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Psychological Dysfunction and Treatment Disorders are given psychological labels and listed in the DSM Psychological Dysfunction and Treatment Disorders are given psychological labels and listed in the DSM

Source of Psychological Disorders • Nurture or Nature • Biological or Learned • Though Source of Psychological Disorders • Nurture or Nature • Biological or Learned • Though our culture believes in the biological model, there is extensive research showing that our experiences play a significant role

Early Trauma results in an overly developed Stress Axis: HPA Axis Early Trauma results in an overly developed Stress Axis: HPA Axis

Need HPA Axis to survive and protect • But if have overly developed Stress Need HPA Axis to survive and protect • But if have overly developed Stress Axis, we go through life over-reacting to life’s stressors. • If Brain gives too much priority to the development of stress axis, it will give too little priority to the development of the cerebral cortex & hippocampus • Likely partially explain why children who have experienced early traumas show serious

How can children learn to become anxious: Raised in Stressful Environment • Overly protective, How can children learn to become anxious: Raised in Stressful Environment • Overly protective, intrusive &/or demanding parents • Very unstable and unpredictable early environment • Parents model excessive number of anxieties and fears, as Mrs. Hughes did for Howard toward germs

These Factors Cause Children to Learn to become Anxious • Observational Learning: Parents or These Factors Cause Children to Learn to become Anxious • Observational Learning: Parents or caregivers or siblings display frequent anxiety • Very nerve-wracking to be over-controlled as well as given pressure of unreasonable demands • Too early and extensive day care &/or too little stability in one’s early environment

Classical Conditioning Paradigm • Howard Hughes develop phobia toward germs UCS UCR CS CR Classical Conditioning Paradigm • Howard Hughes develop phobia toward germs UCS UCR CS CR

In the film Shine, David Helfgot and volitile, demanding & abusive father UCS CS In the film Shine, David Helfgot and volitile, demanding & abusive father UCS CS UCR CR

Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders

General Anxiety Disorder General Anxiety Disorder

Panic Disorder: Anxiety Levels can result in Panic Attacks Symptoms: Racing heart Feel faint Panic Disorder: Anxiety Levels can result in Panic Attacks Symptoms: Racing heart Feel faint and/or dizzy Tingling or numbness in hands or arms Sense of impending doom Chest pains Difficulty with breathing Feel a loss of control

Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder

Behavioral Clinic that teaches socially phobic people to learn how to reach out • Behavioral Clinic that teaches socially phobic people to learn how to reach out • Model and rehearse simple and appropriate ways to initiate a social interaction • Give weekly assignments that start very simple and move forward step-by-step • Report back to group every week on successes the previous week

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Common Thoughts or Obsessions • Fear of dirt or contamination by germs • Fear Common Thoughts or Obsessions • Fear of dirt or contamination by germs • Fear of doing harm to another • Obsess if proper order and neatness has not been maintained • Excessive doubt and need for constant reassurances • Fear of thinking evil or sinful thoughts

Common Compulsions • Repeatedly showering or washing hands • Refuse to shake hands or Common Compulsions • Repeatedly showering or washing hands • Refuse to shake hands or touch door knobs • Repeatedly checking things, as locks • Constantly arranging things in certain order • Collecting or hoarding items of no value

Aviator: Life Howard Hughes Aviator: Life Howard Hughes

Childhood of Howard Hughes • 1) He grew up with a mother who forced Childhood of Howard Hughes • 1) He grew up with a mother who forced him to endure odd cleaning rituals, as dousing himself with mineral oil daily. • 2) She disapproved of him making friends as believed they were carriers of disease, resulting in him spending much of his childhood alone or with his mother. • 3) Mother insisted on giving Howard hand baths until he reached his teens. • 4) She watched for slightest changed in physical condition, sniffles, a cough as well as any abnormality in his feet, teeth or digestion and then would whisk to a doctor, in the process lavishing much attention and sympathy. • 5) Observers were amazed at the extreme closeness between Howard and his mother and how often they would kiss and hug.

Hughes also developed life-long obsession with germs • Not like anyone touching him • Hughes also developed life-long obsession with germs • Not like anyone touching him • Over-react to people around him to be messy or dirty, especially when under stress • Wash his hands many times every day • Become more and more reclusive through the years

Last 20 years live alone in hotel room Last 20 years live alone in hotel room

Cognitive therapy for anxiety: challenge a person’s distorted perceptions • Will touching doorknobs cause Cognitive therapy for anxiety: challenge a person’s distorted perceptions • Will touching doorknobs cause contamination & then serious illness? • What will be the dire consequences of not washing your hands more than 5 times a day? • Are people really watching and judging you when you walk into a restaurant or library? • Are you really having a heart attack during a panic episode? • So what if not do a job perfectly? ! So what if not get an A on every tests? ! • Can control habitual anxious thinking & so reduce anxious feelings

Behavioral Therapy: Exposure & Response Prevention Using Systematic Desensitization expose a person to their Behavioral Therapy: Exposure & Response Prevention Using Systematic Desensitization expose a person to their fear in small steps Create a hierarchy of fears from the most to the least Then prevent habitual response that person usually makes to that feared stimulus

Behavioral Changes for Anxiety • Practice the “relaxation response: Behavioral Changes for Anxiety • Practice the “relaxation response: " Starts with the mind which, in turn, relaxes the body • Learn deep muscle relaxation exercises: Starts with the body which, in turn, relaxes the mind (Yoga)

Behavioral Therapy: Can learn behaviors that effectively reduce anxiety • Meditation Behavioral Therapy: Can learn behaviors that effectively reduce anxiety • Meditation

Yoga Yoga

Depression Depression

Causes of Depression: operant conditioning • Child receive much extinction &/or lots of discouraging Causes of Depression: operant conditioning • Child receive much extinction &/or lots of discouraging feedback • Receive very little positive, encouraging feedback • Not encouraged to become independent—or develop a sense of autonomy • Given sense that they are not valued, lovable or competent

Social Learning Explanation of Cause of Depression • Determine how one’s thinking patterns are Social Learning Explanation of Cause of Depression • Determine how one’s thinking patterns are overly negative—always focusing on what one has done wrong. • One’s negative thinking leads to negative moods and depression • Negative moods leads to inactivity which, in turn, increases ones negative thinking.

What are examples of negative thinking when we are depressed? • Believe cannot control What are examples of negative thinking when we are depressed? • Believe cannot control environment so feeling helpless and hopeless • Learn selective perception: focus on what did wrong, not what did right as what parents did • Develop pessimistic attitude and low self-esteem • When experience loss or set-backs, over-react and become depressed and blame self

Feeling Good Handbook • All or nothing thinking • Discounting the positive • Believe Feeling Good Handbook • All or nothing thinking • Discounting the positive • Believe need to be perfect or have failed • Buy into view ‘am a loser, ’ no matter what

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy • Identify cognitive distortions and practice more positive and productive thinking patterns Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy • Identify cognitive distortions and practice more positive and productive thinking patterns • Change behavior patterns from being inactive and start to become engaged and involved with a social community, volunteer work, exercise, etc—working in small steps

Behaviors to reduce depression • Step-by-step increase in level of exercise do on daily Behaviors to reduce depression • Step-by-step increase in level of exercise do on daily basis: start at 250 steps per day & week by week increase up to 10, 000 • Increase social network: create one social interaction during a week • Join new social groups via meetup. com

Cure for Depression—Become active and productive Cure for Depression—Become active and productive

Books Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Books Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Books focused on specific problems Cognitive Behavioral Books focused on specific problems

Schizophrenia is most serious psychological dysfunction • Diathesis-Stress Model: Born with genetic defect that Schizophrenia is most serious psychological dysfunction • Diathesis-Stress Model: Born with genetic defect that predisposes them to overreact to stressors OR • Early severe stressful events cause abnormal neurodevelopment that has caused nervous system to be hyper sensitive to stressors

Abnormalities found in schizophrenics • Over-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis • Structural brain changes, including Abnormalities found in schizophrenics • Over-reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis • Structural brain changes, including hippocampus damage and cerebral atrophy • Elevation of release of cortisol and dopamine when exposed to stress

What could these neurological abnormalities explain? • Oversensitivity to stress • Cognitive impairments • What could these neurological abnormalities explain? • Oversensitivity to stress • Cognitive impairments • Relationship between psychotic and hallucinations, delusions and paranoia

Problem with biological model • Impede adequate consideration of relevance of stress, trauma, neglect Problem with biological model • Impede adequate consideration of relevance of stress, trauma, neglect and loss in early childhood • Diathesis-stress model only measure stressors a few weeks or months prior to outbreak so not consider early life events • Gross imbalance in examining biological psychological and social factors

“Genotype-environment interaction in schizophrenic-spectrum disorder” • British Journal of Psychiatry (2004) • 36% of “Genotype-environment interaction in schizophrenic-spectrum disorder” • British Journal of Psychiatry (2004) • 36% of high-genetic risk adoptees raised in dysfunctional families develop symptoms • 5. 8% of high-genetic risk adoptees raised in healthy families • Demonstrates protective effect of family

Factors in Environment: High Degree of Stress Early in Life • Genetic risk combined Factors in Environment: High Degree of Stress Early in Life • Genetic risk combined with volatile, hostile unpredictable, judgmental and/or overly protective environment

Healthy Families • Have good sense of humor and can laugh at themselves • Healthy Families • Have good sense of humor and can laugh at themselves • Respect each other’s need for privacy and not engage in mind reading • Negotiate and compromise

Findings of Adoptee studies • Genes do not operate alone • Environmental factors play Findings of Adoptee studies • Genes do not operate alone • Environmental factors play a significant role • Much of environmental influences are result of family environment • Developing brain vulnerable early in life

Traits of Healthy Families • Speak clearly and are not rigid nor confusing • Traits of Healthy Families • Speak clearly and are not rigid nor confusing • Friendly environment & able to disagree without upsetting other members • Can express happiness or sadness to each other

Treatment for Schizophrenia: Limited to Biological Treatments Treatment for Schizophrenia: Limited to Biological Treatments

Biological Treatments • Medications Biological Treatments • Medications

Thorazine one popular anti-psychotic medication: very strong sedative Thorazine one popular anti-psychotic medication: very strong sedative

Action of Antidepressants Action of Antidepressants

ECT: Electro-convulsive therapy ECT: Electro-convulsive therapy

Deep Stimulation of the Reward Centers in the Brain Deep Stimulation of the Reward Centers in the Brain

Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation