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Presentation Plus! Texas and Texans Copyright © by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Send Presentation Plus! Texas and Texans Copyright © by The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/Mc. Graw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Texas Legislature Section 2 The Executive Branch Section 3 Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Texas Legislature Section 2 The Executive Branch Section 3 Financing State Government Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

Chapter Objectives Section 1: The Texas Legislature • Describe how the Texas legislature is Chapter Objectives Section 1: The Texas Legislature • Describe how the Texas legislature is organized. • Identify the duties of each house of the Texas legislature. • Summarize how a bill becomes a law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Chapter Objectives (cont. ) Section 2: The Executive Branch • Specify the powers of Chapter Objectives (cont. ) Section 2: The Executive Branch • Specify the powers of the Texas governor. • Describe the duties of other officials. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Chapter Objectives (cont. ) Section 3: Financing State Government • Specify what the state Chapter Objectives (cont. ) Section 3: Financing State Government • Specify what the state budget includes. • Report the programs that receive the largest share of the money. • Explain where the money comes from. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Why It Matters The state legislature makes laws, and the governor administers them. This Why It Matters The state legislature makes laws, and the governor administers them. This division of responsibilities is called “separation of powers. ”

The Impact Today • The amount of money the state spends on services such The Impact Today • The amount of money the state spends on services such as education, highways, parks, and health care is decided by the legislature with the approval of the governor.

Guide to Reading Main Idea The Texas legislature has the power to pass laws, Guide to Reading Main Idea The Texas legislature has the power to pass laws, review the work of the executive branch, and represent the views of the people. Key Terms • bicameral • oversight • redistricting • resolution Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Organizing Information As you read this section, Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Organizing Information As you read this section, complete a chart like the on page 636 of your textbook by answering the questions. Read to Learn • how the Texas legislature is organized. • what duties belong to each house. • how a bill becomes a law. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy Much of the work Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy Much of the work of the legislature is accomplished in committee.

State Senator Rodney Ellis Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. State Senator Rodney Ellis Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Did You Know? • A legislator’s salary in either house is only $7, 200 Did You Know? • A legislator’s salary in either house is only $7, 200 per year. Regular sessions of the legislature convene on the second Tuesday of January in odd-numbered years.

The Function of the Legislative Branch • The Texas bicameral legislature is composed of The Function of the Legislative Branch • The Texas bicameral legislature is composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. • Senate committees oversee education, criminal justice, health and human services, and other state affairs. • House committees oversee agriculture and livestock, economic development, environmental regulation, higher education, natural resources, public health, and others. (pages 636– 637) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Function of the Legislative Branch (cont. ) Why do you think the House The Function of the Legislative Branch (cont. ) Why do you think the House and Senate have committees to deal with problems and issues of concern to Texans? Some issues are complex and require the efforts of many lawmakers. In addition, committees help ensure that people have a voice in decision making through their representatives. (pages 636– 637) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Duties • The Texas legislature makes laws, approves or rejects the governor’s appointments, and Duties • The Texas legislature makes laws, approves or rejects the governor’s appointments, and reviews actions of other government branches. • The legislature also holds discussions on how state monies should be spent. • Because legislators represent the people, they listen to voters’ concerns. (page 637) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Duties (cont. ) How can citizens make their concerns known to legislators? Citizens can Duties (cont. ) How can citizens make their concerns known to legislators? Citizens can make their concerns known by speaking to their legislators, writing letters, and by voting. (page 637) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Running the State Government • There are 31 senators and 150 members of the Running the State Government • There are 31 senators and 150 members of the House of Representatives in the Texas legislature. • The legislature meets every two years, but the governor may call a special session. • Both the Senate and the House have leaders; the lieutenant governor, elected by voters, serves as Senate president, while the Speaker of the House leads the House. (pages 637– 638) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Running the State Government (cont. ) • Committees help the legislature carry out tasks, Running the State Government (cont. ) • Committees help the legislature carry out tasks, examine issues, and listen to citizens’ concerns. • The speaker and the lieutenant governor appoint legislators to committees. • Redrawing legislative and congressional districts is one important duty of the legislature. This process is known as redistricting. (pages 637– 638) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Running the State Government (cont. ) What role do committees play in lawmaking? Committees Running the State Government (cont. ) What role do committees play in lawmaking? Committees consider and recommend for or against bills that may go before the whole legislature. (pages 637– 638) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

How a Bill Becomes a Law • There are two major types of proposals. How a Bill Becomes a Law • There are two major types of proposals. • The first is a resolution, used to propose an amendment to the Texas or U. S. Constitution. • The second is a bill, which is a proposed law. (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • A bill approved by both How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • A bill approved by both houses must be signed by the governor before it becomes law. • Committee members from the House and Senate carefully consider the bill, hearing testimony from opponents and supporters. • They decide whether the rest of the House or Senate should consider it. • Bills that are not recommended for further consideration are said to have “died in committee. ” (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • Those that do not die How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • Those that do not die are debated by the entire House or Senate and then voted upon. • When a majority of senators or representatives vote in a bill’s favor, it must then be considered by the legislators in the other house. • When the House and Senate approve different forms of the same bill, it goes to a conference committee appointed by the Speaker and the lieutenant governor. (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • The conference committee works on How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • The conference committee works on a compromise. • Conference committees may alter the bill. • Once a bill is passed by the committee, both the House and Senate must pass it a second time. • Upon approval, the bill goes to the governor for his or her signature. (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • If the governor vetoes the How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) • If the governor vetoes the bill, it does not become law unless two-thirds of the House and two-thirds of the Senate override the veto. • The legislature considers thousands of proposals, but few become laws. (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) What does the term “died in How a Bill Becomes a Law (cont. ) What does the term “died in committee” mean? The term means that committee does not recommend further action on a bill. (page 639) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Checking for Understanding Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term Checking for Understanding Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D __ 1. a formal expression of A. bicameral opinion voted by an official B. oversight group C. redistricting A 2. composed of two __ D. resolution legislative chambers or branches (House of Representatives and Senate) C __ 3. redrawing the boundaries of legislative districts depending on population changes Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B __ 4. the power of the legislature to review the activities of the executive branch A. bicameral B. oversight C. redistricting D. resolution Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts What is the difference between a bill Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts What is the difference between a bill and a resolution? A bill is a proposed law, and a resolution expresses the legislature’s opinion on a subject. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Identify three main responsibilities of the Senate. Three responsibilities Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Identify three main responsibilities of the Senate. Three responsibilities of the Senate include education, criminal justice, and health and human services. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Critical Thinking Analyzing How does a census influence the political makeup of the Texas Critical Thinking Analyzing How does a census influence the political makeup of the Texas legislature? A census results in redistricting, which can shift the balance of power in the legislature. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

TAKS Practice Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Imagine that you are writing a bill that TAKS Practice Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Imagine that you are writing a bill that would widen roads to add more bike lanes. Write two facts and two opinions that would attract support for your bill.

Guide to Reading Main Idea The executive branch carries out the laws. The governor Guide to Reading Main Idea The executive branch carries out the laws. The governor is the state’s chief executive. Key Terms • line-item veto • commander in chief Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Identifying The governor appoints certain officials; others Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Identifying The governor appoints certain officials; others are elected. Create a chart like the on page 641 of your textbook and place an X in the appropriate column. Read to Learn • what the governor’s powers are. • about the duties of other officials. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy Though the governor is Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy Though the governor is the chief executive of the state, the executive powers are checked and balanced by the legislative branch, and shared with other elected officials.

Sometime acting governor Rodney Ellis Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Sometime acting governor Rodney Ellis Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Did You Know? • Besides the two major political parties, several other minor ones Did You Know? • Besides the two major political parties, several other minor ones exist. They include the Prohibitionist, People’s, Lily White Republican, Socialist-Labor, Progressive, Black and Tan Republican, American, Communist, Conservative, and La Raza Unida parties.

The Function of the Executive Branch • The executive branch “executes” the laws and The Function of the Executive Branch • The executive branch “executes” the laws and policies established by the legislature. • Executive power is shared by elected and appointed officials. (page 641) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Function of the Executive Branch (cont. ) Who heads the executive branch of The Function of the Executive Branch (cont. ) Who heads the executive branch of state government? The governor heads the executive branch of state government. (page 641) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

The Governor of Texas • The governor is elected to a term of four The Governor of Texas • The governor is elected to a term of four years. There is no limit to the number of terms a governor may serve. • Governor Rick Perry received nearly 1, 500 bills for review by staff members who recommend that bills be either signed or vetoed. • The only women governors of Texas have been Miriam Ferguson (1924, 1932) and Ann Richards (1990). (page 642) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Governor of Texas (cont. ) • Gubernatorial candidates must raise large sums of The Governor of Texas (cont. ) • Gubernatorial candidates must raise large sums of money to finance their campaign. • Third-party candidates may have a hard time raising money for their campaign. (page 642) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Governor of Texas (cont. ) Do you think there should be a limit The Governor of Texas (cont. ) Do you think there should be a limit on how much a candidate can spend to become elected? Why or why not? (page 642)

Executive Powers of the Governor • The governor makes appointments to boards and commissions. Executive Powers of the Governor • The governor makes appointments to boards and commissions. • The governor can remove officials that have engaged in misconduct from their positions. • The Senate must approve the governor’s decision to remove anyone he or she has appointed to a board or commission. (page 642) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Executive Powers of the Governor (cont. ) Why do you think the Senate has Executive Powers of the Governor (cont. ) Why do you think the Senate has the power to approve the governor’s decision to remove someone from an appointed position? Such a measure means that the governor cannot remove someone from an appointed position simply because he or she disagrees with the appointee. It limits the governor’s control. The Senate’s approval requirement is the process of checks and balances in action. (page 642) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Legislative Powers of the Governor • The Texas governor holds three important legislative powers–to Legislative Powers of the Governor • The Texas governor holds three important legislative powers–to address the legislature, to veto, and to call special sessions. • Part of the governor’s veto power is the line-item veto. (page 643) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Legislative Powers of the Governor (cont. ) Why do you think it might be Legislative Powers of the Governor (cont. ) Why do you think it might be an advantage for the governor to be able to address the legislature and send messages throughout the session? These are opportunities for the governor to persuade the legislature as a whole to act in a certain way. (page 643) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Other Powers of the Governor • The governor appoints members to the Board of Other Powers of the Governor • The governor appoints members to the Board of Pardons and Paroles, the Board of Criminal Justice, the Texas Youth Commission, and other law enforcement commissions. • The governor can also delay execution of prisoners. • The governor can appoint judges to fill vacancies until regular elections are held. (pages 643– 644) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Other Powers of the Governor (cont. ) • The governor serves as the commander Other Powers of the Governor (cont. ) • The governor serves as the commander in chief of Texas, meaning he or she is in charge of the Texas Guard. • The governor represents Texas at meetings, celebrations, and ceremonies and meets with state and national leaders. (pages 643– 644) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Other Powers of the Governor (cont. ) What do you think is the governor’s Other Powers of the Governor (cont. ) What do you think is the governor’s most important job? (pages 643– 644)

Other Elected Members • Because five other members of the executive branch are elected, Other Elected Members • Because five other members of the executive branch are elected, they operate outside the governor’s control. • These include the lieutenant governor, attorney general, comptroller of public accounts, commissioner of the General Land Office, and commissioner of agriculture. (page 644) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Other Elected Members (cont. ) Why are other members of the executive branch also Other Elected Members (cont. ) Why are other members of the executive branch also elected and not appointed by the governor? The members are elected to ensure the system of checks and balances prevents the governor from becoming too powerful. (page 644) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Boards and Commissions • Heads of boards and commissions are either appointed by the Boards and Commissions • Heads of boards and commissions are either appointed by the governor or elected by voters. • Larger state agencies include the State Board of Insurance, Texas Transportation Commission, Business and Economic Development Council, and Railroad Commission. • The State Board of Education manages and invests the in the Permanent School Fund. (page 644) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Boards and Commissions (cont. ) Should the governor have access to the Permanent School Boards and Commissions (cont. ) Should the governor have access to the Permanent School Fund for other state purposes in an emergency? (page 644)

Checking for Understanding Using Key Terms Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms. Checking for Understanding Using Key Terms Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms. 1. The _________ is the top commander in chief government official who holds supreme command of a military force. line-item veto 2. A _________ is the power of the governor to veto individual items in a spending bill. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts List three requirements necessary to become governor Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts List three requirements necessary to become governor of Texas. A person must be at least 30 years old, a United States citizen, and a resident of Texas for at least five years before the election in order to be governor of Texas. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Name one reason why third-party candidates are usually not Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Name one reason why third-party candidates are usually not elected. Campaign costs make their election unlikely. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Critical Thinking Evaluating Why do some people say “the governor’s most important power is Critical Thinking Evaluating Why do some people say “the governor’s most important power is the power to persuade”?

Critical Thinking Analyzing How does the State Board of Education help finance the education Critical Thinking Analyzing How does the State Board of Education help finance the education of Texas students? The State Board of Education helps finance the education of Texas students by managing and investing the $20 billion Permanent School Fund. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

TAKS Practice Summarizing Make a list that summarizes the ways in which the governor TAKS Practice Summarizing Make a list that summarizes the ways in which the governor represents the state. The governor represents the state at meetings, celebrations and ceremonies, and openings of new schools. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Guide to Reading Main Idea The government of Texas requires a network of officials Guide to Reading Main Idea The government of Texas requires a network of officials to plan and carry out the state’s budget policies. Key Terms • budget • fiscal • franchise tax • windfall Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Identifying As you read this section, complete Guide to Reading (cont. ) Reading Strategy Identifying As you read this section, complete a web like the on page 646 of your textbook and indicate in which three areas most money is spent. Read to Learn • what the state budget includes. • which programs receive the largest share of the money. • where the money comes from. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy The state legislature decides Guide to Reading (cont. ) Section Theme Government and Democracy The state legislature decides what share of the budget various state programs will receive.

College students on graduation day Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. College students on graduation day Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Did You Know? • The Texas Lottery nets more than $1 billion per year Did You Know? • The Texas Lottery nets more than $1 billion per year for the state’s general revenue fund. An estimated 68 percent of Texans buy at least one lottery ticket per year.

Setting the State Budget • Running a state government requires planning and budgeting. • Setting the State Budget • Running a state government requires planning and budgeting. • The budget sets economic and social priorities and estimates the amount of revenue and expenses. • The budget determines which programs will grow, shrink, or be eliminated. (pages 646– 647) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Setting the State Budget (cont. ) Why does the state need a budget? The Setting the State Budget (cont. ) Why does the state need a budget? The state needs a budget to plan for the most pressing needs of the state and its people. (pages 646– 647) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

The Budget Process • The governor and the legislative committee share the power of The Budget Process • The governor and the legislative committee share the power of proposing a budget. • Agencies begin a year before the legislature meets to report their past expenses and propose estimates of what they need for the next two years. (page 647) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

The Budget Process (cont. ) Why do agencies meet a year before the legislature The Budget Process (cont. ) Why do agencies meet a year before the legislature meets? It takes a lot of time to prepare a report on past expenses. They want to make sure they have enough time to prepare a reasonable estimate of how much funding they will need in the future. (page 647)

How the State Spends Money • A House-Senate budget committee of the 77 th How the State Spends Money • A House-Senate budget committee of the 77 th Legislature created a 2002– 2003 budget of $114 billion, 12 percent larger than the previous year. • Most of the budget is spent on education. Funds for health, economic development, and criminal justice programs are other major expenses. (page 648) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

How the State Spends Money (cont. ) Compared to the previous year, how much How the State Spends Money (cont. ) Compared to the previous year, how much larger is the budget for 2002– 2003? The budget is 12 percent larger for 2002– 2003. (page 648) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Where the State Gets Its Money • State sales taxes produce the most revenue. Where the State Gets Its Money • State sales taxes produce the most revenue. Food and medicine are not taxed. • Motor fuel taxes is the second largest source of tax revenue; third are the taxes on the sale of motor vehicles and manufactured housing. • Taxes on utility services, alcoholic beverages, and tobacco products provide revenue as well. (pages 647– 648) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Where the State Gets Its Money (cont. ) • Texans also receive money from Where the State Gets Its Money (cont. ) • Texans also receive money from other sources such as the Texas Lottery; grants from the Federal government; and the sale, renting, and leasing of land mineral rights. (pages 647– 648)

Where the State Gets Its Money (cont. ) Why do you think motor fuel Where the State Gets Its Money (cont. ) Why do you think motor fuel taxes are the second largest source of revenue for the state? Motor fuel taxes are the second largest source of revenue because of the large number of motor vehicles that consume large quantities of fuel or because the tax on fuel is very high. (pages 647– 648) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Influences on the Process • People and factors influence the budget process. • Federal Influences on the Process • People and factors influence the budget process. • Federal decisions may affect state funding. • Federal and state courts may direct the way money is spent. • Individuals and groups through special lobby efforts pressure budget officials on many important issues. (page 648) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Influences on the Process (cont. ) Do you think pressure groups should be able Influences on the Process (cont. ) Do you think pressure groups should be able to influence the budget process? Why or why not? (page 648)

Checking for Understanding Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term Checking for Understanding Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C __ 1. an unexpected or sudden gift, gain, or advantage A __ 2. of or relating to financial matters (taxation, public revenue, public debt) D __ 3. a financial plan based on expected earnings and proposals for spending the money B __ 4. a tax based on the value of machinery and equipment that businesses use to produce income Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A. fiscal B. franchise tax C. windfall D. budget

Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts Identify the two principal items on which Checking for Understanding (cont. ) Reviewing Facts Identify the two principal items on which Texas spends the majority of its money on education and health and human services. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Identify three or more of the factors influencing the Reviewing Themes Government and Democracy Identify three or more of the factors influencing the budget process. The budget process can be influenced by federal government decisions, federal court decisions, state court decisions, individuals, and groups of people through special interest lobbies. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Critical Thinking Evaluating Refer to the “Where State Money Goes” chart on page 648 Critical Thinking Evaluating Refer to the “Where State Money Goes” chart on page 648 of your textbook. If you wanted to increase the money given to education, explain whose budget you would decrease and why.

TAKS Practice Considering Options The state budget is regularly reviewed and changed. If you TAKS Practice Considering Options The state budget is regularly reviewed and changed. If you could change amounts of money the budget allows next year, what would you change and why would you do so? Possible answer: Spend more money on public safety/criminal justice. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Reviewing Key Terms Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term Reviewing Key Terms Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. A. D __ 1. a formal expression of opinion voted by an official B. group C. A __ 2. composed of two D. legislative chambers or E. branches (House of Representatives and F. Senate) G. F __ 3. the power of the governor to veto individual items in H. a spending bill I. J. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. bicameral oversight redistricting resolution franchise tax line-item veto commander in chief budget fiscal windfall

Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. E __ 4. a tax based on the value of machinery and equipment that businesses use to produce income C __ 5. redrawing the boundaries of legislative districts depending on population changes J __ 6. an unexpected or sudden gift, gain, or advantage Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. bicameral oversight redistricting resolution franchise tax line-item veto commander in chief budget fiscal windfall

Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B __ 7. the power of the legislature to review the activities of the executive branch G __ 8. a top government official who holds supreme command of a military force I __ 9. of or relating to financial matters (taxation, public revenue, public debt) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. bicameral oversight redistricting resolution franchise tax line-item veto commander in chief budget fiscal windfall

Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the Reviewing Key Terms (cont. ) Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. A. H __ 10. a financial plan based on expected earnings and B. proposals for spending the C. money D. E. F. G. H. I. J. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. bicameral oversight redistricting resolution franchise tax line-item veto commander in chief budget fiscal windfall

Reviewing Key Facts Identify the two governing bodies in the state legislature. The House Reviewing Key Facts Identify the two governing bodies in the state legislature. The House of Representatives and the Senate are the two governing bodies in the state legislature. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) List three important state matters that are overseen by Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) List three important state matters that are overseen by committees of the Texas Senate. The Texas Senate oversees education, criminal justice, health and human services. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) Why does redistricting cause so many arguments in the Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) Why does redistricting cause so many arguments in the Texas legislature? Redistricting changes the distribution of political power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) How many four-year terms of office may a governor Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) How many four-year terms of office may a governor serve? A governor may serve an unlimited number of terms. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) When may the governor NOT command the Texas Guard? Reviewing Key Facts (cont. ) When may the governor NOT command the Texas Guard? The governor may NOT command the Texas Guard when units are called into action by the National Guard. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Critical Thinking Evaluating If you were developing a budget for Texas, what would be Critical Thinking Evaluating If you were developing a budget for Texas, what would be your number one budget concern? Why?

Critical Thinking (cont. ) Developing Citizenship Skills Why is it important for each citizen Critical Thinking (cont. ) Developing Citizenship Skills Why is it important for each citizen to pay his or her share of taxes? All citizens benefit from the services provided by the state government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Use the chart below to answer the question on the next slide. Use the chart below to answer the question on the next slide.

1. Which taxes raised a smaller portion of Texas’s tax revenues in 1998 than 1. Which taxes raised a smaller portion of Texas’s tax revenues in 1998 than they did in 1997? A Taxes on the sale of goods B Taxes on franchises C Taxes on insurance D Taxes on petroleum products Test-Taking Tip: Compare the 1997 tax percentage to the 1998 tax percentage for each answer choice. Eliminate answer choices in which the tax percentage was not lower in 1998 than it was in 1997. Make sure you consider all of the choices in order to avoid making a careless mistake. The answer choice that remains is the correct answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

1. Which taxes raised a smaller portion of Texas’s tax revenues in 1998 than 1. Which taxes raised a smaller portion of Texas’s tax revenues in 1998 than they did in 1997? A Taxes on the sale of goods B Taxes on franchises C Taxes on insurance D Taxes on petroleum products Answer Explanation: Taxes on the sale of goods (A) and taxes on franchises (B) raised a larger portion of revenue in 1998 than in 1997; insurance (C) raised about the same in both years.

Why is the press important to the governor and legislators? Possible answer: The press Why is the press important to the governor and legislators? Possible answer: The press helps win support for their programs by informing the public. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Texas & Texans Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to http: //texans. glencoe. com.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Why Learn This Skill? Unlike a block of text that may Interpreting Political Cartoons Why Learn This Skill? Unlike a block of text that may take several minutes to read, a cartoon has an immediate impact on the viewer. This is one reason why newspapers regularly use cartoons to support or criticize current issues and public figures. In political cartoons, artists use humor and satire to express opinions about political issues. The purpose of most political cartoons is to inform and influence public opinion in an entertaining way. Political cartoons often appear on the editorial pages of newspapers. To interpret the meaning of a political cartoon, study its pictures, words, and symbols to discover the main idea and point of view. Cartoonists often exaggerate their drawings to make their points more forcefully. Cartoonists also use symbols. The figure of Uncle Sam, for example, is a symbol for the United States government. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Learning the Skill Here are some steps to follow in interpreting Interpreting Political Cartoons Learning the Skill Here are some steps to follow in interpreting political cartoons. • Read the title and information in the cartoon to identify the topic. • Analyze the symbols in the cartoon. • Identify the main idea and the cartoonist’s point of view. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill Study the cartoon on page 645 of your Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill Study the cartoon on page 645 of your textbook and answer the questions that follow. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 1. How is Texas represented? Texas Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 1. How is Texas represented? Texas is represented in the shape of a turkey. 2. What is the title of the cartoon? The title of the cartoon is Tough Bird to Carve, 1964. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 3. What is the man in Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 3. What is the man in the bottom right corner about to do? He is about to carve the turkey. 4. How does the cartoonist portray the man? The man is portrayed as nervous. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 5. What is the main point Interpreting Political Cartoons Practicing the Skill (cont. ) 5. What is the main point of this cartoon? The main point of this cartoon is that redistricting Texas causes disagreements and hard feelings. 6. What is the cartoonist’s point of view? The cartoonist’s point of view is that redistricting is a disagreeable task. This feature is found on page 645 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

There are several ways state legislatures vote on bills. Most voting is done by There are several ways state legislatures vote on bills. Most voting is done by voice vote; legislators shout “aye” if they favor a measure and “nay” if they are against it. Sometimes a standing vote may be taken. This is a vote in which those members who support a measure stand up. Another method is a roll-call vote. In such a vote, the name of each member is called and the legislator is asked for his or her vote. Then the votes are recorded and counted.

After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Governor Rick Perry formed a Governor’s After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Governor Rick Perry formed a Governor’s Task Force on Homeland Security to advise him on Texas state security matters.

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