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Programme of Work on Below-Ground Biodiversity and related Ecosystem Services Jeroen Huising Tropical Soil Programme of Work on Below-Ground Biodiversity and related Ecosystem Services Jeroen Huising Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF), Nairobi International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Colombia Annual Meeting SFG 2004

A multi-disciplinary approach to research in soil related ecosystem services Soil ecology Soil science A multi-disciplinary approach to research in soil related ecosystem services Soil ecology Soil science Environmental economics Resource economics Soil Biodiversity Ecosystem functions Soil processes Ecosystem services for human welfare Soil Organisms Sociology soil biology - microbiology Political sciences 2 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity

Assessment 1: Large percentage of species of soil organisms is unknown 3 (Source: Barrios Assessment 1: Large percentage of species of soil organisms is unknown 3 (Source: Barrios et al, in press) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Assessment 2: Organisms, functional groups and ecosystem process Examples of diverse biota within functional Assessment 2: Organisms, functional groups and ecosystem process Examples of diverse biota within functional groups are listed for a few ecosystem processes that are similar in soils and sediments Organisms Ecosystem process Vertebrates (lizards, beavers); invertebrates (crustaceans, molluscks in sediments; ants, termites in soils) Bioturbators, ecosystem engineers Soil and sediment alteration and structure, laterally and to greater depths, redistribute organic matter and microbes Plant roots, algae, diatoms Primary producers Create biomass, stabilize soils and sediments Decapods, millipedes Shredders Fragment, rip, and tear organic matter, providing smaller pieces for decay by organisms Bacteria and Fungi Decomposers Recycle nutrients, increase nutrient availability for primary production Symbiotic (e. g Rhizobium) and asymbiotic (e. g. Azobacter, Cyanobacter) Nitrogen fixers Biologically fix atmospheric N 2 Methanogenic bacteria, denitrifying bacteria Trace gas producers Transfer of C, N 2 O, CH 4 denitrification Roots, soil organisms 4 Functional groups CO producers 2 Respiration, emission of CO 2 (Source: Wall (ed. ), 2004) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

KEY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF SOIL BIOTA Maize Micro-symbionts mycorrhizal Fungi Macrofauna (Ecosystem Engineers) – KEY FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF SOIL BIOTA Maize Micro-symbionts mycorrhizal Fungi Macrofauna (Ecosystem Engineers) – Earthworms – Termites 5 Source Swift (2002) Legume Decomposers e. g. cellulose degraders N-fixing Bacteria C&N transformers e. g. methanogens & nitrifiers Microregulators Nematodes Pests and Diseases e. g. fungi, invertebrates Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Assessment 3: Ecosystem services provided by soil and sediment biota l l l 6 Assessment 3: Ecosystem services provided by soil and sediment biota l l l 6 l l Regulating biogeochemical cycles Retention and delivery of nutrients to plants and algae Generation and renewal of soil and sediment structure Bioremediation Provision of clean drinking water Modification of the hydrological cycle (e. g. erosion control) Translocation of nutrient, particles and gases A Regulation of atmospheric trace gasses ME Modification of anthropogenically driven global change Regulation of animal and plant populations Contribution to plant production for food, fuel and fiber Contribution to landscape heterogeneity and stability Vital component of habitats important for recreation and natural history Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Assessment 4: Importance of processes for provision of goods and services (SCOPE/SSBEF/GLIDE) Provision of Assessment 4: Importance of processes for provision of goods and services (SCOPE/SSBEF/GLIDE) Provision of goods and services in a temperate grassland ecosystem 7 (Source Wall (Ed. ), 2004 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity

Assessment 5: Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services (SCOPE) Arable tilled ecosystems provided by Assessment 5: Vulnerability of ecosystem goods and services (SCOPE) Arable tilled ecosystems provided by the soil biota to three agents of global change; invasive species, climate change and land-use change 8 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Results from Indonesia confirm loss of BGBD with increasing land use intensity (termites) 9 Results from Indonesia confirm loss of BGBD with increasing land use intensity (termites) 9 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Decrease in earthworm biomass with increasing land use intensity (Indonesia) 10 Afr. Regional Workshop Decrease in earthworm biomass with increasing land use intensity (Indonesia) 10 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Economic valuation of BGBD Economic benefits derived from biological nitrogen fixation using promiscuous soybean Economic valuation of BGBD Economic benefits derived from biological nitrogen fixation using promiscuous soybean cultivars in Sub-Sahara Africa Total benefit in 2004: 180 million US dollars (Chianu et al. unpubl. data) 11 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Assessment: Guiding Principles l l l 12 Definition of Below-Ground Bio. Diversity as component Assessment: Guiding Principles l l l 12 Definition of Below-Ground Bio. Diversity as component of Agro. Biodiversity Documentation and mapping of existing below -ground biodiversity and soil biological resources (degradation of soil biological resources) Identifying threats to BGBD and trends in loss of BGBD (monitoring) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity

Management (adaptive) 1: People Land management and Environmental Change (PLEC) AGRODIVERSITY Mainly temporal variations Management (adaptive) 1: People Land management and Environmental Change (PLEC) AGRODIVERSITY Mainly temporal variations Mainly spatial variations Natural Environment Modified environment Related development issues 13 Climatic variability Biophysical Diversity Macro- and meso-climate Cycles and random trends Droughts, floods Soils, productivity Plants, biota Water, Microclimate Organisational Diversity Household characteristics Resource endowments Farm organisation Management diversity Agro Bio. Diversity Local knowledge Adaptation and innovation New technology Use and management of species Production, conservation Demography Macro-economy Population, Migration Gender, age Government services Subsidies, aid, taxation (Source: Stocking 2005) Livelihoods Poverty and food security Sustainability Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management (adaptive) 2 Hierarchical management of soil biota Scale levels and gradients At which Management (adaptive) 2 Hierarchical management of soil biota Scale levels and gradients At which scale levels do gradients in BGBD and land use intensity occur and where to intervene. HIERARCHICAL MANAGEMENT OF SOIL BIOTA Preservation of key land uses (e. g. forest patches, landscape elements like hedges); Land use mosaics (conservation biology) Farm gradients & diversity at farm level. Allocation of resource at the farm (maintaining and improving productivity at farm level; rehabilitating degraded lands? ) Plot level diversity (Integrated pest management) 1. CROPPING SYSTEM LEVEL Choice of plants Genetic manipulation Design in space and time Micro symbionts & Rhizosphere 2. SOIL MANAGEMENT LEVEL Organic matter inputs (RQ) Mineral Fertilisers & Amendments Tillage, Irrigation 3. KEYSTONE BIOTA LEVEL Macrofauna Biological control agents Chemical manipulation – – – 14 (Swift, 1998) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management (adaptive) 3: limited opportunities to manage BGBD directly The influence of biotic and Management (adaptive) 3: limited opportunities to manage BGBD directly The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on species diversity 15 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management (adaptive) 4: Mngt. of biodiversity at plot and landscape scales Hypothesised relationship between Management (adaptive) 4: Mngt. of biodiversity at plot and landscape scales Hypothesised relationship between diversity and the efficiency of function of ecosystem services at the patch-ecosystem (i. e. plot) scale (Curves 1 and 2) and the scale of the landscape (Curves 3 and 4) 16 From Swift et al. (2004) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management (adaptive) 3: negotiation of trade-offs ASB – matrix trade-off Source: Tomich et al. Management (adaptive) 3: negotiation of trade-offs ASB – matrix trade-off Source: Tomich et al. (2005) 17 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management and indicators: stable food webs 18 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of Management and indicators: stable food webs 18 Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB

Management (adaptive): Guiding principles l l l Entry points for interventions; tools and techniques Management (adaptive): Guiding principles l l l Entry points for interventions; tools and techniques Indicators of performance across scales Geographical and socio-economic context (mechanisms) Pathways for intensification of land use/management (use of fertilizers, organic inputs, conservation measures) Platform for negotiating trade-offs Capacity building: – – 19 Scientific (viz. taxonomy, soil ecology; technological development) Technical (adoption, implementation and adaptation of technologies) Skills (management, organisation and negotiation) Political (policy development; decentralisation, empowerment) Afr. Regional Workshop on Sust. Use of AB