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PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Ir. AGUNG NUGROHO, M. Kom Teknik Elektro FT UNDIP
OVERVIEW What is A Project? A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result Temporary Progressive Elaboration (PMBOK, Third Edition) Unique Deliverable
OVERVIEW Four Basic Type of Project Work CRAFT INTELECT PHYSICAL (VISIBLE) Physical-Craft Physical-Intellect NON-PHYSICAL (INVISIBLE) Non Physical Craft Non Physical Intellect Product
OVERVIEW Project Management Process menurut [email protected] Guide Third 2000 Edition
OVERVIEW Project Management Knowledge Area 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Project Integration Management Project Scope Management Project Time Management Project Cost Management Project Quality Management Project Human Resources Management Project Communication Management Project Procurement Management Project Risk Management
OVERVIEW How to Achieve Project Success? By balancing stakeholders’ competing demands for : Cost Time Scope Quality
PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Process required to accomplish timely completion of the project n. Activity Definition n. Activity Sequencing n. Activity Resources Estimating n. Activity Duration Estimating n. Schedule Development n. Schedule Control
PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT 1. Activity Definition 2. Activity Sequencing 3. Activity Resource Estimating 4. Activity Duration Estimating 5. Schedule Development 6. Schedule Control
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
1. ACTIVITY DEFINITION The process of identifying the specific schedule activities that need to be performed to produce the various deliverables
ACTIVITY DEFINITION : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE Defining the schedule activities involves identifying and documenting the work that is planned to be performed 1. Decomposition WBS 2. Templates 3. Rolling Wave Planning (Progressive Elaboration Planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail at a low level of WBS, the work far in the future is planned for WBS components that are at relatively high level of the WBS) 4. Expert Judgment 5. Planning Component
2. ACTIVITY SEQUENCING Identifying and documenting the logical relationships among schedule activities.
ACTIVITY SEQUENCING n Identifying and documenting interactivity dependencies n Activities must be sequenced accurately in order to support later development of a realistic and achievable schedule n can be performed with the aid of a computer or with manual techniques
TYPES OF SEQUENCES 1. FINISH TO START (FS) : the initiation of successor depends upon the completion of the predecessor 2. START TO START (SS) : the initiation of successor depends upon the initiation of the predecessor 3. FINISH TO FINISH (FF) : the completion of successor depends upon the completion of the predecessor 4. START TO FINISH (SF) : the completion of successor depends upon the initiation of the predecessor Activity A Activity B
TYPES OF DEPENDENCIES 1. Mandatory Dependencies (Hard Logic). Inherent in the nature of the work being done. (eq. You must design before you can construct) 2. Discretionary Dependencies (Preferred, Preferential or Soft Logic). Based on experience, desire or preference. 3. External Dependencies. Based on the needs or desires of party outside the project. (eq. Government or suppliers)
LAGS AND LEADS n LAGS n n n Inserted waiting time between task For example: You must wait three days after pouring concrete before you can construct the frame for a house Relationship : FS + 3: 3 days of Lag n LEADS n n n Designated number of time of periods subtracted from start or finish the activity. For example: Activity B start 2 days before the activity A Complete Relationship : FS-2 : 2 days of lead
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) or Activity On Arrow (AOA) (1/2) Draft Drawing 20 days A 10 Initial Design 10 days A 30 A 20 A 50 Run Simulation 15 days Final Design 10 days A 60 A 40 • Only Finish to Start relationship between task • May use dummies activity as inserted simply to show dependencies between tasks. They do not require work or take time
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) or Activity On Arrow (AOA) (2/2)
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) or Activity On Node (AON) (1/2) LS LF Activity Name Duration ES EF A 120 Draft Drawing 20 days A 110 Initial Design A 140 Final Design 10 days A 130 Run Simulation 15 days Notes: LS : Latest Start LF : Latest Finish ES : Early Start EF : Early Finish
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) or Activity On Node (AON) (2/2)
3. ACTIVITY RESOURCES ESTIMATING Determining what resources (manpower, equipment, material) and what quantity of each resource will be used, when each resource will be available
RESOURCES REQUIREMENT Ø What type of resources and in what quantities Ø Those obtain from staff acquisition and procurement. Ø Involves: n n Manpower n Direct or indirect n Internal or outsource Material n Direct: hardware or software n Indirect: consumables, supplies Subcontract Information
RESOURCES ESTIMATING Ø What resources, what quantities, and when needed Ø Resources : People, Equipment, Materials Ø Involves: n Review WBS n Identify available n Review historical information n Review organizational policies n Quantity resources requirement by task n Develop plan what type of resources are needed, what numbers, when
4. ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING Estimating schedule activity duration uses information on schedule activity scope of work, required resource type, estimated resource quantities, and resource calendars with resource availabilities.
ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING Estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities. Inputs Ø Resources Requirement -Number of resources that will be assigned -Sometimes, too many resources will reduce productivity Ø Resources Capabilities -Level of skill, knowledge and experience (seniority) Ø Etc
ACTIVITY DURATION ESTIMATING : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE Ø Expert Judgment. Used when duration difficult to estimate because of number of factor (resource level, productivity) Ø Analogues Estimating. Using the actual duration of previous activity that has similarity (top down) Ø Parametric Estimating. Uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables. (e. q: Square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activity. Ø Three Point Estimates. Uses three cost or duration estimates to represent the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic scenarios. This technique is applied to improve the accuracy of the estimates of cost or duration when the underlying activity or cost component is uncertain. Average = (Optimistic + Most likely + Pessimistic) / 3 Ø Reserve Analysis. The contingency reserve can be a percentage of the estimate activity duration, a fix number of work periods, or developed by quantitative schedule risk analysis.
RESOURCES CALENDARS n Identify periods when work is allowed n Project calendars affect all resources n Define time units, length of work week, non working period: n Day (s) of the week n Hours of the day n Holidays or non-working period n All activities must be assigned a calendar
5. SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE (1/3) CRITICAL PATH METHOD Ø Critical Path: series of activities that determine the duration of the projects Ø It is Longest Path through the project Ø Calculating float to determine which activities have The Least Scheduling Flexibility Ø Critical Path: Total Float = LS – ES = LF – EF = 0
SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE (2/3) SCHEDULE COMPRESSION 1. Fast Tracking Ø Doing critical path task in parallel that were originally planned in series Ø Fast Tracking often results in rework, usually increases risk and requires more attention to communications 2. Crashing Ø Moving resources from non critical tasks or adding extra resources to the task from outside project. Crashing almost result in increased costs.
SCHEDULE DEVELOPMENT : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE (3/3) RESORCE LEVELING Ø Leveling lets schedule and cost slip in favor of having a stable number of resources each month Ø Allocate scarce resources to critical path activities first CRITICAL CHAIN METHOD Ø Focuses on managing the buffer activity durations and the resources applied to planned schedule activities Ø Combine deterministic and probabilistic approaches
FLOAT (SLACK) Ø Float. The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project Ø Free Float. The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor Ø Total Float. The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project completion date Ø Project Float. The amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by customer or management Ø Negative Float. Critical path task that are delayed or have dictated dates can result in negative float
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (1/7)
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (2/7) D 12 1 A 10 2 B 15 C 8 E 2 3 6 4 F 5 5 G 6 H 8 7 I 10 8
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (3/7) Analyze Project Network to: n Find the Critical Path that establish the minimum duration of the project n calculate the Early Start time for each activity n calculate the Late Start time for each activity n calculate the Float, or time, available for delay for each activity
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (4/7) Forward-Pass Algorithm D 12 0 1 10 A 10 24 18 2 B 15 C 8 E 2 3 18 4 F 5 5 18 6 G 6 32 H 8 7 42 I 10 8
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (5/7) Backward-Pass algorithm D 12 0 0 1 10 10 A 2 10 B 15 24 24 18 18 C 8 E 2 3 18 19 4 F 5 5 18 18 6 G 6 H 8 32 32 7 42 42 I 10 8
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (6/7) Calculating float 2 0 0 10 10 A 2 10 0 B 15 3 3 2 D 12 24 24 18 18 C 8 0 0 E 2 3 6 4 18 19 4 4 F 5 5 18 18 1 G 6 H 8 0 0 32 32 7 42 42 I 10 0 0 8 1 Note: 0 0 FF TF
Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) - Example (7/7) Critical path 2 0 0 10 10 A 2 10 0 B 15 3 3 2 D 12 24 24 18 18 C 8 0 0 E 2 3 6 4 18 19 4 4 F 5 5 18 18 1 G 6 H 8 0 0 32 32 7 I 10 0 0 1 Note: 0 0 Critical activity 42 42 8
SCHEDULE CHARTS Milestone Charts Similar to bar charts but only show major events. Milestone have no duration. Milestone charts are good tools for reporting to management and customer Flowcharts Depict workflow and process flow through a system. Used for quality or engineering. Bar (Gantt) Charts Effective tools for progress reporting and control. They are completed after WBS and a network diagram in the project management process. Network Diagram Shows how the project tasks will flow from beginning to end. Used for planning, organizing, controlling, crashing, and fast tracking the project
BART (GANT) CHART Project Management software makes an attempt to draw lines between tasks on a Gantt chart to show interdependencies. However, Gantt charts do not show task interdependencies or resources assigned. A Gantt chart looks similar to this:
BART (GANT) CHART
6. SCHEDULE CONTROL Controlling changes to the project schedule which includes determining the current status of the project schedule, influencing the factors that create schedule changes, determining that the project schedule has changed, and managing the actual changes.
SCHEDULE CONTROL : TOOLS & TECHNIQUE n Progress Reporting. Includes information such as actual start and finish dates and the remaining durations. n Schedule Change Control System. Includes the paperwork, tracking system, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes. n Performance Measurement. Schedule Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI) Earned Value Analysis n Variance Analysis. Comparing target schedule dates with the actual/forecast finish dates.