5b037448f5300ac7f073e5883ef950ae.ppt

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Prepared by Coby Harmon University of California, Santa Barbara Westmont College 26 -1

26 Incremental Analysis and Capital Budgeting Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: [1] Identify the steps in management’s decision-making process. [2] Describe the concept of incremental analysis. [3] Identify the relevant costs in accepting an order at a special price. [4] Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision. [5] Identify the relevant costs in determining whether to sell or process materials further. [6] Identify the relevant costs to be considered in repairing, retaining, or replacing equipment. [7] Identify the relevant costs in deciding whether to eliminate an unprofitable segment or product. [8] Determine which products to make and sell when resources are limited. [9] Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting. [10] Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods. 26 -2

Preview of Chapter 26 Accounting Principles Eleventh Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso 26 -3

Incremental Analysis Management’s Decision-Making Process Making decisions is an important management function. u Does not always follow a set pattern. u Decisions vary in scope, urgency, and importance. u Steps usually involved in process include: Illustration 26 -1 26 -4 LO 1 Identify the steps in management’s decision-making process.

Incremental Analysis In making business decisions, u Considers both financial and non-financial information. u Financial information ► ► u Revenues and costs, and Effect on overall profitability. Non-financial information ► ► The environment ► 26 -5 Effect on employee turnover Overall company image. LO 1 Identify the steps in management’s decision-making process.

Incremental Analysis Approach u Decisions involve a choice among alternative actions. u Process used to identify the financial data that change under alternative courses of action. ► ► Only revenues may vary or ► 26 -6 Both costs and revenues may vary or Only costs may vary LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

Incremental Analysis How Incremental Analysis Works Illustration 26 -2 u u Incremental cost savings of $20, 000 is realized. u 26 -7 Incremental revenue is $15, 000 less under Alternative B produces $5, 000 more net income. LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

Incremental Analysis How Incremental Analysis Works Important concepts used in incremental analysis: u u Opportunity cost. u 26 -8 Relevant cost. Sunk cost. LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

Incremental Analysis How Incremental Analysis Works u u Variable costs sometimes do not change under alternatives. u 26 -9 Sometimes involves changes that seem contrary to intuition. Fixed costs sometimes change between alternatives. LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

Incremental Analysis Common types of decisions involving incremental analysis: 1. 2. Make or buy component parts or finished products. 3. Sell or process further them further 4. Repair, retain, or replace equipment. 5. 26 -10 Accept an order at a special price. Eliminate an unprofitable business segment or product. LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

Incremental Analysis Question Incremental analysis is the process of identifying the financial data that a. Do not change under alternative courses of action. b. Change under alternative courses of action. c. Are mixed under alternative courses of action. d. None of the above. 26 -11 LO 2 Describe the concept of incremental analysis.

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Incremental Analysis Accept an Order at a Special Price u u Assumes that sales of products in other markets are not affected by special order. u 26 -13 Obtain additional business by making a major price concession to a specific customer. Assumes that company is not operating at full capacity. LO 3 Identify the relevant costs in accepting an order at a special price.

Incremental Analysis Accept an Order at a Special Price Illustration: Sunbelt Company produces 100, 000 Smoothie blenders per month, which is 80% of plant capacity. Variable manufacturing costs are $8 per unit. Fixed manufacturing costs are $400, 000, or $4 per unit. The blenders are normally sold directly to retailers at $20 each. Sunbelt has an offer from Kensington Co. (a foreign wholesaler) to purchase an additional 2, 000 blenders at $11 per unit. Acceptance of the offer would not affect normal sales of the product, and the additional units can be manufactured without increasing plant capacity. What should management do? 26 -14 LO 3 Identify the relevant costs in accepting an order at a special price.

Incremental Analysis Accept an Order at a Special Price Illustration 26 -4 u Fixed costs do not change since within existing capacity – thus fixed costs are not relevant. u Variable manufacturing costs and expected revenues change – thus both are relevant to the decision. 26 -15 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 3

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> DO IT! Cobb Company incurs costs of $28 per unit ($18 variable and $10 fixed) to make a product that normally sells for $42. A foreign wholesaler offers to buy 5, 000 units at $25 each. Cobb will incur additional shipping costs of $1 per unit. Compute the increase or decrease in net income Cobb will realize by accepting the special order, assuming Cobb has excess operating capacity. Should Cobb Company accept the special order? Accept or Reject? 26 -17 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 3

Incremental Analysis Make or Buy Illustration: Baron Company incurs the following annual costs in producing 25, 000 ignition switches for motor scooters. Illustration 26 -5 Instead of making its own switches, Baron Company might purchase the ignition switches at a price of $8 per unit. “What should management do? ” 26 -18 LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

Incremental Analysis Make or Buy Illustration 26 -6 u Total manufacturing cost is $1 higher per unit than purchase price. u Must absorb at least $50, 000 of fixed costs under either option. 26 -19 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

Incremental Analysis Make or Buy – Opportunity Cost The potential benefit that may be obtained from following an alternative course of action. 26 -20 LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

Incremental Analysis Make or Buy – Opportunity Cost Illustration: Assume that through buying the switches, Baron Company can use the released productive capacity to generate additional income of $38, 000 from producing a different product. This lost income is an additional cost of continuing to make the switches in the make-or-buy decision. Illustration 26 -7 26 -21 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

Incremental Analysis Question In a make-or-buy decision, relevant costs are: a. Manufacturing costs that will be saved. b. The purchase price of the units. c. Opportunity costs. d. All of the above. 26 -22 LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

> DO IT! Juanita Company must decide whether to make or buy some of its components for the appliances it produces. The costs of producing 166, 000 electrical cords for its appliances are as follows. Direct materials Direct labor $90, 000 20, 000 Variable overhead Fixed overhead $32, 000 24, 000 Instead of making the electrical cords at an average cost per unit of $1. 00 ($166, 000 ÷ 166, 000), the company has an opportunity to buy the cords at $0. 90 per unit. If the company purchases the cords, all variable costs and one-fourth of the fixed costs will be eliminated. (a) Prepare an incremental analysis showing whether the company should make or buy the electrical cords. (b) Will your answer be different if the released productive capacity will generate additional income of $5, 000? 26 -23 LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

> DO IT! (a) Prepare an incremental analysis showing whether the company should make or buy the electrical cords. Juanita Company will incur $1, 400 of additional costs if it buys the electrical cords rather than making them. 26 -24 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

> DO IT! (b) Will your answer be different if the released productive capacity will generate additional income of $5, 000? Yes, net income will be increased by $3, 600 if Juanita Company purchases the electrical cords rather than making them. 26 -25 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 4 Identify the relevant costs in a make-or-buy decision.

Incremental Analysis Sell or Process Further u May have option to sell product at a given point in production or to process further and sell at a higher price. u Decision Rule: Process further as long as the incremental revenue from such processing exceeds the incremental processing costs. 26 -26 LO 5 Identify the relevant costs in determining whether to sell or process materials further.

Incremental Analysis Sell or Process Further Illustration: Woodmasters Inc. makes tables. The cost to manufacture an unfinished table is $35. The selling price per Illustration 26 -8 unfinished unit is $50. Woodmasters has unused capacity that can be used to finish the tables and sell them at $60 per unit. For a finished table, direct materials will increase $2 and direct labor costs will increase $4. Variable manufacturing overhead costs will increase by $2. 40 (60% of direct labor). No increase is anticipated in fixed manufacturing overhead. 26 -27 LO 5 Identify the relevant costs in determining whether to sell or process materials further.

Incremental Analysis Sell or Process Further The incremental analysis on a per unit basis is as follows. Illustration 26 -9 Should Woodmasters sell or process further? process further. 26 -28 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 5

Incremental Analysis Question The decision rule is a sell-or-process-further decision: Process further as long as the incremental revenue from processing exceeds: a. Incremental processing costs. b. Variable processing costs. c. Fixed processing costs. d. No correct answer is given. 26 -29 LO 5 Identify the relevant costs in determining whether to sell or process materials further.

Incremental Analysis Repair, Retain, or Replace Equipment Illustration: Jeffcoat Company is considering replacing a factory machine with a new machine. Jeffcoat Company has a factory machine that originally cost $110, 000. It has a balance in Accumulated Depreciation of $70, 000, so its book value is $40, 000. It has a remaining useful life of four years. The company is considering replacing this machine with a new machine. A new machine is available that costs $120, 000. It is expected to have zero salvage value at the end of its four-year useful life. If the new machine is acquired, variable manufacturing costs are expected to decrease from $160, 000 to $125, 000 and the old unit could be sold for $5, 000. The incremental analysis for the four-year period is as follows. 26 -30 LO 6 Identify the relevant costs to be considered in repairing, retaining, or replacing equipment.

Incremental Analysis Repair, Retain, or Replace Equipment Prepare the incremental analysis for the four-year period. Illustration 26 -10 Retain or Replace? 26 -31 LO 6 Identify the relevant costs to be considered in repairing, retaining, or replacing equipment.

Incremental Analysis Repair, Retain, or Replace Equipment Additional Considerations u The book value of old machine does not affect the decision. ► ► u 26 -32 Book value is a sunk cost. Costs which cannot be changed by future decisions (sunk cost) are not relevant in incremental analysis. However, any trade-in allowance or cash disposal value of the existing asset is relevant. LO 6 Identify the relevant costs to be considered in repairing, retaining, or replacing equipment.

Incremental Analysis Eliminate an Unprofitable Segment or Product u u Consider effect on related product lines. u Fixed costs allocated to the unprofitable segment must be absorbed by the other segments. u Net income may decrease when an unprofitable segment is eliminated. u 26 -33 Key: Focus on Relevant Costs. Decision Rule: Retain the segment unless fixed costs eliminated exceed contribution margin lost. LO 7 Identify the relevant costs in deciding whether to eliminate an unprofitable segment or product.

Incremental Analysis Eliminate an Unprofitable Segment or Product Illustration: Venus Company manufactures three models of tennis rackets: u Profitable lines: Pro and Master u Unprofitable line: Champ Should Champ be eliminated? Illustration 26 -11 26 -34 LO 7 Identify the relevant costs in deciding whether to eliminate an unprofitable segment or product.

Incremental Analysis Eliminate an Unprofitable Segment or Product Prepare income data after eliminating Champ product line. Assume fixed costs are allocated 2/3 to Pro and 1/3 to Master. Illustration 26 -12 Total income is decreased by $10, 000. 26 -35 LO 7

Incremental Analysis Eliminate an Unprofitable Segment or Product Incremental analysis of Champ provided the same results: Do Not Eliminate Champ Illustration 26 -13 26 -36 LO 7 Identify the relevant costs in deciding whether to eliminate an unprofitable segment or product.

Incremental Analysis Question If an unprofitable segment is eliminated: a. Net income will always increase. b. Variable expenses of the eliminated segment will have to be absorbed by other segments. c. Fixed expenses allocated to the eliminated segment will have to be absorbed by other segments. d. Net income will always decrease. 26 -37 LO 7 Identify the relevant costs in deciding whether to eliminate an unprofitable segment or product.

> DO IT! Lambert, Inc. manufactures several types of accessories. For the year, the knit hats and scarves line had sales of $400, 000, variable expenses of $310, 000, and fixed expenses of $120, 000. Therefore, the knit hats and scarves line had a net loss of $30, 000. If Lambert eliminates the knit hats and scarves line, $20, 000 of fixed costs will remain. Prepare an analysis showing whether the company should eliminate the knit hats and scarves line. 26 -38 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 7

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Incremental Analysis Allocate Limited Resources u Resources are always limited. ► Floor space for a retail firm. ► Raw materials, direct labor hours, or machine capacity for a manufacturing firm. u 26 -40 Management must decide which products to make and sell to maximize net income. LO 8 Determine which products to make and sell when resources are limited.

Incremental Analysis Allocate Limited Resources Illustration: Collins Company manufactures deluxe and standard pen and pencil sets. The limiting resource is machine capacity, which is 3, 600 hours per month. Relevant data consist of the following. Illustration 26 -14 Contribution margin and machine hours Compute contribution margin per unit of limited resource. 26 -41 LO 8 Determine which products to make and sell when resources are limited.

Incremental Analysis Allocate Limited Resources Compute contribution margin per unit of limited resource. Illustration 26 -15 Company should shift the sales mix to standard sets or should increase machine capacity. 26 -42 LO 8 Determine which products to make and sell when resources are limited.

Incremental Analysis Allocate Limited Resources Illustration: Assume Collins is able to increase machine capacity from 3, 600 hours to 4, 200 hours, the additional 600 hours could be used to produce either the standard or deluxe pen and pencil sets. Determine the total contribution margin under each alternative. Illustration 26 -16 26 -43 LO 8 Determine which products to make and sell when resources are limited.

Capital Budgeting u u Amount of possible capital expenditures usually exceeds the funds available for such expenditures. u 26 -44 Capital Budgeting is the process of making capital expenditure decisions in business. Involves choosing among various capital projects to find the one(s) that will maximize a company’s return on investment. LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Capital Budgeting Evaluation Process Many companies follow a carefully prescribed process in capital budgeting. 26 -45 Illustration 26 -17 Corporate capital budget authorization process LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Evaluation Process u Providing management with relevant data for capital budgeting decisions requires familiarity with quantitative techniques. u Most common techniques are: 1. 2. Cash Payback 3. 26 -46 Annual Rate of Return Discounted Cash Flow LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

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Capital Budgeting Annual Rate of Return Indicates the profitability of a capital expenditure by dividing expected annual net income by the average investment. Illustration 26 -19 26 -48 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Annual Rate of Return Illustration: Reno Company is considering an investment of $130, 000 in new equipment. The new equipment is expected to last 5 years. It will have zero salvage value at the end of its useful life. Reno uses the straight-line method of depreciation for accounting purposes. The expected annual revenues and costs of the new product that will be produced from the investment are: Illustration 26 -18 26 -49 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Annual Rate of Return Computing Average Investment 130, 000 + 0 2 Expected annual rate of return $13, 000 $65, 000 Illustration 26 -20 Formula for computing average investment = $65, 000 = 20% A project is acceptable if its rate of return is greater than management’s required rate of return. 26 -50 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Annual Rate of Return Principal advantages: u Simplicity of calculation. u Management’s familiarity with the accounting terms used in the computation. Major limitation: u 26 -51 Does not consider the time value of money. LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

> DO IT! Watertown Paper Corporation is considering adding another machine for the manufacture of corrugated cardboard. The machine would cost $900, 000. It would have an estimated life of 6 years and no salvage value. The company estimates that annual revenue would increase by $400, 000 and that annual expenses excluding depreciation would increase by $190, 000. It uses the straight-line method to compute depreciation expense. Management has a required rate of return of 9%. Compute the annual rate of return. 26 -52 Advance slide in presentation mode to reveal answer. LO 9

Cash Payback Cash payback technique identifies the time period required to recover the cost of the capital investment from the net annual cash inflow produced by the investment. Illustration 26 -22 Computation of net annual cash flow Illustration 26 -21 Cash payback formula $130, 000 26 -53 ÷ $39, 000 = 3. 3 years LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Cash Payback The shorter the payback period, the more attractive the investment. In the case of uneven net annual cash flows, the company determines the cash payback period when the cumulative net cash flows from the investment equal the cost of the investment. 26 -54 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Cash Payback Illustration: Chen Company proposes an investment in a new website that is estimated to cost $300, 000. Illustration 26 -23 Net annual cash flow schedule Cash payback should not be the only basis for capital budgeting decision as it ignores expected profitability of the project. 26 -55 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

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> DO IT! Watertown Paper Corporation is considering adding another machine for the manufacture of corrugated cardboard. The machine would cost $900, 000. It would have an estimated life of 6 years and no salvage value. The company estimates that annual cash inflows would increase by $400, 000 and that annual cash outflows would increase by $190, 000. Compute the cash payback period. 26 -57 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Cash Payback Question A $100, 000 investment with a zero scrap value has an 8 -year life. Compute the payback period if straight-line depreciation is used and net income is determined to be $20, 000. a. 8. 00 years. b. 3. 08 years. c. 5. 00 years. d. 13. 33 years. 26 -58 LO 9 Contrast annual rate of return and cash payback in capital budgeting.

Discounted Cash Flow u Generally recognized as the best conceptual approach. u Considers both the estimated total net cash flows from the investment and the time value of money. u Two methods: ► ► 26 -59 Net present value. Internal rate of return. LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Net Present Value Method u u Interest rate used in discounting is the required minimum rate of return. u Proposal is acceptable when NPV is zero or positive. u 26 -60 Net cash flows are discounted to their present value and then compared with the capital outlay required by the investment. The higher the positive NPV, the more attractive the investment. LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow A proposal is acceptable when net present value is zero or positive. 26 -61 Illustration 26 -24 Net present value decision criteria LO 10

Discounted Cash Flow Equal Net Annual Cash Flows Illustration: Reno Company’s net annual cash flows are $39, 000. If we assume this amount is uniform over the asset’s useful life, we can compute the present value of the net annual cash flows. Illustration 26 -25 Calculate the net present value. 26 -62 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Equal Net Annual Cash Flows Illustration: Calculate the net present value. Illustration 26 -26 The proposed capital expenditure is acceptable at a required rate of return of 12% because the net present value is positive. 26 -63 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Unequal Net Annual Cash Flows Illustration: Reno Company management expects the same aggregate net annual cash flow ($195, 000) over the life of the investment. But because of a declining market demand for the new product over the life of the equipment, the net annual cash flows are higher in the early years and lower in the later years. 26 -64 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Unequal Net Annual Cash Flows 26 -65 Illustration 26 -27 Computing present value of unequal annual cash flows LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Unequal Net Annual Cash Flows Illustration: Calculate the net present value. Illustration 26 -28 Analysis of proposal using net present value method The proposed capital expenditure is acceptable at a required rate of return of 12% because the net present value is positive. 26 -66 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

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Discounted Cash Flow Internal Rate of Return Method u IRR method finds the interest yield of the potential investment. u IRR is the rate that will cause the PV of the proposed capital expenditure to equal the PV of the expected annual cash inflows. u Two steps in method: ► ► 26 -68 Compute the interval rate of return factor. Use the factor and the PV of an annuity of 1 table to find the IRR. LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Internal Rate of Return Method Step 1. Compute the internal rate of return factor. Illustration 26 -29 For Reno Company: $130, 000 26 -69 ÷ $39, 000 = 3. 3333 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Internal Rate of Return Method Step 2. Use the factor and the present value of an annuity of 1 table to find the internal rate of return. Assume a required rate of return for Reno of 10%. Decision Rule: Accept the project when the IRR is equal to or greater than the required rate of return. 26 -70 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Internal Rate of Return Method Illustration 26 -30 26 -71 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Comparing Discounted Cash Flow Methods Illustration 26 -31 26 -72 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

Discounted Cash Flow Question A positive net present value means that the: a. Project’s rate of return is less than the cutoff rate. b. Project’s rate of return exceeds the required rate of return. c. Project’s rate of return equals the required rate of return. d. Project is unacceptable. 26 -73 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

> DO IT! Watertown Paper Corporation is considering adding another machine for the manufacture of corrugated cardboard. The machine would cost $900, 000. It would have an estimated life of 6 years and no salvage value. The company estimates that annual revenues would increase by $400, 000 and that annual expenses excluding depreciation would increase by $190, 000. Management has a required rate of return of 9%. (a) Calculate the net present value on this project. (b) Calculate the internal rate of return on this project, and discuss whether it should be accepted. 26 -74 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

> DO IT! (a) Calculate the net present value on this project. Watertown should accept the project. 26 -75 LO 10 Distinguish between the net present value and internal rate of return methods.

> DO IT! (b) Calculate the internal rate of return on this project, and discuss whether it should be accepted. $900, 000 ÷ 210, 000 = 4. 285714. Since the project has an internal rate that is greater than 10% and the required rate of return is only 9%, Watertown should accept the project. 26 -76 LO 10

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