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- Proper IC Storage -- Counterfeiting --- “No Lead” - Fuels the Fire November - Proper IC Storage -- Counterfeiting --- “No Lead” - Fuels the Fire November 14, 2007 John O’Boyle QP Semiconductor Santa Clara, CA

Today’s 3 Topics • We have a lot to cover but I hope to Today’s 3 Topics • We have a lot to cover but I hope to make it interesting and educational, too. • Proper IC Storage – Brief Tutorial – Common misconceptions • Counterfeiting – this is an ongoing – How we got to the present “situation” (IMHO) – Examples of Counterfeiting – What to look for! • Lead (Pb) Free, a caution – A questionable journey • Summary topic

Proper IC Storage Proper IC Storage

Proper IC Storage • Clearly for long-term programs some form of storage should be Proper IC Storage • Clearly for long-term programs some form of storage should be considered. – Long-term storage may present problems – practical/physical space, mechanical, financial, and counterfeit products. – With appropriate care, ICs can be stored at the die/wafer level, or as “finished goods” (packaged). • What do we mean by long-term storage? – Commercial: 2 years is very long-term. – Military: 20 years and beyond is common.

Die/wafer Storage a. k. a “Die Banking” • Successful storage methodologies include special bagging, Die/wafer Storage a. k. a “Die Banking” • Successful storage methodologies include special bagging, environmental controls and periodic monitoring. – Requires care, cleanliness (particulates and gases), and benign temperatures. • IDMs do this. But few, if any, distributors do. – Controlled atmosphere “dry boxes” (dry nitrogen purged storage). – Dry bagged/vacuum storage. – Oxygen barrier bags designed specifically for long-term storage.

Die/wafer Storage Advantages • Compact – container on the right holds 9 wafers with Die/wafer Storage Advantages • Compact – container on the right holds 9 wafers with gross die count of 64, 000. (Note – Data CD in photo) • Flexible form factor – can build parts in any desired package.

Hermetic Packages • Minimize moisture intrusion • 20 year storage is routine – Metal Hermetic Packages • Minimize moisture intrusion • 20 year storage is routine – Metal TO “can” – Ceramic and side-brazed packages • DIP, LCC, flat pack, and PGA • Keep them dry and in environments low in sulfur, chlorine, and hydrocarbons to preserve solder finish on lead frame.

Hermetic Disadvantages/Advantages • Cannot change package type. • Slightly more expensive to store than Hermetic Disadvantages/Advantages • Cannot change package type. • Slightly more expensive to store than die bank. • Large storage space required. • Easy storage infrastructure. • Long life time storage.

Common Misconceptions about Plastic • “They” come from the manufacturer in sealed packaging and Common Misconceptions about Plastic • “They” come from the manufacturer in sealed packaging and thus don’t need special handling/storage. • “They” are rated as not-moisture sensitive and thus are okay. • “They” are safe to store in a “normal room” environment.

Plastic Packages • Plastic is hygroscopic – Attracts water molecules from the environment. – Plastic Packages • Plastic is hygroscopic – Attracts water molecules from the environment. – Achieve equilibrium in 4 to 28 days depending on molding compound. – Normal room considered “wet” for plastic ICs (LAX annual average RH: +70%*) – Store in “dry bags” or in a <10% RH environment * LAX weather station - indoor data over 31 years. Source: Plastic Package Moisture-Induced Cracking, April 2006, National Semiconductor Application Note

Wait a Minute! • “ 4 days? ” – That’s for the moisture to Wait a Minute! • “ 4 days? ” – That’s for the moisture to reach equilibrium, it takes a longer time for damage to occur. • “Normal room is WET? ” – Well, when the device is turned on the die heats and the moisture is driven out. – But you don’t normally store them powered up, do you?

But, Water doesn’t hurt Plastic! • It’s not the plastic we’re worried about! – But, Water doesn’t hurt Plastic! • It’s not the plastic we’re worried about! – Water leaches: • Materials out of the mold compound • Elements in the gases in the environment • Other materials deposited on the outside of the package. – These corrode and degrade the aluminum pads and wires. Which ends in device failure. • Isn’t plastic “rated” as non-moisture sensitive? – Yes. But this is for IC/board assembly. It is a rating for re -flow solder heat induced de-lamination and popcorning. Contrary to popular belief: It is not a rating for long-term storage!

IC Storage: Good and Bad News • Good: You can store wafers, die, or IC Storage: Good and Bad News • Good: You can store wafers, die, or packages – Wafers or hermetic parts; store in a dry environment. – Plastic finished goods require a dry environment with periodic monitoring. – Having spares essentially eradicates the problem of locating EOL/obsolete parts in the future. • Bad: May be prohibited by regulation (FAR). – FAR often limits procurement to one or two years. – Systems manufacturers have rarely funded this longterm procurement on their “own dollar. ”

Storage Options: Summary Storage Options: Summary

Counterfeiting • Across All Industries From Auto Parts to Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals. – Pharmaceuticals: Counterfeiting • Across All Industries From Auto Parts to Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals. – Pharmaceuticals: $32 Billion annual loss • One pharmaceuticals company uses GPS on armored vehicles to track and protect their Pharmaceuticals during transport. – Ford estimates a $1 Billion loss due to counterfeit replacement parts. • Counterfeiting Poses a Real and Serious Threat to Global Public Health and Safety.

How BIG is the Problem? • Estimates place 2006 losses due to counterfeiting at How BIG is the Problem? • Estimates place 2006 losses due to counterfeiting at $650 Billion dollars*! – If ranked as National GDP – that would be the 18 th largest country in the world – Just behind Australia at $666 Billion • Out of the 227 countries listed in the 2006 CIA World Factbook! *Source: Global trade in counterfeit goods is booming January 26, 2007 Business Report & Independent Online

How did we* get Here? • Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) – Partly to How did we* get Here? • Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) – Partly to blame (IMHO) • What was the “Original Idea”? (A quick review) – It worked pretty well, right? • What happened as time passed? – Demand shifted – NLA appeared on POs – “Opportunists” stepped in • What’s to be done? (Now that the “COT” is out of the bag? ) * The Military and Aerospace Community

In the Beginning (Remember the $5000 hammer? ) • The basic concept was to In the Beginning (Remember the $5000 hammer? ) • The basic concept was to get state-of-the-art devices at significantly lower prices. • That worked and as manufacturers embraced COTS, semiconductor users reported: – Significant savings versus “Mil-spec” – Much higher performance (basically generation jumps) • Ok, you so hear a “Yeah, BUT …” Coming? ?

Well, How About an “Except? ” It’s just • COTS worked pretty well – Well, How About an “Except? ” It’s just • COTS worked pretty well – “EXCEPT” one little, teeny – When OEMs needed “tracking” or “specials” small change – When it took a long time to start a program – When the customer wanted more systems years later • So the exceptions created a secondary demand for custom/older/hard-to-get parts and created a new industry – the one serving the DMS/Obsolete Parts Market And Two Things Happened

One - Semiconductor Demand Shifted Forecast Source 1965 -2005: One - Semiconductor Demand Shifted Forecast Source 1965 -2005:

As Time Went On • The commercial market for ICs exploded – – In As Time Went On • The commercial market for ICs exploded – – In 1965 almost 80% of semiconductor demand was gov, about 20% corp, and consumer was almost immeasurable. – By 1995 mil/gov was 10%, corp was 62% and consumer was 28% and COTS was entering the “mainstream. ” – In 2005 mil/gov was 4%, corporate was 44% and consumer was 52%! • And the IDMs had lost sight of the mil/gov customer. • And the trend is continuing – by 2010 consumer is projected to reach over 60% and mil/gov will be in the noise at 1%! [Don’t forget, COTS is in Consumer!]

NLA Two – Parts Became “NLA” • As program life lengthened parts became “No NLA Two – Parts Became “NLA” • As program life lengthened parts became “No Longer Available. ” – Unanticipated shortages became a very real part of the problem and made long-range planning a much more important activity. • “Unanticipated” because the commercial segment (The big “C” in COTS) used a technology and then, having used it, moved on (sorry, Omar Khayyam) • While mil/gov designed for a longer time horizon and expected the parts to be there when ordered.

What Can We Do? ? ? First, recognize that the divergence between consumer and What Can We Do? ? ? First, recognize that the divergence between consumer and mil/gov demand (exacerbated by the move to COTS) means that shortages are now a part of life. Given that, we can 1. Store the parts, which we covered previously, or if that’s not feasible then: 2. Develop a future buying plan.

Future Buy Or - Keynesian Economics at work • This is tricky – the Future Buy Or - Keynesian Economics at work • This is tricky – the shortage of obsolete COTS parts on one side with high demand on the other has created very high prices for the remaining few devices. • And the high prices have given rise to the counterfeit market. – We have ALL essentially created an opportunity for unscrupulous vendors to enter the market by demanding the lowest price and /or unreasonable delivery times • Which they are happy to say they can accommodate!

Further Complication • Many counterfeit products are potentially functional in systems, making detection difficult. Further Complication • Many counterfeit products are potentially functional in systems, making detection difficult. • Many times genuine good parts are “salted” into the mix of counterfeits. • IDM’s don’t have the ability to trace back older products and even if they did, counterfeiters can use valid part marking and lot numbers if they copy original examples. • Government oversight doesn’t have resources to interdict, prosecute or incarcerate/fine.

To Illustrate: Which is the real Cypress UVPROM? To Illustrate: Which is the real Cypress UVPROM?

Which is Real? • Couple of facts: – Both pass all electrical tests, including Which is Real? • Couple of facts: – Both pass all electrical tests, including temp. – The bottom has lower power consumption and is slightly faster on some AC tests – equal on others – all well within spec. • Top one is original Cypress part. • Bottom is a QP Semi, DSCC approved, part. • Bottom was re-marked as Cypress by third party.

A Closer Look at Counterfeit ICs Example: Counterfeit National LM 710 • Not a A Closer Look at Counterfeit ICs Example: Counterfeit National LM 710 • Not a Shinko “Flat” glass header • No stress relief step @ lead egress (chipouts) • Date code H 9923 – H is correct for Philippine assembly but NSC EOL’d in 1996, final shipments 1997, NOT 1999!

710 Solder dewetting 710 Solder dewetting

710 s Side-by-Side Counterfeit LM 710 DIE Does not appear to be National Die 710 s Side-by-Side Counterfeit LM 710 DIE Does not appear to be National Die Real National LM 710 Die Note, correct product code “D”

Example #2: CYPRESS 7 CY 403 The Correct Logo For the period External part Example #2: CYPRESS 7 CY 403 The Correct Logo For the period External part marking for Cypress marked device. Note “suspicious” LOGO. But it is pretty close.

CYPRESS Inside? IDT Die in Cypress marked package 403? And, it’s the wrong part CYPRESS Inside? IDT Die in Cypress marked package 403? And, it’s the wrong part number!

Example #3: Signetics – LED Driver? Correct part number and the CC 1368 F Example #3: Signetics – LED Driver? Correct part number and the CC 1368 F logo looks okay. - WHAT’S CCF 9622 C WRONG? Look again! In 1996 there was no Signetics, it was Phillips! And the die shows ST! Date 1989!

Counterfeit and Original As indicated earlier – Philips! Note: the correct date reference Counterfeit and Original As indicated earlier – Philips! Note: the correct date reference

More on the Signetics Part What it should have been What we received Very More on the Signetics Part What it should have been What we received Very high density, without measuring Probably 0. 65 m. You can see the transistors. Probably 3. 0 m and correct layout and devices for the vintage.

Lead (Pb) Free – a good idea? Lead (Pb) Free – a good idea?

Lead (Pb) free – CAUTION • Watch out for unleaded parts being sold as Lead (Pb) free – CAUTION • Watch out for unleaded parts being sold as having Pb solder coatings – will have tin whisker problems, especially in space. – And vice versa • Also be aware that as Pb free promulgates the market, many Pb parts will become hard to get. – Counterfeiters will likely have offerings here, too. – It is possible to re-plate but yields will be affected.

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck 66, 500, 000 / Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” 66, Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000/yr

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr Or monthly total car batteries (186. 5 / 12) = 15, 500, 000 / mo

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr Or monthly total car batteries TI – Car battery “equivalents” (186. 5 / 12) = 15, 500, 000 / mo 100 / mo (from illustration)

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr Or monthly total car batteries TI – Car battery “equivalents” TI is about 5. 7% Semi total (186. 5 / 12) = 15, 500, 000 / mo 100 / mo (from illustration) 1750 / mo for entire industry

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr Or monthly total car batteries TI – Car battery “equivalents” TI is about 5. 7% Semi total “Equivalents” / total batteries (186. 5 / 12) = 15, 500, 000 / mo 100 / mo (from illustration) 1750 / mo for entire industry 0. 0113 % (1750/15, 500, 000)

Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements Some Simple Battery Math ’ 05 car & light truck “Installed Auto Base” Replacements (5 yr average life) New plus replacements 66, 500, 000 / yr – worldwide About 600, 000 – worldwide 600/5 = 120, 000 / yr (66. 5 + 120) = 186, 500, 000 / yr Or monthly total car batteries TI – Car battery “equivalents” TI is about 5. 7% Semi total (186. 5 / 12) = 15, 500, 000 / mo 100 / mo (from illustration) 1750 / mo for entire industry “Equivalents” / total batteries Boats (2+ batteries ea), planes, industrial, trucks/busses, etc. 0. 0113 % (1750/15, 500, 000) Lowers further to about: 0. 008% In Other words: Of all the Pb consumed annually just in batteries, Semiconductors represent 0. 008%

Said Another Way DC to SF = 2419 air mi x 0. 008% [less Said Another Way DC to SF = 2419 air mi x 0. 008% [less than 50% of the yellow line] That’s about the first 1000 feet of the journey!

Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially for plastic. – Wafer/die banking is best.

Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially for plastic. – Wafer/die banking is best. • Counterfeiters are getting more bold across industries.

Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially for plastic. – Wafer/die banking is best. • Counterfeiters are getting more bold across industries. • The Buyer is the Key Link in the chain! • The IDMs have approved channels – use them!

Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially Summary • Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning and care required, especially for plastic. – Wafer/die banking is best. • Counterfeiters are getting more bold across industries. • The Buyer is the Key Link in the chain! • The IDMs have approved channels – use them! • For DMSMS watch out for false Certs on Pbfree.

Thank you QP Semiconductor Military, Aerospace, and High Reliability IC Manufacturer Currently Supporting over Thank you QP Semiconductor Military, Aerospace, and High Reliability IC Manufacturer Currently Supporting over 3, 100 DSCC Listed Products John O’Boyle New Business Development Director QP Semiconductor, Inc. 2945 Oakmead Village Court Santa Clara, CA 95051 USA 408 -737 -0992 x 145 408 -736 -8708 fax