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Project & Quality Management Day 3 Technology Project Management
Syllabus Core: PQM Three main topics ü Project Management • Quality Management • Reliability Management
Structure of the Presentation Project Management • Overview of project management, • Project planning; →Work Breakdown Structure, →The Gantt Chart, →Network Diagram, →Critical Path Diagram, • Project planning for Technology projects, • Using Microsoft Project to generate charts.
What is Project Management? A set of techniques used for managing projects Origins in industry - large projects • Bridge Building • New Product Development • Road Building
What is a Project? “Any task within an organisation that does not fit neatly into ‘business-as-usual’” • Port Tunnel • Luas • Development of New Engine • Set up a Quality System in Company • Technology Design & Make project.
What is a Project? Projects have the following characteristics: • Each project is specific and unique. • Each project has a specific deliverable item when complete. • This deliverable is aimed at meeting a specific need or purpose. • There is usually a specific due date for completion of the project. Design is not necessarily a central part of the project activity.
What is Managed? PM focuses on the management of resources and time in a systematic manner. • The administration of the project • The supervision of the project • The organisation of the project
What is Managed? For the student it means: • • • Analysing the objectives of the project, Defining the tasks needed to achieve these objectives, Controlling the execution of them.
Who manages the projeect? Large projects usually involve a project team. Project Manager Specialist
What do Project Managers do? Projects have 3 objectives, Finish on time. Meet the specifications that satisfy the brief. Meet the budget. Students are the project managers of their own tasks!
Importance of Planning Unexpected events may happen during the project and may cause delays. Breakdown of machinery, Problems with resources/supplies, Labour shortages, etc. Project planning can minimise the effect of these unexpected delays.
Project Planning What is a project plan? • Can be as simple as a list of sequences for a small project • Can be more complex with charts, tables, costings etc. for a larger project
Project Planning 1. Analyse the brief, 2. List the steps involved, 3. Draw up a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). A WBS is a diagram that shows → Primary Tasks → Sub-Tasks
Example Draw up a Work Breakdown Structure for the erection of a garden shed. 1. The shed will come prefabricated but will need to be assembled. 2. A foundation will need to be prepared in advance.
List of Tasks No. Activity 1 Order Shed 2 Buy Blocks, Sand & Cement 3 Build Foundation 4 Assemble Shed
WBS for Garden Shed Place order for shed Buy Blocks and Cement Prepare Foundation Assemble Shed when it arrives Garden Shed
The Gantt Chart – a Preview A Gantt Chart is a horizontal bar chart showing the times for each task
Looking at the Gantt Chart • • Delivery time for the shed is nine days, One day for buying materials, Two days for making the foundation, One day for assembly. Note: • Making the foundation is timed so that it is ready just in time for the delivery of the shed • Could have been completed at an earlier date if desired.
Exercises Redraw the Gantt chart so that the maximum amount of time is allowed for the curing of the foundation. Day 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Order Shed from Supplier Buy Blocks Build Foundation Assemble
Exercises Shown is a picture of a Christmas Tree Star 1. Draw a WBS for the Star 2. Draw a Gantt chart for manufacturing the Star
List of Tasks: Star No. Activity Time 1 Mark Out Star 1 2 Drill Holes 1 3 Cut Out & File 3 4 Solder Circuit 2 5 Assemble 2 6 Test 1
WBS for Star Mark Out Drill Cut Out & File Structure Sub Task Assemble Test Star Sub Task Solder Circuit
Gantt Chart for Star Day 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mark Out Drill Cut Out & File Solder Circuit Assemble Test 9 10
Network Diagrams For larger or more complex projects a network diagram is required. Network Diagrams show: 1. The relationships between the tasks, 2. 2. The sequence in which each task is performed, 3. 3. The interdependencies between the tasks.
Drawing up a Network Diagram WBS Network Diagram Gantt Chart • Start with task list and draw up a WBS • Decide on the order of tasks
Sample WBS A WBS needs to be analysed and redrawn frequently to arrive at the best production sequence. (Use ‘Post its’)
Network Table Task A B C D E F G Predecessor A B B C, D E The tasks and their predecessors can be drawn as a table
Part Complete Network Diagram Note that task C has A as a predecessor D and E have B as predecessors. A and B have no predecessors and are connected to the starting node.
Complete Network Diagram Task Predecessor A - B - C A D B E B F C, D G E Exercise: Complete the diagram using the remainder of the tasks
Network Diagram for Garden Shed Draw up a network diagram for the garden shed project described previously.
Some Definitions and Terms used for network diagrams: Activity – A task or set of tasks required by the project. Network – Diagram of nodes representing activities connected by directional arrows that defines the project and shows the relations between all of the activities. Networks are usually drawn with a ‘Start’ node on the left and a ‘Finish’ node on the right. Path – A series of connected activities in the network Critical Path – the set of activities on a path from the project’s start event to its finish event that if delayed, will delay the completion date of the project. Critical Time – The time required to complete all activities on the critical path.
Adding Times to the Network Diagram • Duration of each task can be added to network diagram • From this, start and finish times can be found for each task • Some tasks can be allowed to vary their start and finish times without affecting overall time taken
Example Consider the following project Task Predecessor Duration A - 5 (days) B - 4 C A 3 D A 4 E A 6 F B, C 4 G D 5 H D, E 6 I F 6 J G, H 4
Network with Tasks & Times
Adding Further Information We can add the following information to each node in the diagram: Earliest Start Time (EST) Earliest Finish Time (EFT) Latest Start Time (LST) Latest Finish Time (LFT)
Critical Path Diagram Critical path in orange See notes for a detailed explanation
Conclusions from Critical Path Diagram • Critical path is path that requires the most time (A-E-H-J) • Critical time is 21 days which is the earliest possible completion time • Any delay on critical path will delay the project • Some delay (within limits) can be tolerated on other tasks.
Critical Path Diagram for the Garden Shed Complete the critical path diagram for the garden shed State critical path and critical time
Solution CP: Order Shed – Assemble CT= 10 Days
Calculating Activity Slack or Float is the amount of time a non-critical task can be delayed Slack = Latest Finish Time – Earliest Finish Time or Latest Start Time – Earliest Start Time Slack = LFT-EFT = LST-EST
Slack Times from Shed Example Both non-critical tasks have a slack of (9 -3)=(7 -1)=(6 -0) = 6 days
The Gantt Chart • Generated from network diagram • Gives visual representation of activities and times • Gantt charts can show: • Timeline for each task • Dependencies of tasks • Critical path
Network Diagram Using the Network Diagram from previous example
Application of PM to Tech. Projects Now we will apply the techniques we have met to a hypothetical LC project. The procedure for project work is: • List the tasks and sub-tasks involved • Draw up a WBS • Draw up a Network Table • Draw up a Network Diagram • Insert times and determine the Critical Path
Consider the following project brief Design and manufacture a personal alarm that will incorporate an electronic circuit as well as a suitable casing From analysing the brief: • General plan on how to approach the project • Identify the main tasks involved • Derive a Work Breakdown Schedule • Draw up a Network Diagram • Add times and find the critical path, critical time and slack for the activities.
A possible WBS for the project Research Circuit Design Circuit Order Components Circuit Sub Task Manufacture & Assemble Test Personal Alarm Sub Task User Survey Design Specification Design Casing Order Materials Casing
Network Table First draw up a list of tasks and preceding tasks Task Description Duration Predecessor A Research Circuit 14 - B User Survey 7 - C Device Spec 1 B D Circuit Design 3 A E Order Components 10 D F Design Casing 7 C G Order Materials 7 F H Manufacture and assembly 7 E, G I Test 4 H
Network Diagram 7 7
Critical Path Diagram CP = Circuit Research -Circuit Design-Order Components-Build-Test CT = 38 class periods
Gantt Chart for Project
Student Workbook List the tasks needed to complete the project
Example 2 List the tasks Estimate the times Draw up WBS and Gantt chart
Example – Contains circuit List the tasks & Estimate times Order tasks and optimise them Draw up WBS and Gantt chart Estimate project duration