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Presentation Theme: Chemistry Prepared by: Askarova D. Checked by: Group: ХТ-15 -6 ка
Etymology The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to an earlier set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy, mysticism and medicine. It is often seen as linked to the quest to turn lead or another common starting material into gold,  though in ancient times the study encompassed many of the questions of modern chemistry being defined as the study of the composition of waters, movement, growth, embodying, disembodying, drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4 th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos.  An alchemist was called a ‘ chemist ‘ in popular speech, and later the suffix «-ry» was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as «chemistry». The modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā ( ءایمیکلا ). In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία.   This may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi , which is the ancient name of Egypt in Egyptian.  Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning «cast together».  Definition In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term «chymistry», in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, meant the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies.  In 1663 the chemist Christopher Glaser described «chymistry» as a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from the different substances on their composition, and how to unite them again, and exalt them to a higher perfection.  The 1730 definition of the word «chemistry», as used by Georg Ernst Stahl , meant the art of resolving mixed, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles.  In 1837, Jean- Baptiste Dumas considered the word «chemistry» to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces.  This definition further evolved until, in 1947, it came to mean the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances — a characterization accepted by Linus Pauling.  More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of «chemistry» to mean the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
History Early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians , Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy, pottery and dyes, but didn’t develop a systematic theory. A basic chemical hypothesis first emerged in Classical Greece with theory of four elements as propounded definitively by Aristotle stating that fire , air , earth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a combination. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, arising in works by philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus. In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon theory in his book De rerum natura (On The Nature of Things).   Unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments.  In the Hellenistic world the art of alchemy first proliferated, mingling magic and occultism into the study of natural substances with the ultimate goal of transmuting elements into gold and discovering the elixir of eternal life.  Work, particularly the development of distillation , continued in the early Byzantine period with the most famous practitioner being the 4 th century Greek-Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis.  Alchemy continued to be developed and practised throughout the Arab world after the Muslim conquests ,  and from there, and from the Byzantine remnants,  diffused into medieval and Renaissance Europe through Latin translations. Some influential Muslim chemists, Abū al- Rayhān al- Bīrūnī ,  Avicenna and Al- Kindi refuted theories of alchemy, particularly theory of the transmutation of metals ; and al- Tusi described a version of the conservation of mass , noting that a body of matter is able to change but is not able to disappear. Democritus ‘ atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus (341– 270 BCE).
Chemistry as science The development of the modern scientific method was slow and arduous, but an early scientific method for chemistry began emerging among early Muslim chemists, beginning with the 9 th century Persian or Arabian chemist Jābir ibn Hayyān (known as «Geber» in Europe), who is sometimes referred to as «the father of chemistry».     He introduced a systematic and experimental approach to scientific research based in the laboratory , in contrast to the ancient Greek and Egyptian alchemists whose works were largely allegorical and often unintelligble.  Under the influence of the new empirical methods propounded by Sir Francis Bacon and others, a group of chemists at Oxford , Robert Boyle , Robert Hooke and John Mayow began to reshape the old alchemical traditions into a scientific discipline. Boyle in particular is regarded as the founding father of chemistry due to his most important work, the classic chemistry text The Sceptical Chymist where the differentiation is made between the claims of alchemy and the empirical scientific discoveries of the new chemistry.  He formulated Boyle’s law , rejected the classical «four elements» and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms and chemical reactions that could be subject to rigorous experiment. [35 ] Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), a Persian alchemist whose experimental research laid the foundations of chemistry.
The theory of phlogiston (a substance at the root of all combustion) was propounded by the German Georg Ernst Stahl in the early 18 th century and was only overturned by the end of the century by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier , the chemical analogue of Newton in physics; who did more than any other to establish the new science on proper theoretical footing, by elucidating the principle of conservation of mass and developing a new system of chemical nomenclature used to this day.  Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, specifically relating to the nature of ‘air’ which was discovered to be composed of many different gases. The Scottish chemist Joseph Black (the first experimental chemist) and the Dutchman J. B. van Helmont discovered carbon dioxide , or what Black called ‘fixed air’ in 1754; Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen and elucidated its properties and Joseph Priestley and, independently, Carl Wilhelm Scheele isolated pure oxygen. In his periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of 7 new elements,  and placed all 60 elements known at the time in their correct places.  English scientist John Dalton proposed the modern theory of atoms ; that all substances are composed of indivisible ‘atoms’ of matter and that different atoms have varying atomic weights. The development of the electrochemical theory of chemical combinations occurred in the early 19 th century as the result of the work of two scientists in particular, J. J. Berzelius and Humphry Davy , made possible by the prior invention of the voltaic pile by Alessandro Volta. Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current.  British William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. J. A. R. Newlands devised an early table of elements, which was then developed into the modern periodic table of elements  in the 1860 s by Dmitri Mendeleev and independently by several other scientists including Julius Lothar Meyer.  The inert gases, later called the noble gases were discovered by William Ramsay in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh at the end of the century, thereby filling in the basic structure of the table. Organic chemistry was developed by Justus von Liebig and others, following Friedrich Wöhler ‘s synthesis of urea which proved that living organisms were, in theory, reducible to chemistry.  Other crucial 19 th century advances were; an understanding of valence bonding ( Edward Frankland in 1852) and the application of thermodynamics to chemistry ( J. W. Gibbs and Svante Arrhenius in the 1870 s). Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is considered the «Father of Modern Chemistry».
Chemical structure At the turn of the twentieth century theoretical underpinnings of chemistry were finally understood due to a series of remarkable discoveries that succeeded in probing and discovering the very nature of the internal structure of atoms. In 1897, J. J. Thomson of Cambridge University discovered the electron and soon after the French scientist Becquerel as well as the couple Pierre and Marie Curie investigated the phenomenon of radioactivity. In a series of pioneering scattering experiments Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester discovered the internal structure of the atom and the existence of the proton, classified and explained the different types of radioactivity and successfully transmuted the first element by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles. His work on atomic structure was improved on by his students, the Danish physicist Niels Bohr and Henry Moseley. The electronic theory of chemical bonds and molecular orbitals was developed by the American scientists Linus Pauling and Gilbert N. Lewis. The year 2011 was declared by the United Nations as the International Year of Chemistry.  It was an initiative of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization and involves chemical societies, academics, and institutions worldwide and relied on individual initiatives to organize local and regional activities. Top: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed. Bottom: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected, indicating a small, concentrated charge
Plan 1. Etymology – 1. 1 Definition 2. History – 2. 1 Chemistry as science – 2. 2 Chemical structure 3. Principles of modern chemistry – 3. 1 Matter • 3. 1. 1 Atom • 3. 1. 2 Element • 3. 1. 3 Compound • 3. 1. 4 Molecule
Principles of modern chemistry The current model of atomic structure is the quantum mechanical model.  Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles , atoms , molecules ,  substances , metals, crystals and other aggregates of matter. This matter can be studied in solid, liquid, or gas states , in isolation or in combination. The interactions , reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are usually the result of interactions between atoms, leading to rearrangements of the chemical bonds which hold atoms together. Such behaviors are studied in a chemistry laboratory. The chemistry laboratory stereotypically uses various forms of laboratory glassware. However glassware is not central to chemistry, and a great deal of experimental (as well as applied/industrial) chemistry is done without it. A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more different substances.  The basis of such a chemical transformation is the rearrangement of electrons in the chemical bonds between atoms. It can be symbolically depicted through a chemical equation , which usually involves atoms as subjects. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is equal. (When the number of atoms on either side is unequal, the transformation is referred to as a nuclear reaction or radioactive decay. ) The type of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws. Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in almost all chemical studies. Chemical substances are classified in terms of their structure , phase, as well as their chemical compositions. They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis , e. g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Scientists engaged in chemical research are known as chemists.  Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines. Several concepts are essential for the study of chemistry; some of them are:
Matter In chemistry, matter is defined as anything that has rest mass and volume (it takes up space) and is made up of particles. The particles that make up matter have rest mass as well — not all particles have rest mass, such as the photon. Matter can be a pure chemical substance or a mixture of substances.  Atom A diagram of an atom based on the Rutherford model The atom is the basic unit of chemistry. It consists of a dense core called the atomic nucleus surrounded by a space called the electron cloud. The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons (together called nucleons ), while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus. In a neutral atom, the negatively charged electrons balance out the positive charge of the protons. The nucleus is dense; the mass of a nucleon is 1, 836 times that of an electron, yet the radius of an atom is about 10, 000 times that of its nucleus.   The atom is also the smallest entity that can be envisaged to retain the chemical properties of the element, such as electronegativity , ionization potential , preferred oxidation state (s), coordination number , and preferred types of bonds to form (e. g. , metallic , ionic , covalent ).
Element Standard form of the periodic table of chemical elements. The colors represent different categories of elements A chemical element is a pure substance which is composed of a single type of atom, characterized by its particular number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms, known as the atomic number and represented by the symbol Z. The mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus. Although all the nuclei of all atoms belonging to one element will have the same atomic number, they may not necessarily have the same mass number; atoms of an element which have different mass numbers are known as isotopes. For example, all atoms with 6 protons in their nuclei are atoms of the chemical element carbon , but atoms of carbon may have mass numbers of 12 or 13.  The standard presentation of the chemical elements is in the periodic table , which orders elements by atomic number. The periodic table is arranged in groups , or columns, and periods , or rows. The periodic table is useful in identifying periodic trends.  Compound Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), an example of a chemical compound A compound is a pure chemical substance composed of more than one element. The properties of a compound bear little similarity to those of its elements.  The standard nomenclature of compounds is set by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Organic compounds are named according to the organic nomenclature system.  Inorganic compounds are named according to the inorganic nomenclature system.  In addition the Chemical Abstracts Service has devised a method to index chemical substances. In this scheme each chemical substance is identifiable by a number known as its CAS registry number. Molecule Aball-and-stick representation of the caffeine molecule (C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 ). A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances. However, this definition only works well for substances that are composed of molecules, which is not true of many substances (see below). Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds , such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs. Thus, molecules exist as electrically neutral units, unlike ions. When this rule is broken, giving the «molecule» a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. However, the discrete and separate nature of the molecular concept usually requires that molecular ions be present only in well-separated form, such as a directed beam in a vacuum in a mass spectrometer. Charged polyatomic collections residing in solids (for example, common sulfate or nitrate ions) are generally not considered «molecules» in chemistry. Some molecules contain one or more unpaired electrons, creating radicals. Most radicals are comparatively reactive, but some, such as nitric oxide (NO) can be stable. A 2 -D skeletal model of a benzene molecule (C 6 H 6 ) The «inert» or noble gas elements ( helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon and radon ) are composed of lone atoms as their smallest discrete unit, but the other isolated chemical elements consist of either molecules or networks of atoms bonded to each other in some way. Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline, and the various pharmaceuticals. However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without molecules. These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids , are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se. Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance. Examples of such substances are mineral salts (such as table salt ), solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite. One of the main characteristics of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure. While the structure of diatomic, triatomic or tetra atomic molecules may be trivial, (linear, angular pyramidal etc. ) the structure of polyatomic molecules, that are constituted of more than six atoms (of several elements) can be crucial for its chemical nature.
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