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Press Escape to quit Presentation of structures v STRUCTURE number 1 v STRUCTURE number Press Escape to quit Presentation of structures v STRUCTURE number 1 v STRUCTURE number 2 v STRUCTURE number 3 v STRUCTURE number 4 v STRUCTURE number 5 v STRUCTURE number 6 v STRUCTURE number 7

Press Escape to quit News item - Structures Structure 1, Structure 2, Structure 3, Press Escape to quit News item - Structures Structure 1, Structure 2, Structure 3, Structure 4, Structure 5, Structure 6, Structure 7, v Topics : Advertising, AIDS, Cars and car drivers, Drugs, The European Union, Genetically engineered or modified food, Global warming, Globalisation, Health, The homeless, The internet, Living in a city/in the country, Living with one’s parents, Marriage, Men/Women parity, Nature, Politics, The price of petrol, Racism, Robots and man, Sharing a flat, Smoking, Sport, Studying abroad, Taxes, Television, Third world countries, Unemployment, and so on…

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 1 To present the main reason(s) for a Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 1 To present the main reason(s) for a choice (présenter la/les raisons d'un choix) v "What are the main criteria when V-ING (=an action which implies a choice) ? Besides the background reasons such as (sth), there are other fundamentals. " v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (1) v Press Escape to quit TEXT (1) v" What are the main criteria when picking a foreign country as an investment target? Besides the background reasons such as rates of return on the investment and the degree of risk, there are other fundamentals. " (Click and listen) Investment international, May 1991, P. 15, Swiss bankrolls (bankroll=a supply of money).

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (1) v Quels sont les principaux critères lorsqu'on fait Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (1) v Quels sont les principaux critères lorsqu'on fait le choix d'un pays étranger pour y investir? Mises à part les raisons de fond telles que la rentabilité de l'investissement et l'importance du risque, il y a d'autres éléments essentiels.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES v. Nature : - What are the main criteria Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES v. Nature : - What are the main criteria when (buy)ing (a "green" product)? Besides the background reasons such as (helping to protect nature), there are other fundamentals. v. Politics : - What are the main criteria when (choos)ing (a political career)? Besides the background reasons such as (the strong desire to serve one's country), there are other fundamentals.

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 2 To present a behaviour contrasting with what Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 2 To present a behaviour contrasting with what was expected (présenter un comportement surprenant) v v “(Sby) used to be far more likely to (do. . . ) than (do. . . ) v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (2) (About East-Germany youngsters) They used to be far Press Escape to quit TEXT (2) (About East-Germany youngsters) They used to be far more likely to throw a Molotov cocktail than put on a show. (Click and listen) "Sensitivity training for Neo-Nazis", NEWSWEEK, April 27, 1992. v

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (2) v Autrefois, on s'attendait beaucoup plus voir les Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (2) v Autrefois, on s'attendait beaucoup plus voir les jeunes de l’Allemagne de l’Est jeter un cocktail Molotov qu'organiser un spectacle.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLE (2) v Nature : (Industrialists) used to be far Press Escape to quit EXAMPLE (2) v Nature : (Industrialists) used to be far more likely to (think of their profits) than (take care of the environment). v Sport : (In the sixties young people) used to be far more likely to (do sport) than (sit in front of a computer).

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 3 v To present a tendency, a common Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 3 v To present a tendency, a common attitude that can be criticised. (présenter une tendance, une attitude qui peut être critiquée) v Advocates of (sth) often fall prey to the temptation of referring to (sth) as (sth) v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (3) Advocates of European unity often fall prey to Press Escape to quit TEXT (3) Advocates of European unity often fall prey to the temptation of referring to Europe as "a family" (Click and listen) v "European Unity", THE EUROPEAN, May 31 st, 1992

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (3) v Les partisans de l'unité européenne cèdent souvent Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (3) v Les partisans de l'unité européenne cèdent souvent à la tentation de comparer l'Europe à une famille

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (3) Nature : Advocates of (ecology) often fall prey Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (3) Nature : Advocates of (ecology) often fall prey to the temptation of referring to (Nature) as (everyone's mother). v English : Advocates of (the English language) often fall prey to the temptation of referring to (English) as (THE international language). v Sport : Advocates of (sport) often fall prey to the temptation of referring to (physical activities) as (an essential part of life). v

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 4 v To present a dilemna. (présenter un Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 4 v To present a dilemna. (présenter un dilemne) v Therein lies the challenge facing ( sby/sth) - how to (do) while (doing). v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (4) v Therein lies the challenge facing a united Press Escape to quit TEXT (4) v Therein lies the challenge facing a united Europe - how to combine a political and economic unity with a cultural and a linguistic diversity, while enhancing mutual tolerance and respect. (Click and listen) "European Unity", THE EUROPEAN, May 31 st, 1992

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (4) v Voilà le défi auquel est confrontée une Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (4) v Voilà le défi auquel est confrontée une Europe unie: comment combiner une unité politique et économique avec une diversité culturelle et linguistique, tout en renforçant la tolérance et le respect mutuel.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (4) Nature : Therein lies the challenge facing (the Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (4) Nature : Therein lies the challenge facing (the greens) how to (take part in governmental action) while (remain)ing (true to their basic ideas). v Sport : Therein lies the challenge facing ( sportsmen) how to (stay at the top/win) while (refus)ing (drugs/be)ing (clean). v

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 5 v To express a change in sby’s Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 5 v To express a change in sby’s attitude. (exprimer un changement dans l'attitude de qn. ) v (sby) have to abandon (one’s) long-cherished notion that a (. . . ) is a (. . . ) that (do) v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (5) v“Managers will also have to abandon their long-cherished Press Escape to quit TEXT (5) v“Managers will also have to abandon their long-cherished notion that a productive employee is an employee that can be seen. ” (Click and listen) " The eternal coffee-break ", The Economist

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (5) v Les dirigeants devront également abandonner le sentiment Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (5) v Les dirigeants devront également abandonner le sentiment qu'ils ont depuis longtemps qu'un employé productif est un employé que l'on peut voir.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (5) Nature : (Ecologists) will have to abandon their Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (5) Nature : (Ecologists) will have to abandon their longcherished notion that (a safe policy) is (a policy) that (ignores technical progress). v Sport : (Spectators) abandoned their long-cherished notion that (a dangerous car) is (a car) that (goes fast). v

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 6 v To give a justification for sth Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 6 v To give a justification for sth (donner une justification à qc. ) v The impact of (sth) has been important and explains why (clause). v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (6) v. The psychological impact of the collapse has Press Escape to quit TEXT (6) v. The psychological impact of the collapse has been immense and explains why people will subject themselves to a killing routine like the trans-German commute. (Click and listen) (May, 25, 1992): " Westward Ho! And Back Again", TIME, P. 57

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (6) v L'impact psychologique de cet effondrement a été Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (6) v L'impact psychologique de cet effondrement a été immense et explique pourquoi les gens s'imposent cette routine mortelle que sont les trajets d'une Allemagne à une autre.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (6) Nature : The impact of (last autumn floods) Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (6) Nature : The impact of (last autumn floods) has been important and explains why (the French are becoming aware of the dangers of modern farming). v Sport : The impact of (the world cup) has been immense and explains why (there is so much football on tv). v

Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 7 v To express an agreement on sth Press Escape to quit STRUCTURE number 7 v To express an agreement on sth (exprimer un accord sur qc. ) v It was agreed that (sby/sth) would (vb) v TEXT v TRANSLATION v EXAMPLES

Press Escape to quit TEXT (7) v. It was agreed that the executive committee Press Escape to quit TEXT (7) v. It was agreed that the executive committee of the rugby league would be the controlling body for the game. (Click and listen) (January 13 2000): " Storm fear Saints may turn sinners", The Guardian, P. 15

Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (7) v On s’est mis d’accord sur le fait Press Escape to quit TRANSLATION (7) v On s’est mis d’accord sur le fait que le comité de direction du rugby à treize serait l’organe de contrôle pour cette partie.

Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (7) Nature : It was agreed that (every component) Press Escape to quit EXAMPLES (7) Nature : It was agreed that (every component) would (be written on products). v Sport : It is agreed that (tv) will (pay for every match). v