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Protestant Baroque Protestant Baroque

Restrained or Protestant Baroque n n n Dutch Republic Calvinist Visual arts? n n Restrained or Protestant Baroque n n n Dutch Republic Calvinist Visual arts? n n n Not commissioned by Churches Religious art is subtle Home decoration n n n Still life Landscapes Portraits People at work Rembrant van Rijn (1606 -69) Jan Vermeer (1632 -75)

Protestant Baroque Music Protestant Baroque Music

Handel and Oratorio n n n After Italian opera went out of fashion, he Handel and Oratorio n n n After Italian opera went out of fashion, he turned to Oratorio In English Musical style Choruses n Recitative n Arias (da capo) n

The Messiah (1742) n First performed in Dublin for charity The Messiah (1742) n First performed in Dublin for charity

Johann Sebastian Bach Age 35 1685 -1750 Age 50 Johann Sebastian Bach Age 35 1685 -1750 Age 50

Kapellmeister at Cöthen 1717 -1723 n n The Prince was a Calvinist Bach concentrated Kapellmeister at Cöthen 1717 -1723 n n The Prince was a Calvinist Bach concentrated on secular music n Well-Tempered Clavier n Concertos

The Brandenburg Concertos n n 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 The Brandenburg Concertos n n 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) [We must now digress a bit to catch you up on the Concerto; we’ll return to Bach in a few minutes]

The Concerto Grosso n Contrast between large and small groups of players Ripieno or The Concerto Grosso n Contrast between large and small groups of players Ripieno or tutti n concertino n n Solo concerto- large group and soloist Three movements: Fast, slow, fast Dynamics?

The Concerto: Ritornello Form Ritornello contrast Tutti Main key Concertino Ritornello Tutti contrasting contrast The Concerto: Ritornello Form Ritornello contrast Tutti Main key Concertino Ritornello Tutti contrasting contrast Concertino Ritornello Tutti Main

Antonio Vivaldi (1678 -1741) n n n Worked for an orphanage in Venice Composed Antonio Vivaldi (1678 -1741) n n n Worked for an orphanage in Venice Composed over 450 concertos The Four Seasons (1725) n La Primavera (Spring), Op. 8, No. 1

First Movement: Allegro Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with a First Movement: Allegro Spring has come, and joyfully, The birds greet it with a happy song. And the streams, fanned by gentle breezes, Flow along with a sweet murmur. Covering the sky with a black cloak, Thunder and lighting come to announce the season. When these have quieted down, the little birds Return to their enchanting song.

The Brandenburg Concertos n n 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 The Brandenburg Concertos n n 6 Concertos for various combinations of instruments No. 5 in D Major (harpsichord, violin, flute, strings, and continuo) n Three movements n n Fast – slow – fast Ritornello form

Leipzig 1723 -1750 n n Kantor, Director of Choir and Music in Leipzig Composed Leipzig 1723 -1750 n n Kantor, Director of Choir and Music in Leipzig Composed and directed music for the Churches (Lutheran) in Town Taught music and Latin at the St. Thomas School Directed Collegium Musicum (1729)

Leipzig in 1720 Leipzig in 1720

Thomaskirche in Bach’s Time Thomaskirche in Bach’s Time

Thomaskirche Nikolaikirche Thomaskirche Nikolaikirche

Bach’s responsibilities for Church music n A cantata performed for the two main churches Bach’s responsibilities for Church music n A cantata performed for the two main churches every other week n n n For his first few years there he completed cycles of cantatas for the liturgical year The choir consisted of boys from the Thomas School, and the orchestra was from the town band Rehearsals on Saturdays

Cantata Opening Chorus (often an arr. of a chorale) Recitative Aria or duet Sermon Cantata Opening Chorus (often an arr. of a chorale) Recitative Aria or duet Sermon (lasted about an hour) Recitative Aria or duet Chorale

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) The scripture reading for Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) The scripture reading for the day (Matt. 25): At that time the kingdom of heaven will be like ten virgins who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were foolish and five were wise. The foolish ones took their lamps but did not take any oil with them. The wise, however, took oil in jars along with their lamps. The bridegroom was a long time in coming, and they all became drowsy and fell asleep.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) At midnight the cry Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) At midnight the cry rang out: “Here’s the bridegroom! Come out to meet him!” Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, “Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out. ” “No, ” they replied, “there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead go and buy some for yourselves. ” But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Later the others also Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Later the others also came. “Sir!” they said. “Open the door for us!” But he replied, “I tell you the truth, I don’t know you. ” Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): First movement Wachet auf, Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): First movement Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme Der Wächter sehr hoch auf der Zinne Wach auf, du Jerusalem! Mitternacht heisst diese Stunde; Sie rufen uns mit hellem Munde: Wo seid ihr klugen Jungfrauen? “Awake, ” the voice of watchmen calls us from high on the tower, “Awake, Jerusalem!” Midnight is this very hour; They call us with bright voices: “Where are you, wise virgins? ”

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Wohl auf, der Bräut’gam Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731) Wohl auf, der Bräut’gam kömmt, steht auf, die Lampen nehmt! Alleluja! Macht euch bereit Zu der Hochzeit Ihr müsset ihm entgegen gehn. Take cheer, the bridegroom comes, Arise, take up your lamps! Hallelujah! Prepare yourselves For the wedding, You must go forth to meet him.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Zion Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Zion hört die Wächter singen, Das Herz tut ihr vor Freuden springen, Sie wachet und steht eilend auf. Zion hears the watchmen singing, For joy her very heart is springing, She wakes and rises hastily.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Ihr Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Ihr Freund kommt von Himmel Prächtig, Von Gnaden stark, von Wahrheit mächtig, Ihr Licht wird hell, ihr Stern geht auf. From heaven comes her friend resplendent, Sturdy in grace, mighty in truth, Her light shines bright, her star ascends.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Nun Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 4 th movement Nun komm, du werte Kron, Herr Jesu, Gottes Sohn. Hosianna! Wir folgen all’ zum Freudensaal Und halten mit das Abendmahl. Now come, you worthy crown, Lord Jesus, God’s own Son. Hosanna! We all follow to the joyful hall And share the Lord’s Supper.

Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 7 th movement Gloria Cantata No. 140: Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme (1731): 7 th movement Gloria sei dir gesungen Mit Menschen und englischen Zungen, Mit Harfen und mit Zimbeln Schön… Gloria be sung to you With men’s and angel’s tongues, With harps and beautiful cymbals…