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1  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE1 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Power Converter Systems Graduate Course EE 8407 Ryerson Campus. Bin Wu Ph. D, PEng Professor ELCE Department Ryerson University Contact Info Office: ENG 328 Tel: (416) 979 -5000 ext: 6484 Email: [email protected] ryerson. ca http: //www. ee. ryerson. ca/~bwu/

2  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE2 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Multi-pulse Diode Rectifiers

3  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE3 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Lecture Topics • Six-pulse Diode Rectifier (Building Block) • Series-type 12 -, 18 — and 24 -pulse rectifiers • Separate-type 12 -, and 18 -pulse rectifiers Multi-pulse Diode Rectifiers

4  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE4 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Why Use Multipulse Diode Rectifiers? • To reduce line current THD; • To improve input power factor; and • To avoid semiconductor devices in series. Multi-pulse Diode Rectifiers

5  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE5 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Resistive Load Supply Voltages: ai bi ci 1 D 3 D 5 D 4 D 6 D 2 D dv av bv cv di d. R a b c Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

6  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE6 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Waveformsdv abvacv 1 A bcvcavcbv dv bav do. V III bvcvavv 0 0 0 ai 61, DD 21, DD ON 2 t t t 2 abv 6 2 av ON )(6/sin 2 3/ 1 3/ area 2/ 6/tdt. VVLLdo 1 A LLLLVV 35. 1 23 Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

7  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE7 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Capacitive Loadd. C d. V (a) d. V (b) R ai bi ci 1 D 3 D 5 D 4 D 6 D 2 D d i a b c s. Lav bvc v s. L Assumption: constantdd. VC Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

8  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE8 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Waveformst t t abvacvbcvbavcavcbvabvacv 2 ai bi di 61, DD 2 ci O N 21, DD ON v 0 0 0 d. V Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

9  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE9 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Discontinuous Current Operation 3/ 1 2 3 di vabvacv t t d. V 3/ 4 0 0 p. I 5 LLd VV 2 sin 1 1 12 Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

10  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE10 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Discontinuous Current Operation 3/ 1 2 3 di vabvacv t t d. V 3/ 4 0 0 p. I 5 Differential Equation: dabd s Vv dt id L 2 31 t 11 coscos 2 2 1 sin 2 2 1 1 d. LL sd VV L td. Vt. V Li. Solution: Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

11  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE11 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Discontinuous Current Operation 3/ 1 2 3 di vabvacv t t d. V 3/ 4 0 0 p. I 5 Peak dc current: Average dc current: 2121 coscos 2 2 1 d. LL sp VV LI Voltage – theta relation: 31 31 coscos 2 LLd VV di. I dd 3 1 3/1 Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

12  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE12 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Continuous Current Operationdi i ci D 2 , D 3 D 1 , D 2 D 1 D 2 D 3 IIIIII On-state Diode 2 p. I bi t t ai p. I aibici c Note: — With the increase of the load current, the rectifier will enter into continuous current operation. — During commutation interval, three diodes are on. Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

13  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE13 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Definition of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Phase voltage (pure sine): Line current (distorted): RMS line current: Line current THD: nnan na t. Ii )(sin 2 , . . . 3, 2, 1 2/1 , . . . 3, 2, 1 22/1 2 0 2 )( 2 1 n anaa Itdi. I 1 2 a aa I II THD Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

14  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE14 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Definition of Power Factor (PF) Per-phase average (real) power: Per-phase apparent power: Total power factor (PF): Distortion factor (DF) : Displacement power factor (DPF) : tdiv. Paa 2 02 1 11 cosaa. IVS DPFDF I I IV IV S P PF a a aa aa 1 111 cos aa. IIDF/1 1 cos. DPF PF = f (THD) : 2 1 THDDPF PF Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

15  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE15 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Per Unit System Rated power, rated lint-to-line voltage: Base voltage and frequency: Base current and impedance: Base inductance and capacitance: Example Rectifier ratings: 4160 V, 60 Hz, 2 MVA. Base current = 277. 6 A, Base inductance = 22. 9 m. H. Line inductance = 2. 29 m. H = 0. 1 pu Line current = 138. 8 A = 0. 5 pu. RRVS, . and 3 B B R B I V Z V S I 3 R B V V 12 f. B and BB B B Z C Z L 1 and. Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

16  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE16 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Harmonics n 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 THD (%) 1 /aan II (%) pu 2. 0 1 a. I 63. 4 38. 7 8. 99 8. 64 4. 22 3. 61 2. 48 2. 02 75. 7 1 /aan II (%) pu 11 a. I 30. 4 8. 79 6. 31 3. 40 2. 30 1. 89 1. 04 1. 03 32. 7 • Typical Waveforms / Harmonic Content Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

17  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE17 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 A B C 1. 0 PF 0. 60. 8 0. 70. 9 A BC (b) PF 100 THD(%) 2060 4080 (a) THD A: L s = 0. 05 B: L s = 0. 10 C: L s = 0. 15 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 81 a. I 0 (pu) • THD and PF Six-pulse Diode Rectifier

18  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE18 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Rectifier Topology • Series type: Two six-pulse rectifiers are in series at the output. • Phase shifting transformer: 30~ ~ AB ba VV • Secondary line-to-line voltage: 2/~~ABbaab. VVV • Turns ratio: 2 2 1 N N. 3 2 3 1 N N and 12 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

19  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE19 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Simplified Block Diagram s. L ai 0 30 di Av Bv Cv Ais. L 1 N ai~ 2 N 3 N a i 30 0 ai~ aaiii A~ aa iii. A ~ d. C d. Vlk. LA B C a b c A i (a) 12 -pulse diode rectifier (b) Simplified diagram a~ b~ c~ di d. C d V 12 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

20  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE20 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Waveforms and FFT • No 5 th or 7 th harmonics in the line current. • Primary line current THD: 8. 38% 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1/aan. IIn = 1 n = 5711131719 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1113 0 (a) (b) (c) 1~~/ana. II 1/An. AII n = 1 n = 5 n = 1 2505007501000 f (Hz) THD = 24. 1% 11//aanaan. IIII THD = 24. 1% 1~~1~~//anaana. IIII THD = 8. 38%12 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

21  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE21 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 510152025 THD(%) (a) THD A: L s = 0. 00 B: L s = 0. 05 C: L s = 0. 10 ( L lk = 0. 05) A B C A: L s = 0. 00 B: L s = 0. 05 C: L s = 0. 10 ( L lk = 0. 05)1. 00 PF 0. 920. 96 0. 940. 98 (b) PF A B C 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 81 AI 0 (pu) Comparison with six-pulse rectifier: • THD is reduced; and • PF is improved. • THD and PF 12 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

22  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE22 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 Ai s. L Z 20 0 Z 20 d. C ai ai~ ai di aaaiiii. A~lk. L d. V Phase-Shifting (Zigzag) Transformer • Converter Topology 18 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

23  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE23 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Simulated Waveforms • No 5 th , 7 th , 11 th , or 13 th harmonics in the line current. • Lowest harmonic: 17 th • Line current THD: 3. 06% 18 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

24  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE24 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Measured Waveforms 18 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

25  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE25 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • THD and PF 246810 THD(%) (a) THD A: L s = 0. 00 B: L s = 0. 05 C: L s = 0. 10 ( L lk = 0. 05) A B C A: L s = 0. 00 B: L s = 0. 05 C: L s = 0. 10 ( L lk = 0. 05)1. 00 PF 0. 920. 96 0. 940. 98 (b) PF A B C 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 81 A I 0 (pu) Comparison with 12 -pulse: Improved THD 18 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

26  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE26 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Converter Topology. Ai s. L Z 15 0 Z 15 30 aaaaiiiii. A~ ai ai lk. L d. C d i d. V Phase-Shifting (Zigzag) Transformer 24 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

27  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE27 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Typical Waveforms 0. 30 -0. 60 1. 50 0. 75 -1. 500 (a) (b) (c) aaaa. Aiiiii~ai ai 4/~~ aa ii ai 2 3 4 3 THD = 24. 0% THD = 1. 49%0 0 0(pu)0. 60 • Lowest line current harmonic: 23 th • THD: 1. 49%24 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

28  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE28 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • THD and PF 02468 THD(%) (a) THD A B C 1. 00 PF 0. 920. 96 0. 940. 98 (b) PF A B CA: L s = 0. 00 B: L s = 0. 05 C: L s = 0. 10 ( L lk = 0. 05 ) 0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 81 AI 0 (pu)24 -pulse Series-type Diode Rectifier

29  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE29 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Rectifier Topologyd. C s. L ai 0 30 d. C di L O A D ai~ aaiii. A~lk. L di~ d. Vd V ~ Ai • Separate Type Each six-pulse rectifier feeds a separate dc load. 12 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

30  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE30 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 30 0 0 M 30 30 30 • Application Example Multilevel Cascade H-bridge Inverter Fed Drive Phase Shifting Transformer 12 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

31  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE31 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Typical Waveforms • Comparison with series-type: — DC current ripple: higher — Line current THD: close 12 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

32  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE32 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Measured Waveforms 12 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

33  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE33 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Line Current THD and Input PF 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 IA 1(pu) THD(%) 0. 92 0. 94 0. 96 0. 98 1. 00 0. 20. 40. 60. 80 5 10 15 20 25 A: Ls = 0 B : Ls = 0. 05 pu C : Ls = 0. 10 pu ( Llk= 0. 05 pu ) PF Continuous Current M ode A B C A: Ls = 0 B : Ls = 0. 05 pu C : Ls = 0. 10 pu ( Llk= 0. 05 pu ) IA 1(pu) 12 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

34  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE34 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Rectifier Topology. Ais. L Z 20 0 Z 20 d C ai d C L O A Da i ~ d C L O A Da i di aaaiiii. A~ lk. L lk L d i ~ d i d. V d V ~ d V 18 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

35  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE35 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Simulated Waveforms 18 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

36  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE36 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Line Current THD and Input PF 18 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

37  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE37 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic 3 • Line Current THD and Input PF 24 -pulse Separate-type Diode Rectifier

38  Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley - IEEE Press, 2006 EE38 Textbook: Bin Wu, ‘High-Power Converters and AC Drives’, Wiley — IEEE Press, 2006 EE 8407 Topic