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PSYCHOLOGY (8 th Edition, in Modules) David Myers Power. Point Slides Worth Publishers, © PSYCHOLOGY (8 th Edition, in Modules) David Myers Power. Point Slides Worth Publishers, © 2007 1

Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2

Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning § Pavlov’s Experiments § Extending Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning § Pavlov’s Experiments § Extending Pavlov’s Understanding § Pavlov’s Legacy 3

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience. Learning thus is more flexible, unlike genetically programmed behaviors of say, Chinooks. 4

How Do We Learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that How Do We Learn? We learn by association. Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence. Aristotle, 2000 years ago, suggested this law of association. Then 200 years ago Locke and Hume reiterated this law. 5

Stimulus-Stimulus Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 6 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 6

Stimulus-Stimulus Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 7 Stimulus-Stimulus Learning to associate one stimulus with another. 7

Response-Consequence Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 8 Response-Consequence Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 8

Response-Consequence Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 9 Response-Consequence Learning to associate a response with a consequence. 9

Classical Conditioning Sovfoto Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories, however Classical Conditioning Sovfoto Ideas a of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories, however it was a Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work became seminal for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner. Ivan Pavlov (1849 -1936) 10

Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). The Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). The tone (neutral stimulus) does not. 11

Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US (food) are paired resulting in Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, neutral stimulus (tone) and US (food) are paired resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR) 12

Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning. during which association between a neutral stimulus Acquisition The initial stage in classical conditioning. during which association between a neutral stimulus and a US takes place. 1. Neutral stimulus needs to come before the US for conditioning to occur (most cases). 2. The time between the two stimuli should be about half a second. 13

Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US to cause Acquisition The CS needs to come half a second before the US to cause acquisition. 14

Extinction When a US (food) does not follow a CS (tone) CR (salivation) starts Extinction When a US (food) does not follow a CS (tone) CR (salivation) starts to decrease and at some point goes extinct. 15

Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers and if Spontaneous Recovery After a rest period an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers and if CS (tone) persists alone becomes extinct again. 16

Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS is called generalization. Pavlov Stimulus Generalization Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) to the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped. 17

Stimulus Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli Stimulus Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a US. 18

Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness or mind not fit for scientific Extending Pavlov’s Understanding Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness or mind not fit for scientific study of psychology. However, they underestimated the importance cognitive processes and biological constraints. 19

Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learnt behaviors of various animals could be reduced Cognitive Processes Early behaviorists believed that learnt behaviors of various animals could be reduced to mindless mechanisms. However, later behaviorists suggested that animals learn predictability of a stimulus, thus learn expectancy or awareness of a stimulus (Rescorla, 1988). 20

Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar across all Biological Predispositions Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar across all animals. Learning in a pigeon and a person was not different. However, later behaviorists suggested that learning was constrained by animal’s biology. 21

Biological Predispositions Courtesy of John Garcia showed that duration between CS and US can Biological Predispositions Courtesy of John Garcia showed that duration between CS and US can be long (hours) and yet result in conditioning. Biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not others (light or sound). John Garcia 22

Biological Predispositions Even humans develop classically conditioned nausea. 23 Biological Predispositions Even humans develop classically conditioned nausea. 23

Pavlov’s Legacy Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex Pavlov’s Legacy Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective scientific procedures. Ivan Pavlov (1849 -1936) 24

Applications of Classical Conditioning Brown Brothers Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising Applications of Classical Conditioning Brown Brothers Watson used classical conditioning procedures to develop advertising campaigns for a number of organizations including Maxwell House, making “coffee break” an American custom. John B. Watson 25

Applications of Classical Conditioning 1. Alcoholics can be conditioned (aversively) partly reversing their positive-associations Applications of Classical Conditioning 1. Alcoholics can be conditioned (aversively) partly reversing their positive-associations with alcohol. 2. A drug (plus its taste) that affects the immune response, can lead the taste to invoke the immune response through classical conditioning. 26