading/Writing Performance Info 31 A: Content server continues: reading performance info, choosing appropriate content, writing performance info Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 31 B: Some content may execute in the browser; in this case the browser performs the functions of the content server, including read/write performance info Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. G Internet G Back Office Learning Content, free G Profile Server Back Office 32: Various and different profile servers may be used during learner’s session of learning experiences Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 120

Profile Servers May Share Performance Info With Back Office Systems NOTE: Records exchanges between Profile Servers May Share Performance Info With Back Office Systems NOTE: Records exchanges between profile servers and back offices are performed in highly controlled/secure environments Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface 33 B: Remote profile servers may exchange performance info with back office for anonymous learners [OOS] G G G 33 A: Home profile servers may exchange performance info with back office [OOS] Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, etc. Profile Server Back Office Learning Content, pay G Internet G Learning Content, free Back Office G G Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 121

Back Office Systems Can Securely Exchange Performance Info And Transcripts Via PAPI and Profile Back Office Systems Can Securely Exchange Performance Info And Transcripts Via PAPI and Profile Servers NOTE: Records exchanges between profile servers and back offices are performed in highly controlled/secure environments Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learner Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. 35: Back office records exchange is affected by PAPI info exchange via profile servers Internet G Profile Server Back Office G G Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 34: Home/ remote profile servers and back offices exchange performance info and transcripts [OOS] G Profile Server Back Office G G Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 122

Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s performance List = Learner. List(“performance/math-02/session-*”); Average = Sample SDA API Usage // Get learner’s performance List = Learner. List(“performance/math-02/session-*”); Average = 0; Average. Count = 0; for ( i = 0 ; i < List. length ; i++ ) { Grade[i] = Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+”/metric”); if ( Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+ ”/coding-scheme”) == “numeric-grade” ) { Grade. Value[i] = Grade[i]. Get. Integer(); Average += Grade. Value[i]; Average. Count++; } } Average = Average. Count > 0 ? Average / Average. Count : 0; 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 123

Back Office Systems May Communicate Privately For Exchanging Performance Info and Transcripts Learning Content, Back Office Systems May Communicate Privately For Exchanging Performance Info and Transcripts Learning Content, free Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. 36: Some back office systems may have private connections among themselves to exchange performance info and transcripts [OOS] Internet Back Office Profile Server Back Office G Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 124

Learner Creates/Updates Portfolio Info 37: Learner may use special/secure tools to update his/her portfolio Learner Creates/Updates Portfolio Info 37: Learner may use special/secure tools to update his/her portfolio info [OOS] W Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. 38: Profile server stores learner’s portfolio info W Internet Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learner Back Office Learning Content, free Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 125

Sample SDA API Usage // Write learner’s portfolio // // Adding a pointer (URL) Sample SDA API Usage // Write learner’s portfolio // // Adding a pointer (URL) to a dissertation // Project = Learner. New. Object(“portfolio/project-01”, “list”); Project. Put. Value(“reference”, “http: //dissertation. com/my-thesis”); Project. Put. Value(“type”, “url”); // // Adding my financial model (spreadsheet) // Project = Learner. New. Object(“portfolio/project-02”, “file”); Project. Put. Object(“. ”, Spreadsheet. Object); 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 126

Potential Employers/Institutions Examine Learner’s Portfolio Info Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Potential Employers/Institutions Examine Learner’s Portfolio Info Learning Content, free Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learner Learning Content, etc. 39: Employers, teachers, institutions, etc. , may use special/secure tools to examine portfolio info [OOS] W Back Office Internet Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Learning Content, pay Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 127

Sample SDA API Usage // Searching for learners with a grade point // average Sample SDA API Usage // Searching for learners with a grade point // average (GPA) of 3. 5 or better List = Learner. List(“*/performance/gpa”); for ( i = 0 ; i < List. length ; i++ ) { GPA = Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+”/metric”); if ( Learner. Get. Value. By. LH(List[i]+ ”/coding-scheme”) == “grade-point-average-max 4” ) { GPAValue = GPA. Get. Float(); if ( GPAValue >= 3. 5 ) printf(“found learner: %sn”, List[i]); } } 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 128

A Review of Profile Information Schematic of PAPI Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: X, A Review of Profile Information Schematic of PAPI Data Flows and Uses NOTATION: X, N, M, G, W Out of Scope Info (X) Learner PAPI Info Within Conceptual Model PAPI Info Outside Conceptual Model Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, free Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 129

Security Issues • Security perimeter – Inside: intended to be secure – Outside: may Security Issues • Security perimeter – Inside: intended to be secure – Outside: may not be secure • Perimeter integrity – Security perimeter itself must maintain its integrity – What good is a fence if one can move it? • User permissions and administration is one aspect of perimeter integrity 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 130

Security Issues • Inbound threat: – External threat that breaches the security of the Security Issues • Inbound threat: – External threat that breaches the security of the system in question – Examples: unauthorized messages, injected into a data stream, changing information, destroying information • Outbound threat: – Theft of duplication of information. – Examples: snooping network packets, taking information, destroying information 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 131

Security Issues • Security strength – Features that characterize the implementation of the security Security Issues • Security strength – Features that characterize the implementation of the security system – Example: is the fence made of wood, metal, concrete? • Features that characterize security strength. . . • Quality level – What level of security is provided? – Examples of security levels: minimal security (e. g. , C 2 -Level), provable design (e. g. , Ax-Level). 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 132

Security Issues • Features that characterize security strength. . . – Quality level • Security Issues • Features that characterize security strength. . . – Quality level • What level of security is provided? • Examples of security levels: minimal security (e. g. , C 2 Level), provable design (e. g. , Ax-Level). – Contingencies: • What happens when the system is violated? • What fallbacks are available? • What is the extent of the damage? – Penalties: • What happens to violators of the security mechanism? • Example: security strength might concern the number of bits used in encryption keys 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 133

Security: Personal Information Flows Learning Content, free Personal Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Security: Personal Information Flows Learning Content, free Personal Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 134

Security Issues: Personal Information • • • Naming of views Who has access Unauthorized Security Issues: Personal Information • • • Naming of views Who has access Unauthorized reads Unauthorized writes Transfer to/from back office • Correlate to other systems 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 135

Security: Preference Information Flows Learning Content, free Preference Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Security: Preference Information Flows Learning Content, free Preference Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 136

Security Issues: Preference Information • • Naming of views Who has access User-initiated changes Security Issues: Preference Information • • Naming of views Who has access User-initiated changes Authorizing automated changes 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 137

Security: Performance Information Flows Learning Content, free Performance Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Security: Performance Information Flows Learning Content, free Performance Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 138

Security Issues: Performance Information • • Naming of views Who can access Who can Security Issues: Performance Information • • Naming of views Who can access Who can write Who can change Non-repudiated records Certification Validation Expiration 1999 -12 -08 • Granularity • Anonymous access • Controlled, selective, and timed access • Design for children • No access • Nomadic access • Pre-loading IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 139

Security: Portfolio Information Flows Learning Content, free Portfolio Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Security: Portfolio Information Flows Learning Content, free Portfolio Information Flows Learner Content/ Mgmt Server Browser, User Interface Learning Content, pay Learning Content, etc. Internet Back Office Profile Server Secure Local (Home) Intranet 1999 -12 -08 Back Office Secure Remote Intranet IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 140

Security Issues: Portfolio Information • • • Naming of views Who has access Non-persistence Security Issues: Portfolio Information • • • Naming of views Who has access Non-persistence Anonymous access Individual organization access • Timed access 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 141

Overview • • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model • Semantics Overview • • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model • Semantics • Bindings and encodings • Extension mechanisms • Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 142

Semantics: Detailed Meaning Of Operations/Transactions • Assertions: sentences using shall, should, or may • Semantics: Detailed Meaning Of Operations/Transactions • Assertions: sentences using shall, should, or may • Inquiries: range of values • Negotiations: heuristics • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – Array: list of elements of same type in regular structure – Put. Value: replaces old object, in place IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 143

Personal Information • Information about the student • Not “learner metadata” • Info: name Personal Information • Information about the student • Not “learner metadata” • Info: name (family, given, other, pre/post title, lineage), telephone (label? , number), address (label? , line 1, line 2, line 3, city, state/province, postal, country), reference (label? , type, value) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 144

Personal Information • • • Demographic Human Identifier Telephone Number E-mail Address Postal Address Personal Information • • • Demographic Human Identifier Telephone Number E-mail Address Postal Address 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 145

Security Information • Information about the student’s security features • For public “security” repositories: Security Information • Information about the student’s security features • For public “security” repositories: – Public keys • For private “security” repositories: – Determined system admin – Possibly, passwords and private keys 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 146

Security Information • Identifier • Security Parameters 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Security Information • Identifier • Security Parameters 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 147

Relations Information • Information about the student’s relationships • Learning management systems can find Relations Information • Information about the student’s relationships • Learning management systems can find other members of the team for team learning • Helpful for role-based access control 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 148

Relations Information • Entity Name or Identifier • Entity Role 1999 -12 -08 IEEE Relations Information • Entity Name or Identifier • Entity Role 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 149

Preference Information • Public information about student • Not “learner metadata” • Info: language Preference Information • Public information about student • Not “learner metadata” • Info: language (script, country), input/output device (label, type, preference) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 150

Preference Information • • Spoken Language Written Language Age Level Region Content Preferences Style Preference Information • • Spoken Language Written Language Age Level Region Content Preferences Style Pre-Include Post-Include 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 151

Preference Information • Device Preferences – – – – – Context Preference rating Preference Preference Information • Device Preferences – – – – – Context Preference rating Preference priority Device name Device type Method Protocol Coding Encoding Other 1999 -12 -08 • Input/Output Devices – – – – – Security Text Speech Graphics Audio Video Tactile Session Choosing Other IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 152

Performance Information • Record of student performance • May be used for assessment info Performance Information • Record of student performance • May be used for assessment info (Tanimoto) • Info: content identifier, timestamp, performance coding scheme, metric, who issued, valid date, who received, certification ID • Learner-Identifier, Recording-Date-Time, and Content-Identifier are a "primary key" for this repository 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 153

Performance Information • Learner-Identifier – The learner's ID – Likely to correlate to one Performance Information • Learner-Identifier – The learner's ID – Likely to correlate to one of the learner's IDs used for other profile information • Recording-Date-Time – The date-time when the record was recorded, i. e. , a unique timestamp for this record. 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 154

Performance Information • Valid-Date-Time-Begin – The performance record may only be valid for a Performance Information • Valid-Date-Time-Begin – The performance record may only be valid for a certain period of time, e. g. , its "certification" expires – The first valid date-time • Valid-Date-Time-End – The first invalid (expired) date-time of the performance record 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 155

Performance Information • Issue-From-Identifier – Who issued this performance record? • Issue-Date-Time – When Performance Information • Issue-From-Identifier – Who issued this performance record? • Issue-Date-Time – When the performance record was issued – Not the same as the Recording-Date-Time (when the record was recorded in the repository). • Issue-To-Identifier – Who received the per-formance record? – This may be the learner's ID, or it may be a team/group learning ID if the team received the performance record 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 156

Performance Information • Content-Identifier – The identified associated with the “content” – This might Performance Information • Content-Identifier – The identified associated with the “content” – This might be a URL, the name of a tool, etc. – We're not standardizing the names used for content • Granularity: – The relative “size” of the content – Might be a task, module, course, etc. – Probably use Phil Dodds work as a starting point since he's done much research on this. 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 157

Performance Information • Performance-Coding-Scheme – The type of grading, coding, measuring, etc. , system Performance Information • Performance-Coding-Scheme – The type of grading, coding, measuring, etc. , system in use. – It is not possible to standardize on a common scheme (e. g. , letter grade, numeric grade), so we expect that initially there will be many schemes but these schemes will reduce to a smaller set as the "market" demands fewer coding schemes to support more data interchange. – Example: "US-NY-K 12 -LETTER-GRADE” "ATC-610 -SIMULATOR". 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 158

Performance Information • Performance-Metric – The Performance Information • Performance-Metric – The "grade", etc. , that is recorded – Examples: "A+", "97", "Pass". • Certification-Source – Who certified this record • Certification-Method – What certification method was used 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 159

Performance Information • Certification-Parameter-List – Options and parameters necessary to validate the certification – Performance Information • Certification-Parameter-List – Options and parameters necessary to validate the certification – The Certification-Source, Certification-Method, and Certification-Parameter-List, make it is possible to validate the Certification-Identifier • Certification-Subset – A list of which elements in this record are certified – Necessary for generating automatic validation • Certification-Identifier – The identifier that is passed to the certification validator, i. e. , certificate ID 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 160

Portfolio • Projects and works of student • Typically, public information • Info: reference Portfolio • Projects and works of student • Typically, public information • Info: reference (label, type, value) 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 161

Implementation Experience [1/3] • Personal information: – Primary key: student identifier – Secondary keys: Implementation Experience [1/3] • Personal information: – Primary key: student identifier – Secondary keys: to be defined – Security: per-field, per-record, views • Preference information: – Primary key: student identifier – Secondary keys: preference type – Security: public 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 162

Implementation Experience [2/3] • Performance information: – Primary key: student identifier, content identifier, timestamp Implementation Experience [2/3] • Performance information: – Primary key: student identifier, content identifier, timestamp YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. FF – Secondary keys and security: views, RBAC – Access by automated systems • Portfolio information: – Primary key: student identifier, content identifier, timestamp YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. FF – Secondary keys: to be defined – Security: probably public – Access by humans 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 163

Implementation Experience [3/3] • Student identifier specification is required • Content identifier specification (URL, Implementation Experience [3/3] • Student identifier specification is required • Content identifier specification (URL, URN, or something else? ) -- LTSA locator index • Security: authentication, access, integrity, confidentiality -- multiple methods, views help simplify security 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 164

Overview • • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics • Overview • • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics • Bindings and encodings • Extension mechanisms • Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 165

Bindings: Mappings to Other Standards Frameworks • Bindings to APIs • Bindings to codings Bindings: Mappings to Other Standards Frameworks • Bindings to APIs • Bindings to codings (information organization) • Bindings to protocols • Examples: Requirements Functionality Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 – APIs: C/C++, VB, Perl, Javascript – Codings: XML, TCL – Protocols: DCTP, HTTP IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 166

IEEE 1484. 14: APIs Bindings • Define APIs: C, C++, Javascript, Visual Basic, Perl, IEEE 1484. 14: APIs Bindings • Define APIs: C, C++, Javascript, Visual Basic, Perl, Tcl • Contributions from several organization • Collaboration with many standards organizations • Related protocol work: – IEEE 1484. 15 DCTP (data/control transfer protocol) – IEEE 1484. 16 HTTP bindings 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 167

IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Session Services • New. Session(): Opens a new session to IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Session Services • New. Session(): Opens a new session to repository • Destroy. Session(): Closes repository • Open. View(): Starts data access to a portion of the repository • Close. View(): Ends data access • Set. Param(), Query. Param(): Changes or retrieves session parameters 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 168

IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Handler Services • Set. Handler(), Query. Handler(): Set up and IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Handler Services • Set. Handler(), Query. Handler(): Set up and inquire about event handlers • Request. Security(), Respond. Security(): Allow “server-side” authentication requests • Request. Nomad(), Respond. Nomad(): Can setup nomadic (reconnectable) connections • Request. Event(), Respond. Event(): Used for handling most exceptions and errors 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 169

IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Data Perspectives Services • Set. Naming(), Query. Naming(): Set or IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Data Perspectives Services • Set. Naming(), Query. Naming(): Set or inquire naming convention • Set. Coding(), Query. Coding(): Sets data coding, i. e. , organization of information • Set. View(), Query. View(): Set or inquire view 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 170

IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Data Transfer/Walk Services • Get. Value(), Put. Value() • Get. IEEE 1484. 14 APIs: Data Transfer/Walk Services • Get. Value(), Put. Value() • Get. Deep. Value(), Put. Deep. Value() • Copy(), Deep. Copy() • Move(), Deep. Move() • Walk. Get. Object(), Walk. Put. Object() • List(), Deep. List() 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 171

Encodings: Bit/Octet Data Representation and Format • Not to be confused with “codings” • Encodings: Bit/Octet Data Representation and Format • Not to be confused with “codings” • Examples: Requirements Functionality – POSIX/Win 32 subroutine linkage – ASCII, ISO 8859 -1, UTF 8 – IETF text format Conceptual Model Semantics Bindings: APIs Bindings: Codings Bindings: Protocols Encodings: Calling Conventions Encodings: Data Formats Encodings: Various Communication Layers 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 172

Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings • Extension mechanisms • Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 173

Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and Overview • • Status of document Methodology Requirements Functionality Conceptual model Semantics Bindings and encodings Extension mechanisms • Conformance testing 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 174

Current Tasks [1/2] • • • Liaise with student identifiers Liaise with CORBAMED (patient Current Tasks [1/2] • • • Liaise with student identifiers Liaise with CORBAMED (patient records) Release PAPI client API for Java (IMS) Work with IEEE 1484. 14 for API and XML Release PAPI client API for telnet/ftp (DCTP) XML schemas 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 175

Current Tasks [2/2] • Incorporate work from Microsoft, People. Soft, UC, Do. D, and Current Tasks [2/2] • Incorporate work from Microsoft, People. Soft, UC, Do. D, and others • Next spec by 1999 -07 -16 • Work with IMS members to assure compatibility • Submit revised spec to IMS and IEEE 1484. 2 1999 -12 -08 IEEE 1484. 2, PAPI Spec, Draft 6, F. Farance, © 1999 Edutool. Com 176