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Progressive Era Changes: MUNICIPAL & STATE REFORMS Progressive Era Changes: MUNICIPAL & STATE REFORMS

MUNICIPAL REFORM • municipal reform • utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys • council-manager MUNICIPAL REFORM • municipal reform • utilities - water, gas, electricity, trolleys • council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913) Shoe line Bowery men with gifts from ward boss Tim Sullivan, February, 1910

MUNICIPAL REFORM strong mayor system COUNCIL MEMBER MAYOR COUNCIL MEMBER council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913) MUNICIPAL REFORM strong mayor system COUNCIL MEMBER MAYOR COUNCIL MEMBER council-manager plan (Dayton, 1913) COUNCIL MEMBER CITY MANAGE R CITY SERVICES COUNCIL MEMBER CITY SERVICE S

STATE POLITICAL REFORM • secret ballots • direct primary • Seventeenth Amendment (1913) o STATE POLITICAL REFORM • secret ballots • direct primary • Seventeenth Amendment (1913) o initiative o referendum o recall Robert M. La. Follette, Wisconsin Governor 1900 -06

STATE POLITICAL REFORM Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876 -1920 STATE POLITICAL REFORM Voter Participation in Presidential Elections, 1876 -1920

STATE SOCIAL REFORMS • professional social workers • settlement houses - education, culture, day STATE SOCIAL REFORMS • professional social workers • settlement houses - education, culture, day care • child labor laws o Enable education & advancement for working class children

STATE SOCIAL REFORMS • workplace & labor reforms o eight-hour work day o improved STATE SOCIAL REFORMS • workplace & labor reforms o eight-hour work day o improved safety & health conditions in factories o workers compensation laws o minimum wage laws o unionization o child labor laws Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, 1913

Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana. 1908 “Breaker Boys” Pennsylvania, 1911 State Child Laborers in Indiana Glass Works, Midnight, Indiana. 1908 “Breaker Boys” Pennsylvania, 1911 State Social Reform: Child Laborer, Newberry, S. C. 1908 Shrimp pickers in Peerless Oyster Co. Bay St. Louis, Miss. , March 3, 1911

Settlement Houses • Settlement Houses • Hull-House – Jane Addams (1905) Hull-House Complex in Settlement Houses • Settlement Houses • Hull-House – Jane Addams (1905) Hull-House Complex in 1906

TEMPERANCE • Temperance Crusade • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) • Anti-Saloon League Frances TEMPERANCE • Temperance Crusade • Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) • Anti-Saloon League Frances Willard (1838 -98), leader of the WCTU Anti-Saloon League Campaign, Dayton

TEMPERANCE & PROHIBITION • Eighteenth Amendment Prohibition on the Eve of the 18 th TEMPERANCE & PROHIBITION • Eighteenth Amendment Prohibition on the Eve of the 18 th Amendment, 1919

SOCIALISM ALTERNATIVES SOCIALISM ALTERNATIVES

SOCIALISM • Socialist Party • Eugene V. Debs • Industrial Workers of the World SOCIALISM • Socialist Party • Eugene V. Debs • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or “Wobblies”) Socialists parade, May Day, 1910 Eugene V. Debs

Who helped make these changes? “Fighting Bob” Who helped make these changes? “Fighting Bob”

Robert M. La. Follette’s • Born in Primrose, WI (1855) • U. W. Law Robert M. La. Follette’s • Born in Primrose, WI (1855) • U. W. Law School (1880) • House of Representatives (1885 -1891) • Governor of WI (1901 -1905) • U. S. Senator (1905 -1925) • Presidential Candidate (1924)

Robert La. Follette’s – “Wisconsin Idea” PROGRESSIVE REFORMS Robert La. Follette’s – “Wisconsin Idea” PROGRESSIVE REFORMS

Progressive Reforms • Graduated Income Tax – 16 th Amendment 1913 2005 Taxable Income Progressive Reforms • Graduated Income Tax – 16 th Amendment 1913 2005 Taxable Income $3, 000 -20, 000 $20, 000 -50, 000 $50, 000 -75, 000 $75, 000 -100, 000 $100, 000 -250, 000 $250, 000 -500, 000 $500, 000+ Rate 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% Taxable Income Rate $0 -10, 000 10% $10, 000 -35, 050 15% $35, 051 -98, 250 20% $98, 251 -159, 100 28% $159, 101 -311, 950 30% $311, 950+ 35%

Progressive Reforms • Workers Compensation Progressive Reforms • Workers Compensation

Progressive Reforms • Government control of Railroads Progressive Reforms • Government control of Railroads

Progressive Reforms • Money for Education Progressive Reforms • Money for Education

Progressive Reforms • Civil Service Reform Progressive Reforms • Civil Service Reform

Wisconsin Idea – Voting Reform Wisconsin Idea – Voting Reform

Direct Primary – Election open to all voters in a political party Direct Primary – Election open to all voters in a political party

Initiative – Lets voters introduce a law. Initiative – Lets voters introduce a law.

Referendum – People vote for or against a proposed law Referendum – People vote for or against a proposed law

Recall – Gives citizens the chance to remove elected officials Recall – Gives citizens the chance to remove elected officials

Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I

Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I • Third Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I • Third Party Candidate in the 1924 Presidential Election

Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I • Third Legacy of La. Follette • Opposed US entry into World War I • Third Party Candidate in the 1924 Presidential Election • Made Wisconsin a leader in social and political reform