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Presentation “Literary Translation“ Imke Grassl, Linda Berg Presentation “Literary Translation“ Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 1

Content 1. The International Book Market 2. Translation Theories 3. Successful Translation? 4. Cultural Content 1. The International Book Market 2. Translation Theories 3. Successful Translation? 4. Cultural Mitigation 5. Dialect 6. Telling Names 7. Book Titles 8. Exercises 9. Sources Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 2

1. The International Book Market 2010 (Germany): 8, 191 licences sold 11, 439 translations 1. The International Book Market 2010 (Germany): 8, 191 licences sold 11, 439 translations over 6, 000 English 2010 (USA): 340 literary translations 35 German Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 3

1. The International Book Market American popular culture language barrier agencies sample translations Imke 1. The International Book Market American popular culture language barrier agencies sample translations Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 4

2. Translation Theories Tendency towards literal translation: Tendency towards free translation: Retrospective = Focus 2. Translation Theories Tendency towards literal translation: Tendency towards free translation: Retrospective = Focus on source text Prospective = Focus on target culture and audience Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 5

Normative Äquivalenztheorie (Werner Koller) normative: target text is only regarded as a „translation“ if Normative Äquivalenztheorie (Werner Koller) normative: target text is only regarded as a „translation“ if certain norms are fulfilled equivalence: target text should follow as closely as possible source text = retrospective • effort towards literal translation Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 6

Skopostheorie (Hans Vermeer, Katharina Reiß) “skopos“ (Greek) = aim translator moulds target text according Skopostheorie (Hans Vermeer, Katharina Reiß) “skopos“ (Greek) = aim translator moulds target text according to aim and according to target culture and audience = prospective • translator can leave out text passages • allows free translation Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 7

Funktionsgerechtigkeit und Loyalität (Christiane Nord) Compromise between free and literal translation target text needs Funktionsgerechtigkeit und Loyalität (Christiane Nord) Compromise between free and literal translation target text needs to be functional by appealing to target culture and audience = prospective but it also needs to be loyal to source text and author, sense should not be altered = retrospective Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 8

3. Successful Translation? Positive Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Man kann auch ganz zu Anfang 3. Successful Translation? Positive Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Man kann auch ganz zu Anfang behaupten, es sei heutzutage unmöglich, einen Roman zu schreiben, dann aber, sozusagen hinter dem eigenen Rücken, einen kräftigen Knüller hinlegen, um schließlich als letztmöglicher Romanschreiber dazustehn. ” “Or you can start by declaring that novels can no longer be written, and then, behind your own back as it were, produce a mighty blockbuster that establishes you as the last of the great novelists. ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 9

3. Successful Translation? Negative Sven Regener “Herr Lehmann“: “Mach’s gut Herr Lehmann, ich muss 3. Successful Translation? Negative Sven Regener “Herr Lehmann“: “Mach’s gut Herr Lehmann, ich muss mal eben dem Ruf meiner schwulen Natur folgen. “ “So long, Herr Lehmann, my gay antennae are quivering. ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 10

3. Successful Translation? Negative Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “ … als einer aus dem 3. Successful Translation? Negative Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “ … als einer aus dem Hohlweg sprang, … nicht wusste, wohin, zurück nicht konnte, denn rückwärts kamen sie dünn durch den Hohlweg lang, …. “ “. . . when one of them leapt out of the sunken lane, . . . didn’t know where to head, couldn’t go back, since tall and thin were coming up the sunken lane behind him, . . ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 11

3. Successful Translation? Difficult Georg Büchner “Woyzeck”: Marie: Und wenn! Trag Sie Ihr Auge 3. Successful Translation? Difficult Georg Büchner “Woyzeck”: Marie: Und wenn! Trag Sie Ihr Auge zum Jud und laß Sie sie putze, vielleicht glänze sie noch, daß man sie für zwei Knöpf verkaufe könnt. Translation (Schmidt) Marie: So what? Why don’t you take your eyes to the Jew and have them polished – maybe they’ll shine enough to sell as two buttons. Translation (Motton) Marie: So what? You can take your eyes to the Jew and get them polished and sell them for a couple of buttons. Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 12

3. Successful Translation? Difficult Georg Büchner “Woyzeck”: Tambourmajor: […] Donnerwetter, Marie, der Prinz sagt 3. Successful Translation? Difficult Georg Büchner “Woyzeck”: Tambourmajor: […] Donnerwetter, Marie, der Prinz sagt immer: Mensch, er ist ein Kerl. Translation (Schmidt): Drum Major: […] goddamn, Marie! The prince always says: man, you‘re quite a guy! Translation (Motton): Drum Major: […] my God! Sometimes the prince says „Christ! What a man!” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 13

3. Successful Translation? Poetry Johann Wolfgang von Goethe “Erlkönig“: “Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich 3. Successful Translation? Poetry Johann Wolfgang von Goethe “Erlkönig“: “Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh es genau: Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau. “ Translation 1 “My son, my son, I see it most definitely: It’s the willow trees looking so grey. ” Translation 2 “My son, my son, no one’s in our way, The willows are looking unusually grey. ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 14

4. Cultural Mitigation Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Ende Juli des Jahres null - …“ 4. Cultural Mitigation Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Ende Juli des Jahres null - …“ “At the end of July nineteen hundred -. . . ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 15

4. Cultural Mitigation Otfried Preußler “Räuber Hotzenplotz”: Wachtmeister Dimpflmoser = Sergeant Dimplemoser Petrosilius Zwackelmann 4. Cultural Mitigation Otfried Preußler “Räuber Hotzenplotz”: Wachtmeister Dimpflmoser = Sergeant Dimplemoser Petrosilius Zwackelmann = Petrosilius Zackelman Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 16

4. Cultural Mitigation Sven Regener “Herr Lehmann”: “[…] wo mit dem Ka. De. We 4. Cultural Mitigation Sven Regener “Herr Lehmann”: “[…] wo mit dem Ka. De. We und allem anderen das ganze Elend schon begann, wo in der Ferne bereits das sinnlose Europa-Center und die noch schlimmere Gedächtniskirche und die Schuhgeschäfte, die Leiser und Stiller und so hießen, dräuten, wo die Kudammkatastrophe ihren Anfang nahm. . . “ “This was where the horrors of the Kudamm began, and where you could already obtain a one mark bus ticket. ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 17

5. Dialect Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Jeweß Kindchen, auf Kastenwagen wird jewaisen sein oder 5. Dialect Günter Grass “Die Blechtrommel”: “Jeweß Kindchen, auf Kastenwagen wird jewaisen sein oder auf Troyl erst, nur nich auf Acker: weil windig war und hat auch jeregnet wie Deikert komm raus. “ “That’s right, child, maybe it was in the cart or on Troyl, but not in the fields, because it was windy and raining like the dickens. ” Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 18

6. Telling Names Translated Terry Pratchett: “Cheery Littlebottom” = “Grinsie Kleinpo“ “Mr. Teatime” = 6. Telling Names Translated Terry Pratchett: “Cheery Littlebottom” = “Grinsie Kleinpo“ “Mr. Teatime” = “Herr Kaffeetrinken“ Bertolt Brecht „Die Dreigroschenoper“: “Mackie Messer“ = “Mack the Knife“ Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 19

6. Telling Names Untranslated Charles Dickens “Hard Times”: “Mr. M’Choakumchild”: a strict teacher who 6. Telling Names Untranslated Charles Dickens “Hard Times”: “Mr. M’Choakumchild”: a strict teacher who just believes in facts J. K. Rowling “Harry Potter”: “Sirius Black”: combines good personality (star constellation “Sirius”= dog) with dangerous, bad image (“Black”, black dog) Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 20

6. Telling Names Untranslated Schiller “Kabale und Liebe” “Wurm”: spineless schemer who would do 6. Telling Names Untranslated Schiller “Kabale und Liebe” “Wurm”: spineless schemer who would do anything for wealth and prestige Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 21

7. Book Titles Positive “Die Blechtrommel“ = “The Tin Drum“ “Der Besuch der alten 7. Book Titles Positive “Die Blechtrommel“ = “The Tin Drum“ “Der Besuch der alten Dame“ = “The Visit“ “Der Erlkönig“ = “The Erlking“ Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 22

7. Book Titles Negative “Herr der Diebe“ = “The Thief Lord“ “Herr Lehmann“ = 7. Book Titles Negative “Herr der Diebe“ = “The Thief Lord“ “Herr Lehmann“ = “Berlin Blues“ Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 23

8. Exercises 1. Kein anderer Ort auf der Welt konnte so unverschämt mit seiner 8. Exercises 1. Kein anderer Ort auf der Welt konnte so unverschämt mit seiner Schönheit prahlen wie Venedig … 2. “Sapperlot!” rief der Wachtmeister überrascht. 3. Herr Lehmann stand da, verkehrsumtost, und fühlte sich leer. 4. Sie richtete sich auf und sah, dass ich weinte. “Jungchen“, sagte sie verwundert, “Jungchen. “ Sie nahm mich in die Arme. 5. Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht, Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht? Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 24

8. Official Translation of Exercises Surely no other place on earth was more proud 8. Official Translation of Exercises Surely no other place on earth was more proud of its beauty than Venice… 2. “Snakes alive!“ cried the sergeant in amazement. (Dictionary: “Upon my soul”) 3. Herr Lehmann stood there, like an island in a sea of traffic, feeling empty inside. 4. When she straightened up, she saw I was crying. “Hey, kid, “she said, startled, “hey, kid” – and took me in her arms. 5. Dear father, oh father, and do you not hear What th’ Erlking whispers so close to my ear. 1. Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 25

9. Sources Büchner, Georg: Werke und Briefe. München: Carl Hanser 1988. Büchner, Georg: Complete 9. Sources Büchner, Georg: Werke und Briefe. München: Carl Hanser 1988. Büchner, Georg: Complete Works and Letters. Trans. : Henry J. Schmidt. New York: Continuum 1986. Büchner, Georg: Drama Classics, Woyzeck. Trans. : Gregory Motton. London: Nick Hern Books 1996. Funke, Cornelia: Herr der Diebe. Hamburg: Cecilie Dressler 2000. Funke, Cornelia: The Thief Lord. Trans. : Oliver Latsch. New York: The Chicken House 2001. Grass, Günter: Die Blechtrommel. Göttingen: Steidl 2009. Grass, Günter: The Tin Drum. Trans. : Breon Mitchell. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2009. Preußler, Otfried: Der Räuber Hotzenplotz. Berlin: C. A. Koch‘s 1962. Preußler, Otfried: The Robber Hotzenplotz. Trans. : Anthea Bell. Stuttgart: Thienemann 2003. Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 26

9. Sources Regener, Sven: Herr Lehmann. Frankfurt a. M. : Eichborn 2001. Regener, Sven: 9. Sources Regener, Sven: Herr Lehmann. Frankfurt a. M. : Eichborn 2001. Regener, Sven: Berlin Blues. Übers. : John Brownjohn. London: Random House 2003. Schlink, Bernhard: Der Vorleser. Zürich: Diogenes 1995. Schlink, Bernhard: The Reader. Trans. : Carrol Brown Janeway. New York: Vintage Books 1998. Snell-Hornby, Mary, et. al. (Hrsg. ): Handbuch Translation. 2. verb. Aufl. , Tübingen: Stauffenberg 1999. Der deutsche Buchmarkt in Zahlen: http: //www. goethe. de/ins/pl/lp/kul/dup/lit/mar/deu/de 5687287. htm. The Translation Gap: Why More Foreign Writers Aren’t Published in America: http: //publishingperspectives. com/2010/01/the-translation-gap-why-more-foreignwriters-arent-published-in-america. Three. Percent: http: //www. rochester. edu/College/translation/threepercent/index. php? s=database. The Erlking: http: //www. online-literature. com/donne/1648. The Erlking: http: //german. about. com/library/blerlking. htm. Imke Grassl, Linda Berg "Literary Translation" 27