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PROJECT Eco-Houses Based on Eco-Friendly Polymer Composite Construction Materials - ECO-PCCM 11 OKTOMVRI EUROKOMPOZIT PROJECT Eco-Houses Based on Eco-Friendly Polymer Composite Construction Materials - ECO-PCCM 11 OKTOMVRI EUROKOMPOZIT Characterization of kenaf/PLA composites ISO 9001: 2000 ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 1

DELIVERED KENAF/PLA PREFORMS BY K. E. F. I Pcs Size, mm Thickness, mm Specific DELIVERED KENAF/PLA PREFORMS BY K. E. F. I Pcs Size, mm Thickness, mm Specific weight, kg/m 3 1 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 60 40 2 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 50 40 3 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 40 60 4 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 40 80 5 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 40 40 6 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 400 x 600 30 40 7 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 4 120 x 120 30 80 8 - ISOLKENAF: kenaf / PLA 2 400 x 600 10 60 9 - ISOLKENAF: 60% kenaf / 40% PLA 4 400 x 600 20 60 Composition ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 2

MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES The panels were fabricated by thermo compression in a closed MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES The panels were fabricated by thermo compression in a closed mold. Press piston Hot plate Polster Release foil Kenaf layers Closed mold and application of spacers Mold Press platen ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 3

MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES PLA squeezed out Open mold panel The application of the MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES PLA squeezed out Open mold panel The application of the same press cycle (open mold and high pressure) as the one for kenaf/PP composites was impossible because PLA was squeezed out of the fibers. ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 4

MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES spacers Mold in closed position Mold in open position kenaf/PLA MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES spacers Mold in closed position Mold in open position kenaf/PLA composite To solve the problem of the PLA squeeze out, a closed mold and 9. 0 mm thick spacers were applied to prevent full closure of the mold and migration of PLA to the boundaries of the composite panel. kenaf/PLA layers All manufactured composites of kenaf/PLA were 120 x~9. 0 mm ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 5

MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES Of all available kenaf preforms we prepared final composites. The MANUFACTURING OF KENAF/PLA COMPOSITES Of all available kenaf preforms we prepared final composites. The samples of the kenaf fibers preforms are prepared of 2 layers kenaf / PLA and 4 layers kenaf / PLA in dependance of the thickness on the start preforms kenaf / PLA Set: 2 layers kenaf / PLA Set: 4 layers kenaf / PLA Press Cycle: T=175 OC Pm = until closing on the spacers t = 20 min The final composites were approximately 9 mm thick. The size of the composite plates is chosen for best utilization of the material because the test specimen have to be 120 mm long. Specimen dimensions were according to the respective standards. ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 6

Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – average value Test Method Composite: kenaf/PLA (d=60 mm; (d=50 mm; 3) r=40 kg/m Property Composite: kenaf/PLA (d=40 mm; r=60 kg/m 3) Areal weight, kg/m 2 JUS G. S 2. 51 6, 8 4, 5 6, 1 Water absorption, % ISO/DP 9674 64, 6 180, 0 85, 1 UL 94 burns Flexural strength, MPa DIN 53457 11, 8 1, 76 10, 0 Flexural modulus, GPa DIN 53457 1, 1 0, 08 0, 6 Impact strength, an 9, k. J/m 2 DIN 53453 53, 8 9, 5 60, 0 Impact strength, an 10, k. J/m 2 DIN 53453 93, 7 12, 1 84, 0 Compression strength, MPa DIN 53454 3, 6 0, 87 3, 5 Fire resistance ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 7

Composite kenaf/PLA: d=50 mm; r=40 kg/m 3 ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 Composite kenaf/PLA: d=50 mm; r=40 kg/m 3 ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 8

Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – average value Test Method Composite: kenaf/PLA (d=40 mm; r=80 kg/m 3) Property Composite: kenaf/PLA (d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3) (d=30 mm; r=40 kg/m 3) Areal weight, kg/m 2 JUS G. S 2. 51 5, 8 3, 4 Water absorption, % ISO/DP 9674 80, 1 147, 6 94, 5 UL 94 burns Flexural strength, MPa DIN 53457 9, 8 2, 3 5, 8 Flexural modulus, GPa DIN 53457 0, 7 1, 5 0, 3 Impact strength, an 9, k. J/m 2 DIN 53453 100, 0 9, 7 6, 8 Impact strength, an 10, k. J/m 2 DIN 53453 47, 0 15, 8 14, 5 Compression strength, MPa DIN 53454 4, 6 0, 7 1, 27 Fire resistance ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 9

Composite kenaf/PLA: d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3 The composite samples after testing Composite kenaf/PLA: Composite kenaf/PLA: d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3 The composite samples after testing Composite kenaf/PLA: d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3 10

Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – Testing of kenaf / PLA composites Physical and mechanical characteristics of kenaf/PLA composites – average value Test Method Composite: kenaf/PLA Composite: 60%kenaf/40%PLA (d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3) Property Composite: kenaf/PLA (d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3) (d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3) Area weight, kg/m 2 JUS G. S 2. 51 6, 7 3, 1 0, 65 Water absorption, % ISO/DP 9674 72, 2 121, 4 51, 5 Fire resistance UL 94 burns Flexural strength, MPa DIN 53457 16, 2 2, 9 21, 7 Flexural modulus, GPa DIN 53457 1, 6 0, 2 1, 22 Impact strength, an 9, k. J/m 2 DIN 53453 37 19, 3 43, 2 Impact strength, an 10, k. J/m DIN 53453 52 12, 7 60, 3 Compression strength, MPa DIN 53454 6, 2 1, 31 6, 5 2 ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 11

Composite kenaf/PLA: d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3 Composite 60%kenaf/40%PLA: d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3 Composite kenaf/PLA: d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3 Composite 60%kenaf/40%PLA: d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3 The composite samples after testing ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 12

FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION STRENGTH FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSION STRENGTH FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 2 – Kenaf / PLA 3 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); 4 – Kenaf / PLA 5 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 6 – Kenaf / PLA 7 – Kenaf / PLA (d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); 8 – Kenaf / PLA 9 – 60% Kenaf / 40% PLA (d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); (d=50 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); (d=40 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); (d=30 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); (d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 13

FLEXURAL MODULUS FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; r=40 kg/m FLEXURAL MODULUS FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 2 – Kenaf / PLA (d=50 mm; r=40 kg/m 3) 3 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); 4 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); 5 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 6 – Kenaf / PLA (d=30 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 7 – Kenaf / PLA (d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); 8 – Kenaf / PLA (d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); r=80 kg/m 3); Kenaf / PLA (d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); 9 – 60% Kenaf / 40% PLA (d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 14

IMPACT STRENGTH FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; r=40 kg/m IMPACT STRENGTH FOR ALL COMPOSITES 1 – Kenaf / PLA (d=60 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 2 – Kenaf / PLA 3 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); 4 – Kenaf / PLA 5 – Kenaf / PLA (d=40 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); 6 – Kenaf / PLA 7 – Kenaf / PLA (d=30 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); 8 – Kenaf / PLA 9 – 60% Kenaf / 40% PLA (d=20 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); (d=50 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); (d=40 mm; r=80 kg/m 3); (d=30 mm; r=40 kg/m 3); (d=10 mm; r=60 kg/m 3); ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 15

Impact strength “an 15” 15 mm Impact strength “an 9” 9 mm ECO-PCCM Fourth Impact strength “an 15” 15 mm Impact strength “an 9” 9 mm ECO-PCCM Fourth Meeting, Sofia, Bulgaria, April 6 -7, 2006 16

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 17 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 17