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Privacy Week 5 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 1 Privacy Week 5 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 1

What is privacy? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 2 What is privacy? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 2

What does privacy mean to you? n How would you define privacy? n What What does privacy mean to you? n How would you define privacy? n What does it meant to you for something to be private? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 3

Concept versus right n Privacy as concept • What is it • How and Concept versus right n Privacy as concept • What is it • How and why it is valued n Privacy as right • How it is (or should be) protected By law By policy By technology Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 4

Hard to define “Privacy is a value so complex, so entangled in competing and Hard to define “Privacy is a value so complex, so entangled in competing and contradictory dimensions, so engorged with various and distinct meanings, that I sometimes despair whether it can be usefully addressed at all. ” Robert C. Post, Three Concepts of Privacy, 89 Geo. L. J. 2087 (2001). Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 5

Some definitions from the literature n Personhood n Intimacy n Secrecy n Contextual integrity Some definitions from the literature n Personhood n Intimacy n Secrecy n Contextual integrity n Limited access to the self n Control over information Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 6

Limited access to self “the right to be let alone” - Samuel D. Warren Limited access to self “the right to be let alone” - Samuel D. Warren and Louis D. Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890) “Being alone. ” - Shane (age 4) “our concern over our accessibility to others: the extent to which we are known to others, the extent to which others have physical access to us, and the extent to which we are the subject of others attention. - Ruth Gavison, “Privacy and the Limits of the Law, ” Yale Law Journal 89 (1980) Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 7

Control over information “Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine Control over information “Privacy is the claim of individuals, groups or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others. ” “…each individual is continually engaged in a personal adjustment process in which he balances the desire for privacy with the desire for disclosure and communication…. ” Alan Westin, Privacy and Freedom, 1967 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 8

Realizing limited access and control n Limited access • Laws to prohibit or limit Realizing limited access and control n Limited access • Laws to prohibit or limit collection, disclosure, contact • Technology to facilitate anonymous transactions, minimize disclosure n Control • Laws to mandate choice (opt-in/opt-out) • Technology to facilitate informed consent, keep track of and enforce privacy preferences Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 9

Westin’s four states of privacy n Solitude • individual separated from the group and Westin’s four states of privacy n Solitude • individual separated from the group and freed from the observation of other persons n Intimacy • individual is part of a small unit n Anonymity • individual in public but still seeks and finds freedom from identification and surveillance n Reserve • the creation of a psychological barrier against unwanted intrusion - holding back communication Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 10

Britney Spears: “We just need privacy” “You have to realize that we're people and Britney Spears: “We just need privacy” “You have to realize that we're people and that we need, we just need privacy and we need our respect, and those are things that you have to have as a human being. ” — Britney Spears 15 June 2006 NBC Dateline http: //www. cnn. com/2006/SHOWBIZ/Music/06/15/people. spears. reut/index. html Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 11

Only a goldfish can live without privacy… Is this true? Can humans live without Only a goldfish can live without privacy… Is this true? Can humans live without privacy? 12

Privacy as animal instinct n Is privacy necessary for species survival? Eagles eating a Privacy as animal instinct n Is privacy necessary for species survival? Eagles eating a deer carcass http: //www. learner. org/jnorth/tm/eagle/Capture. E 63. html Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 13

Privacy laws and self-regulation Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 14 Privacy laws and self-regulation Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 14

Terminology n Data subject • The person whose data is collected n Data controller Terminology n Data subject • The person whose data is collected n Data controller • The entity responsible for collected data n Primary use of personal information (primary purpose) • Using information for the purposes intended by the data subjects when they provided the information n Secondary use of personal information (secondary purpose) • Using information for purposes that go beyond the primary purpose Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 15

OECD fair information principles http: //www. datenschutzberlin. de/gesetze/internat/ben. htm n Collection limitation n Data OECD fair information principles http: //www. datenschutzberlin. de/gesetze/internat/ben. htm n Collection limitation n Data quality n Purpose specification n Use limitation n Security safeguards n Openness n Individual participation n Accountability Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 16

US FTC simplified principles n Notice and disclosure n Choice and consent n Data US FTC simplified principles n Notice and disclosure n Choice and consent n Data security n Data quality and access n Recourse and remedies US Federal Trade Commission, Privacy Online: A Report to Congress (June 1998), http: //www. ftc. gov/reports/privacy 3/ Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 17

Privacy laws around the world n Privacy laws and regulations vary widely throughout the Privacy laws around the world n Privacy laws and regulations vary widely throughout the world n US has mostly sector-specific laws, with relatively minimal protections - often referred to as “patchwork quilt” • Federal Trade Commission has jurisdiction over fraud and deceptive practices • Federal Communications Commission regulates telecommunications n European Data Protection Directive requires all European Union countries to adopt similar comprehensive privacy laws that recognize privacy as fundamental human right • Privacy commissions in each country (some countries have national and state commissions) • Many European companies non-compliant with privacy laws (2002 study found majority of UK web sites non-compliant) Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 18

US law basics n Constitutional law governs the rights of individuals with respect to US law basics n Constitutional law governs the rights of individuals with respect to the government n Tort law governs disputes between private individuals or other private entities Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 19

US Constitution n No explicit privacy right, but a zone of privacy recognized in US Constitution n No explicit privacy right, but a zone of privacy recognized in its penumbras, including • • • 1 st amendment (right of association) 3 rd amendment (prohibits quartering of soldiers in homes) 4 th amendment (prohibits unreasonable search and seizure) 5 th amendment (no self-incrimination) 9 th amendment (all other rights retained by the people) n Penumbra: “fringe at the edge of a deep shadow create by an object standing in the light” (Smith 2000, p. 258, citing Justice William O. Douglas in Griswold v. Connecticut) Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 20

Federal statutes and state laws n Federal statutes • Tend to be narrowly focused Federal statutes and state laws n Federal statutes • Tend to be narrowly focused n State law • State constitutions may recognize explicit right to privacy (Georgia, Hawaii) • State statutes and common (tort) law • Local laws and regulations (for example: ordinances on soliciting anonymously) Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 21

Four aspects of privacy tort n You can sue for damages for the following Four aspects of privacy tort n You can sue for damages for the following torts (Smith 2000, p. 232 -233) • Disclosure of truly intimate facts May be truthful Disclosure must be widespread, and offensive or objectionable to a person of ordinary sensibilities Must not be newsworthy or legitimate public interest • False light Personal information or picture published out of context • Misappropriation (or right of publicity) Commercial use of name or face without permission • Intrusion into a person’s solitude Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 22

Some US privacy laws n Bank Secrecy Act, 1970 n Fair Credit Reporting Act, Some US privacy laws n Bank Secrecy Act, 1970 n Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1971 n Privacy Act, 1974 n Right to Financial Privacy Act, 1978 n Cable TV Privacy Act, 1984 n Video Privacy Protection Act, 1988 n Family Educational Right to Privacy Act, 1993 n Electronic Communications Privacy Act, 1994 n Freedom of Information Act, 1966, 1991, 1996 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 23

US law – recent additions n HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996) US law – recent additions n HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996) • When implemented, will protect medical records and other individually identifiable health information n COPPA (Children‘s Online Privacy Protection Act, 1998) • Web sites that target children must obtain parental consent before collecting personal information from children under the age of 13 n GLB (Gramm-Leach-Bliley-Act, 1999) • Requires privacy policy disclosure and opt-out mechanisms from financial service institutions Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 24

Safe harbor n Membership • US companies self-certify adherence to requirements • Dept. of Safe harbor n Membership • US companies self-certify adherence to requirements • Dept. of Commerce maintains signatory list http: //www. export. gov/safeharbor/ • Signatories must provide notice of data collected, purposes, and recipients choice of opt-out of 3 rd-party transfers, opt-in for sensitive data access rights to delete or edit inaccurate information security for storage of collected data enforcement mechanisms for individual complaints n Approved July 26, 2000 by EU • reserves right to renegotiate if remedies for EU citizens prove to be inadequate Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 25

Voluntary privacy guidelines n Direct Marketing Association Privacy Promise http: //www. thedma. org/library/ privacy/privacypromise. Voluntary privacy guidelines n Direct Marketing Association Privacy Promise http: //www. thedma. org/library/ privacy/privacypromise. shtml n Network Advertising Initiative Principles http: //www. networkadvertising. org/ n CTIA Location-based privacy guidelines http: //www. wowcom. com/news/press/body. cfm? record_id=907 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 26

Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 27 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 27

Chief privacy officers n Companies are increasingly appointing CPOs to have a central point Chief privacy officers n Companies are increasingly appointing CPOs to have a central point of contact for privacy concerns n Role of CPO varies in each company • • Draft privacy policy Respond to customer concerns Educate employees about company privacy policy Review new products and services for compliance with privacy policy • Develop new initiatives to keep company out front on privacy issue • Monitor pending privacy legislation Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 28

Seal programs n TRUSTe – http: //www. truste. org n BBBOnline – http: //www. Seal programs n TRUSTe – http: //www. truste. org n BBBOnline – http: //www. bbbonline. org n CPA Web. Trust – http: //www. cpawebtrust. org/ n Japanese Privacy Mark http: //privacymark. org/ Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 29

Seal program problems n Certify only compliance with stated policy • Limited ability to Seal program problems n Certify only compliance with stated policy • Limited ability to detect non-compliance n Minimal privacy requirements n Don’t address privacy issues that go beyond the web site n Nonetheless, reporting requirements are forcing licensees to review their own policies and practices and think carefully before introducing policy changes Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 30

Privacy policies n Policies let consumers know about site’s privacy practices n Consumers can Privacy policies n Policies let consumers know about site’s privacy practices n Consumers can then decide whether or not practices are acceptable, when to opt-in or opt-out, and who to do business with n The presence of privacy policies increases consumer trust What are some problems with privacy policies? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 31

Privacy policy problems n BUT policies are often • • difficult to understand hard Privacy policy problems n BUT policies are often • • difficult to understand hard to find take a long time to read change without notice Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 32

Privacy policy components n Identification of site, scope, contact info n Security assurances n Privacy policy components n Identification of site, scope, contact info n Security assurances n Types of information collected n Children’s privacy • Including information about cookies n How information is used n Conditions under which information might be shared n Information about opt-in/opt-out n Information about access n Information about data retention policies There is lots of information to convey -- but policy should be brief and easy-to-read too! n Information about seal programs What is opt-in? What is opt-out? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 33

How are online privacy concerns different from offline privacy concerns? Lorrie Cranor • http: How are online privacy concerns different from offline privacy concerns? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 34

Web privacy concerns n Data is often collected silently • Web allows large quantities Web privacy concerns n Data is often collected silently • Web allows large quantities of data to be collected inexpensively and unobtrusively n Data from multiple sources may be merged • Non-identifiable information can become identifiable when merged n Data collected for business purposes may be used in civil and criminal proceedings n Users given no meaningful choice • Few sites offer alternatives Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 35

Browser Chatter n Browsers chatter about • IP address, domain name, organization, • Referring Browser Chatter n Browsers chatter about • IP address, domain name, organization, • Referring page • Platform: O/S, browser • What information is requested URLs and search terms • Cookies Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ n To anyone who might be listening • End servers • System administrators • Internet Service Providers • Other third parties Advertising networks • Anyone who might subpoena log files later 36

Typical HTTP request with cookie GET /retail/searchresults. asp? qu=beer HTTP/1. 0 Referer: http: //www. Typical HTTP request with cookie GET /retail/searchresults. asp? qu=beer HTTP/1. 0 Referer: http: //www. us. buy. com/default. asp User-Agent: Mozilla/4. 75 [en] (X 11; U; Net. BSD 1. 5_ALPHA i 386) Host: www. us. buy. com Accept: image/gif, image/jpeg, image/pjpeg, */* Accept-Language: en Cookie: buycountry=us; dc. Loc. Name=Basket; dc. Cat. ID=6773; dc. Loc. ID=6773; dc. Ad=buybasket; loc=; parent. Loc. Name=Basket; parent. Loc=6773; Shopper. Manager%2 F=66 FUQU LL 0 QBT 8 MMTVSC 5 MMNKBJFWDVH 7; Store=107; Category=0 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 37

Referer log problems n. GET methods result in values in URL n. These URLs Referer log problems n. GET methods result in values in URL n. These URLs are sent in the referer header to next host n. Example: http: //www. merchant. com/cgi_bin/o rder? name=Tom+Jones&address=here +there&credit+card=234876923234& PIN=1234&->index. html n Access log example Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 38

Cookies n What are cookies? n What are people concerned about cookies? n What Cookies n What are cookies? n What are people concerned about cookies? n What useful purposes do cookies serve? Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 39

Cookies 101 n Cookies can be useful • Used like a staple to attach Cookies 101 n Cookies can be useful • Used like a staple to attach multiple parts of a form together • Used to identify you when you return to a web site so you don’t have to remember a password • Used to help web sites understand how people use them n Cookies can do unexpected things • Used to profile users and track their activities, especially across web sites Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 40

How cookies work – the basics n A cookie stores a small string of How cookies work – the basics n A cookie stores a small string of characters n A web site asks your browser to “set” a cookie n Whenever you return to that site your browser sends the cookie back automatically Please store cookie xyzzy site Here is cookie xyzzy browser First visit to site Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ site browser Later visits 41

How cookies work – advanced n Cookies are only sent back to the “site” How cookies work – advanced n Cookies are only sent back to the “site” that set them – but this may be any host in domain • Sites setting cookies indicate path, domain, and expiration for cookies Send me with any request to x. com until 2008 Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ Send me with requests for index. html on y. x. com for this session only n Cookies can store user info or a database key that is used to look up user info – either way the cookie enables info to be linked to the current browsing session User=Joe Email= [email protected] x. com Visits=13 Database Users … Email … Visits … User=4576 904309 42

Cookie terminology n Cookie Replay – sending a cookie back to a site n Cookie terminology n Cookie Replay – sending a cookie back to a site n Session cookie – cookie replayed only during current browsing session n Persistent cookie – cookie replayed until expiration date n First-party cookie – cookie associated with the site the user requested n Third-party cookie – cookie associated with an image, ad, frame, or other content from a site with a different domain name that is embedded in the site the user requested • Browser interprets third-party cookie based on domain name, even if both domains are owned by the same company Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 43

Web bugs n Invisible “images” (1 -by-1 pixels, transparent) embedded in web pages and Web bugs n Invisible “images” (1 -by-1 pixels, transparent) embedded in web pages and cause referer info and cookies to be transferred n Also called web beacons, clear gifs, tracker gifs, etc. n Work just like banner ads from ad networks, but you can’t see them unless you look at the code behind a web page n Also embedded in HTML formatted email messages, MS Word documents, etc. n For software to detect web bugs see: http: //www. bugnosis. org Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 44

How data can be linked n Every time the same cookie is replayed to How data can be linked n Every time the same cookie is replayed to a site, the site may add information to the record associated with that cookie • • Number of times you visit a link, time, date What page you visited last Information you type into a web form n If multiple cookies are replayed together, they are usually logged together, effectively linking their data • Narrow scoped cookie might get logged with broad scoped cookie Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 45

Ad networks search for medical information buy CD set cookie replay cookie Ad Ad Ad networks search for medical information buy CD set cookie replay cookie Ad Ad Search Service Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ Ad company can get your name and address from CD order and link them to your search CD Store 46

What ad networks may know… n Personal data: • Email address • Full name What ad networks may know… n Personal data: • Email address • Full name • Mailing address (street, city, state, and Zip code) • Phone number n Transactional data: • Details of plane trips • Search phrases used at search engines • Health conditions “It was not necessary for me to click on the banner ads for information to be sent to Double. Click servers. ” – Richard M. Smith Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 47

Online and offline merging n In November 1999, Double. Click purchased Abacus Direct, a Online and offline merging n In November 1999, Double. Click purchased Abacus Direct, a company possessing detailed consumer profiles on more than 90% of US households. n In mid-February 2000 Double. Click announced plans to merge “anonymous” online data with personal information obtained from offline databases n By the first week in March 2000 the plans were put on hold • Stock dropped from $125 (12/99) to $80 (03/00) Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 48

Offline data goes online… The Cranor family’s 25 most frequent grocery purchases (sorted by Offline data goes online… The Cranor family’s 25 most frequent grocery purchases (sorted by nutritional value)! Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 49

Subpoenas n Data on online activities is increasingly of interest in civil and criminal Subpoenas n Data on online activities is increasingly of interest in civil and criminal cases n The only way to avoid subpoenas is to not have data n In the US, your files on your computer in your home have much greater legal protection that your files stored on a server on the network Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 50

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P 3 P: Introduction Original Idea behind P 3 P n A framework for P 3 P: Introduction Original Idea behind P 3 P n A framework for automated privacy discussions • Web sites disclose their privacy practices in standard machine-readable formats • Web browsers automatically retrieve P 3 P privacy policies and compare them to users’ privacy preferences • Sites and browsers can then negotiate about privacy terms Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 52

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P history n Idea discussed at November 1995 P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P history n Idea discussed at November 1995 FTC meeting n Ad Hoc “Internet Privacy Working Group” convened to discuss the idea in Fall 1996 n W 3 C began working on P 3 P in Summer 1997 • Several working groups chartered with dozens of participants from industry, non-profits, academia, government • Numerous public working drafts issued, and feedback resulted in many changes • Early ideas about negotiation and agreement ultimately removed • Automatic data transfer added and then removed • Patent issue stalled progress, but ultimately became non-issue n P 3 P issued as official W 3 C Recommendation on April 16, 2002 • http: //www. w 3. org/TR/P 3 P/ Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 53

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P 1. 0 – A first step n P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P 1. 0 – A first step n Offers an easy way for web sites to communicate about their privacy policies in a standard machine-readable format • Can be deployed using existing web servers n This will enable the development of tools that: • Provide snapshots of sites’ policies • Compare policies with user preferences • Alert and advise the user Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 54

P 3 P: Introduction The basics n P 3 P provides a standard XML P 3 P: Introduction The basics n P 3 P provides a standard XML format that web sites use to encode their privacy policies n Sites also provide XML “policy reference files” to indicate which policy applies to which part of the site n Sites can optionally provide a “compact policy” by configuring their servers to issue a special P 3 P header when cookies are set n No special server software required n User software to read P 3 P policies called a “P 3 P user agent” Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 55

P 3 P: Enabling your web site – overview and options What’s in a P 3 P: Enabling your web site – overview and options What’s in a P 3 P policy? n Name and contact information for site n The kind of access provided n Mechanisms for resolving privacy disputes n The kinds of data collected n How collected data is used, and whether individuals can opt-in or opt-out of any of these uses n Whether/when data may be shared and whethere is opt-in or opt-out n Data retention policy Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 56

P 3 P/XML encoding Statement P 3 P version <POLICIES xmlns= P 3 P/XML encoding Statement P 3 P version human-readable P 3 P policy name privacy policy [email protected] 3 pbook. com name and http: //p 3 pbook. com/ contact info Web Privacy With P 3 P Access disclosure Human-readable explanation We keep standard web server logs. How data may be used Data recipients Data retention policy Types of data collected 57

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P 1. 0 Spec Defines n A standard P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P 1. 0 Spec Defines n A standard vocabulary for describing set of uses, recipients, data categories, and other privacy disclosures n A standard schema for data a Web site may wish to collect (base data schema) n An XML format for expressing a privacy policy in a machine readable way n A means of associating privacy policies with Web pages or sites n A protocol for transporting P 3 P policies over HTTP Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 58

P 3 P: Introduction A simple HTTP transaction GET /index. html HTTP/1. 1 Host: P 3 P: Introduction A simple HTTP transaction GET /index. html HTTP/1. 1 Host: www. att. com. . . Request web page Web Server HTTP/1. 1 200 OK Content-Type: text/html. . . Send web page Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 59

P 3 P: Introduction … with P 3 P 1. 0 added GET /w P 3 P: Introduction … with P 3 P 1. 0 added GET /w 3 c/p 3 p. xml HTTP/1. 1 Host: www. att. com Request Policy Reference File Web Server Send Policy Reference File Request P 3 P Policy Send P 3 P Policy GET /index. html HTTP/1. 1 Host: www. att. com. . . Request web page HTTP/1. 1 200 OK Content-Type: text/html. . . Send web page Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 60

P 3 P: Introduction Transparency n P 3 P clients can check a privacy P 3 P: Introduction Transparency n P 3 P clients can check a privacy policy each time it changes http: //www. att. com/accessatt/ n P 3 P clients can check privacy policies on all objects in a web page, including ads and invisible images http: //adforce. imgis. com/? adlink|2|68523|1|146|ADFORCE Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 61

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P in IE 6 Automatic processing of compact P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P in IE 6 Automatic processing of compact policies only; third-party cookies without compact policies blocked by default Privacy icon on status bar indicates that a cookie has been blocked – pop-up appears the first time the privacy icon appears Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 62

P 3 P: Introduction Users can click on privacy icon for list of cookies; P 3 P: Introduction Users can click on privacy icon for list of cookies; privacy summaries are available at sites that are P 3 P-enabled Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 63

P 3 P: Introduction Privacy summary report is generated automatically from full P 3 P 3 P: Introduction Privacy summary report is generated automatically from full P 3 P policy Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 64

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P in Netscape 7 Preview version similar to P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P in Netscape 7 Preview version similar to IE 6, focusing, on cookies; cookies without compact policies (both first-party and third-party) are “flagged” rather than blocked by default Indicates flagged cookie Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 65

P 3 P: Introduction Users can view English translation of (part of) compact policy P 3 P: Introduction Users can view English translation of (part of) compact policy in Cookie Manager Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 66

P 3 P: Introduction A policy summary can be generated automatically from full P P 3 P: Introduction A policy summary can be generated automatically from full P 3 P policy Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 67

Privacy Bird n Free download of beta from http: //privacybird. org/ • Origninally developed Privacy Bird n Free download of beta from http: //privacybird. org/ • Origninally developed at AT&T Labs • Released as open source n “Browser helper object” for IE 6 n Reads P 3 P policies at all P 3 P-enabled sites automatically n Bird icon at top of browser window indicates whether site matches user’s privacy preferences n Clicking on bird icon gives more information Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 68

Chirping bird is privacy indicator 69 Chirping bird is privacy indicator 69

Red bird indicates mismatch 70 Red bird indicates mismatch 70

Check embedded content too 71 Check embedded content too 71

Privacy settings 72 Privacy settings 72

Example: Sending flowers 73 Example: Sending flowers 73

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Privacy Finder n Prototype developed at AT&T Labs, improved and deployed by CUPS n Privacy Finder n Prototype developed at AT&T Labs, improved and deployed by CUPS n Uses Google or Yahoo! API to retrieve search results n Checks each result for P 3 P policy n Evaluates P 3 P policy against user’s preferences n Reorders search results n Composes search result page with privacy annotations next to each P 3 P-enabled result n Users can retrieve “Privacy Report” similar to Privacy Bird policy summary Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 76

Demo 77 Demo 77

Evaluating Privacy Finder n Have enough sites adopted P 3 P for Privacy Finder Evaluating Privacy Finder n Have enough sites adopted P 3 P for Privacy Finder to be useful? • S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Chowdhury. An Analysis of P 3 P-Enabled Web Sites among Top-20 Search Results. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Electronic Commerce August 14 -16, 2006, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada. n Will the prominent display of privacy information cause consumers to take privacy into account when making online purchasing decisions? • J. Gideon, S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Acquisti. Power Strips, Prophylactics, and Privacy, Oh My! In Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium On Usable Privacy and Security, 12 -14 July 2006, Pittsburgh, PA. • J. Tsai, S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and A. Acquisti. The Effect of Online Privacy Information on Purchasing Behavior: An Experimental Study. Workshop on the Economics of Information Security, June 7 -8, 2007, Pittsburgh, PA. Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 78

P 3 P adoption study n Compiled two lists of search terms: • Typical: P 3 P adoption study n Compiled two lists of search terms: • Typical: 20, 000 terms sampled from week of AOL user queries • Ecommerce: 940 terms screen scraped from Froogle front page n Submitted search terms to Google, Yahoo!, and AOL search engines and collected top 20 results for each term n Checked each result for P 3 P policy and evaluated policies n Checked for P 3 P policies on 30, 000 domains most clicked on by AOL search engine users Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 79

Frequency of P 3 P-enabled hits n P 3 P-enabled top-20 search results • Frequency of P 3 P-enabled hits n P 3 P-enabled top-20 search results • Typical search terms: 10% • E-commerce search terms: 21% n Searches that return at least one P 3 P-enabled results • In top 10 results: 68% • In top 20 results: 83% n AOL users will find sites with “good” privacy policies in first 2 pages of results about 1/3 of the time n We’ve also collected data about types of privacy practices, types of sites that have adopted P 3 P, and errors in P 3 P policies Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 80

Results: Most popular P 3 P policies Typical Terms Ecommerce Terms n http: //privacy. Results: Most popular P 3 P policies Typical Terms Ecommerce Terms n http: //privacy. yahoo. com/ n http: //about. com/ n http: //privacy. msn. com/ n http: //www. bizrate. com/ n http: //disney. go. com/ n http: //www 0. shopping. com/ n http: //images. rootsweb. com/ n http: //www. shopping. com/ n http: //adserver. ign. com/ n http: //www. pricegrabber. com/ n http: //www. nlm. nih. gov/ n http: //www. cpsc. gov/ n http: //www. bizrate. com/ n http: //www. overstock. com/ n http: //www. superpages. com/ n http: //www. cooking. com/ n http: //www. shopping. com/ n http: //www. altrec. com/ Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 81

Does Privacy Finder influence purchases? n Online shopping studies • Pay participants to make Does Privacy Finder influence purchases? n Online shopping studies • Pay participants to make online purchases with their own credit cards • Some use Privacy Finder and some use generic search engine • Experiment with privacy sensitivity of purchase and price sensitivity • Lab studies Study of college students purchasing power strips and condoms, no price incentive (reimburse cost) Study of Pittsburgh residents purchasing batteries and sex toys, with price incentive (keep the change) Larger study testing additional conditions planned n Privacy Finder field study planned Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 82

Lab study design n 16 participants in each condition • Condition 1: No information Lab study design n 16 participants in each condition • Condition 1: No information • Condition 2: Irrelevant information • Condition 3: Privacy information n Products • Non-privacy Sensitive - batteries • Privacy sensitive - sex toy n Participants paid fixed amount and told to “keep the change” Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 83

Privacy information condition Privacy premium: $0. 69 4. 8% 84 Privacy information condition Privacy premium: $0. 69 4. 8% 84

Irrelevant information condition 85 Irrelevant information condition 85

No information condition 86 No information condition 86

Results Batteries Sex Toy 87 Results Batteries Sex Toy 87

Conclusions n Accessible privacy information affects consumer behavior n Consumers willing to pay for Conclusions n Accessible privacy information affects consumer behavior n Consumers willing to pay for better privacy n Privacy Finder helps users make privacy informed decisions Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 88

P 3 P: Introduction Why web sites adopt P 3 P n Demonstrate corporate P 3 P: Introduction Why web sites adopt P 3 P n Demonstrate corporate leadership on privacy issues • Show customers they respect their privacy • Demonstrate to regulators that industry is taking voluntary steps to address consumer privacy concerns n Distinguish brand as privacy friendly n Prevent IE 6 from blocking their cookies n Anticipation that consumers will soon come to expect P 3 P on all web sites n Individuals who run sites value personal privacy Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 89

P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P early adopters n News and information sites P 3 P: Introduction P 3 P early adopters n News and information sites – CNET, About. com, Business. Week n Search engines – Yahoo, Lycos n Ad networks – Double. Click, Avenue A n Telecom companies – AT&T n Financial institutions – Fidelity n Computer hardware and software vendors – IBM, Dell, Microsoft, Mc. Afee n Retail stores – Fortunoff, Ritz Camera n Government agencies – FTC, Dept. of Commerce, Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner n Non-profits - CDT Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 90

P 3 P: The future Impacts n Some companies that P 3 P-enable think P 3 P: The future Impacts n Some companies that P 3 P-enable think about privacy in new ways and change their practices • Systematic assessment of privacy practices • Concrete disclosures – less wiggle room • Disclosures about areas previously not discussed in privacy policy n Hopefully we will see greater transparency, more informed consumers, and ultimately better privacy policies Lorrie Cranor • http: //lorrie. cranor. org/ 91