- Количество слайдов: 38
August 25, 2005, at 12: 30 p. m. , Eastern Daylight Savings Time
Updated August 27, 2005 10: 42 a. m. EDT
Updated August 28, 2005 8: 42 a. m. EDT
Updated August 29, 2005 8: 20 a. m. EDT
September 8, 2005 Sept 15, 2005
The CONTEXT FOR COMMONS DEVELOPMENT
KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES: Applied Induction Technology Repatriation of biodiversity information through Clearing House Mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Global Biodiversity Information Facility; Views and experiences of Peruvian and Bolivian non-governmental organizations. Ulla Helimo Master’s Thesis University of Turku Department of Biology 6. 10. 2004 p. 11. http: //enbi. utu. fi/Documents/Ulla%20 Helimo%20 PRO%20 GRADU. pdf [06 -06 -05]
Poder Politico y Conocimiento Responsabilidad y Poder Alt o Político s Administrado res o Gestores Analistas. Técnicos Científico s Baj o Conocimiento (en términos científicos-occidentales) Alt o (Sutton, 1999) From: Organizaciones que aprenden, paises que aprenden: lecciones y AP en Costa Rica by Andrea Ballestero Directora ELAP
Finland “Structure of the World Wide Web in Finland. Circles denote sites and lines denote connecting links. ” Courtesy of Bernardo Hubernman (HP Labs, Palo Alto) from B. Huberman The Laws of the Web, Cambridge, MIT Press, 2001
“Image Families” Optimal use of digital objects depends on “heritability”-- defined in terms of: • technical integrity (of image) • semantic properties • legal ownership From: Howard Besser. The Next Stage: Moving from Isolated Digital Collections to Interoperable Digital Libraries by First Monday, volume 7, number 6 (June 2002), URL: http: //firstmonday. org/issues/issue 7_6/bes ser/index. html
TYPES OF USES That May Be Addressed by Fair Use The 2003 OCLC Environmental Scan: Pattern Recognition (A report to the OCLC Membership) Dublin, Ohio, OCLC Online Computer Library Center, 2004. p. 45.
A graphic depiction of the digital divide http: //antwrp. gsfc. nasa. gov/apod/image/0011/earthlights_dmsp_big. jpg
The Public Domain “Research Commons” Knowledge Commons THE ROLE OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL DATA AND INFORMATION IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN PROCEEDINGS OF A SYMPOSIUM Julie M. Esanu and Paul F. Uhlir, Editors Steering Committee on the Role of Scientific and Technical Data and Information in the Public Domain Office of International Scientific and Technical Information Programs Board on International Scientific Organizations Policy and Global Affairs Division, National Research Council of the National Academies, p. 5
Should scientific knowledge be a “commodity” ? ? ? Julian Birkinshaw and Tony Sheehan, “Managing the Knowledge Life Cycle, ” MIT Sloan Management Review, 44 (2) Fall, 2002: 77.
Differing Interpretations of IPR Regulation Current Norms Reductionists Maximalists Expansionists BENEFITS Intellectual Property Rights Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America. ; Screen Cartoonists Local Union No. 852 (Hollywood, Calif. ); Animation Guild and Affiliated Optical Electronic and Graphic Arts, Local 839 I. A. T. S. E. (North Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif. ); Motion Pictures Screen Cartoonists Local 839, I. A. T. S. E.
Flier from 1941 cartoonists strike at Disney Studios “Mickey Mouse wears an AFL (American Federation of Labor) button and carries a placards that reads "Disney UNFAIR. " Bottom edge reads ‘Printed by Disney Strikers on Offset Duplicator. Hand made Stencil’ “ [ Metadata: Strikes and lockouts -Motion picture industry; Walt Disney Productions; Disney characters; Mickey Mouse; Motion picture industry -- Employees -- Labor unions; American Federation of Labor; Animators; Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America. ; Screen Cartoonists Local Union No. 852 (Hollywood, Calif. ); Animation Guild and Affiliated Optical Electronic and Graphic Arts, Local 839 I. A. T. S. E. (North Hollywood, Los Angeles, Calif. ); Motion Pictures Screen Cartoonists Local 839, I. A. T. S. E. ] Cal State Univ Northridge http: //digitallibrary. csun. edu/cdm 4/results. php? CISOOP 1=any&CISOBOX 1=Disney&CISOFIELD 1=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOROOT=all&submit=search
The Ethical Context
“The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind “ Thomas Jefferson 1807
Ethos of Science
“The substantive findings of science are a product of social collaboration and are assigned to the community. They constitute a common heritage in which the equity of the individual producer is severely limited…” “The scientist’s claim to “his” intellectual “property” is limited to that of recognition and esteem which, if the institution functions with a modicum of efficiency, is roughly commensurate with the significance of the increments brought to the common fund of knowledge. ” Robert K. Merton, “A Note on Science and Democarcy, ” Journal of Law and Political Sociology 1 (1942): 121.
The Library Tradition
For hundreds of years, libraries have been the “protected areas” of the knowledge commons. The “public library” is a commons or zone of “fair use” that makes knowledge freely and equitably available to all.
“Science Literacy” ? “. . . the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions, and to draw evidence-based conclusions in order to understand help make decisions about the natural world and the changes made to it through human activity. ” Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (1999). Measuring Student Knowledge and Skills: A New Framework for Assessment. Paris: Author. http: //www. oecd. org/dataoecd/45/32/33693997. pdf
An Inconvenient Truth? “Compared with practical science literacy, the achievement of a functional level of civic science literacy is a more protracted endeavor. Yet, it is a job that sooner or later must be done, for as time goes on human events will become even more entwined in science, and science-related public issues in the future can only increase in number and in importance. Civic science literacy is a cornerstone of informed public policy. ” B. S. P. Shen, “Scientific Literacy and the Public Understanding of Science, ” in Communication of Scientific Information, ed. S. Day (Basel: Karger, 1975), 44– 52 Quoted in: Jon D. Miller, “The measurement of civic scientific literacy. ” Public Understand. Sci. 7 (1998) 203– 223. http: //pascal. iseg. utl. pt/~ccti/Documents/Miller 1998. pdf
The Conservation Commons
“NATIVE” METADATA 5 DEAD HARBOR SEAL and CALIFORNIA CONDORS !!!
The Knowledge Cycle in the International Conservation Community Colin Bibby, 2002
The Conservation Commons promotes and enables conscious, effective and equitable sharing of knowledge resources to advance conservation.
Organizations that have formally endorsed the Principles American Museum of Natural History ARKive: The Wildscreen Trust (UK) (Website of the year) Bird. Life International BP Centre for Sustainable Watersheds (Canada) Chevron-Texaco Specific Endorsement Letter CIFOR CONABIO - Mexico Conservation Biology Institute, USA Conservation International * CRIA - Brazil * DIDG Information Systems Ltd. (Australia) Earth Conservation Toolbox Environmental Education Center - Russia "Zapoveniks“ Erawan Interactive: Digital Publishing ETI Bio. Informatics Fauna & Flora International Friends of Nature - Bolivia GBIF - Global Biodiversity Information Facility * Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) Global Transboundary Protected Areas Network of IUCN Green. Facts INBio, National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica Information Center for the Environment (ICE), U. of California, Davis INSnet, Internetwork for Sustainability Instituto de Biología, U. N. A. M. Mexico Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (Colombia) International Center for Himalayan Biodiversity (link unavailable for now) International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature Invasive Species Specialist Group of IUCN/SSC (Species Survival Commission) IUCN - The World Conservation Union * My Nature (based in Romania) NASA * National Geographic Society Nature Protection Trust of Seychelles Nature Serve * PALNet - Protected Areas Learning Network (from WCPA of IUCN) Philippine Society for the Protection of Animals (Web link not available) Réseau Africain pour la conservation de la Mangrove (RAM) Red Hat Regional Centre for Development Cooperation (RCDC), Centre for Forestry and Governance, India Rio Tinto Salim Ali Centre for Ornithilogy and Natural History (SACON-India) Shell Exploration Society for Conservation GIS South African National Biodiversity Institute - SANBI * The African Conservation Foundation The Big Sky Conservation Institute The Natural History Museum, London The Nature Conservancy * The Rainforest Alliance The Smithsonian Institution The World Conservation Union, Pakistan The Zoological Society of London TRAFFIC International TROPI-DRY: forest research network (based in U. Alberta) UNDP UNEP WCMC Unesco University of Maryland - Global Land Cover Facility * Wetlands of India (hosted by SACON-India) Wild Bird Club of the Philippines Wildlife Conservation Society World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA of IUCN) WWF Brazil WWF International
Commons-Consistent Initiatives and Projects • • • CONSERVEONLINE SEE: http: //conserveonline. org/ Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) SEE: http: //www. gbif. org/ World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) SEE: http: //www. unepwcmc. org/wdpa/ Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) SEE: http: //bhl. si. edu/ Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet) SEE: http: //www. parksnet. org/ New Initiatives: § § Development of open data standards for Biodiversity (with OASIS SEE: http: //www. oasis-open. org/home/index. php ) Conservation GIS developments (GLCF / Univ of Md. ) Development of model contractual language supporting commons principles San Francisco Bay Conservation Commons (Calif. Conservation Commons? ) SEE: http: //sfbayarea. calconservationcommons. net/
An Ethical Spectrum ? – Support for Scientific Knowledge Commons Human Health Agriculture Conservation Biotechnology Nuclear Technology
Kirtland’s Warbler / Abaco Island, The Bahamas