- Количество слайдов: 17
Project Management • • • What is a project? What management tools are being used? UH-specific solutions US regulations International comparison of best practices
Project: A (linear) Progression of Tasks • • • • Scientific goal Scientific requirements Technical requirements Conceptual Design Cost estimate Preliminary Design Final Design Industrialization Fabrication Integration Testing Commissioning Operation
Planning Tools • Gantt chart • Resource load chart • Funding/Spending profile
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Different Accounting Methods US: All costs are being charged to the project, including labor costs. Europe: Labor is usually paid from Institutes’ base budget, only materials, subcontracts, supplies etc. are charged to the project.
Contractual Models • Grant • Federal Contract • Other Contracts UH-specific constraints: • No “cost plus fixed fee” contracts • Purchase orders • Fixed price contracts • Cost-reimbursable service agreements
UH vs. RCUH • Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii • A company set up to get around UH purchasing and personnel rules • Most instrumentation projects service order their project to RCUH. • Biggest difference are purchasing rules and the ability to hire staff on a temporary basis.
Financing and funding • UH and RCUH usually work under the model of a federal grant: funds get granted in each budget year, get used, and the funding agency gets billed in regular intervals. • Most other contract partners understandably wish to pay after a product (instrument) got delivered. • UH can provide bridge funding in the form of interest-free advance-spending accounts.
Purchasing (RCUH) • 3 quotes above $ 2500, but you can select who receives the requests for quotes. • Sole brand purchases • Sole source purchases • Price reasonableness form
Personnel Management • • • Faculty time (G-funded) Salary buyout Summer overload Direct staff hires JOS
Job Order System • A system set up to allow staff allocation by the hour • Gives flexibility. • Controls on spending are difficult. • Control over resources is split. • Team coherence is difficult to achieve.
ITAR International Traffic in Arms Regulations • A cold-war relict to protect key military technologies from falling into enemy hands. • Administered by the State Department • Complex and constantly evolving regulations • Our problem: IR detectors are military equipment • Our other problem: UH is still learning • Technology Assistance Agreements • Screening of publications • Export License process
Cost Estimates: • Comparison with similar projects • Cost scaling • Inflation adjustments • Bottom up cost estimate after CDR Best cost estimation method: • Initial estimate based on comparable projects • Final cost not defined at onset of project • Step-by-step approach to funding • Conceptual Design (error 50%) • Preliminary Design (error 20%) • Critical Design (error 10%) • Contractual contingency • Contract amendments • Incentives (e. g. observing time) for on-time, on-budget delivery
The Ideal Project • • • Project goals and requirements are stable Sponsor support and funding is stable Project success is undisputed goal Resources must be matched to the project Resources must be controlled by the project Project team “owns” the project It is rare to find all these conditions fulfilled.
The Real Project • Usually less than ideal conditions • Problems create distractions for management • Management must bring perturbances under control, or the project might become chaotic. For astronomical instrumentation: Cost overruns have ranged from 10 % to 400 % Schedule overruns from zero to infinity (never delivered)