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Power Summary Power Summary

Alternator u Background u de Meritens u Gramme u Wilde & Siemens u Ferranti Alternator u Background u de Meritens u Gramme u Wilde & Siemens u Ferranti u Gordon u Mordley

Alternator u Early Dynamos t Constant Maintenance w Commutators w Brush-Gear t Could not Alternator u Early Dynamos t Constant Maintenance w Commutators w Brush-Gear t Could not Be Design For AC u Alternating Current t Better Wave Form - Efficiency t Alternator t Back To Work Of Holmes w Non Continuous Winding - Distributed Winding

Baron A. de Maritens u Manufactured - 1880 u Permanent Magnets u Magneto-Electric Type Baron A. de Maritens u Manufactured - 1880 u Permanent Magnets u Magneto-Electric Type u Installations t Trinity House - S. Foreland t Lizard Lighthouses u Still In Use In 1947 u 4. 5 kw At 830 rpm

Gramme (1878) u Rotating Field u Exciter - Built Into Alternator Carcass t 2 Gramme (1878) u Rotating Field u Exciter - Built Into Alternator Carcass t 2 -Polar Dynamo With Ring Armature

Wilde (1878) u Armature Coils t Bobbins u Similar To Holmes u Siemens t Wilde (1878) u Armature Coils t Bobbins u Similar To Holmes u Siemens t Eliminated Iron cores On Bobbins

Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti u 1881 u Rotor Winding t Copper Ribbon u Advantage Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti u 1881 u Rotor Winding t Copper Ribbon u Advantage t Free To Expand

J. E. H. Gordon (1852 -1893) u Power Plants u Largest Alternators Of The J. E. H. Gordon (1852 -1893) u Power Plants u Largest Alternators Of The Time (1885) u Alternator t 600 hp At 146 rpm t 10 ft Diameter t 22 tons t Problem w Overheating - Laminated Cores u Power Source t Steam At 160 psi

Paddington Great Western Railway Station (1885) Gordon Alternators Paddington Great Western Railway Station (1885) Gordon Alternators

W. M. Mordey (1856 -1938) u 1886 u Rotating Field Magnet t Coil Between W. M. Mordey (1856 -1938) u 1886 u Rotating Field Magnet t Coil Between Two Steel Plates u Fixed Stator

Electric Lighting u Lighthouses t Limelight (1850) w Lime Incandescent In Oxy-Hydrogen flame t Electric Lighting u Lighthouses t Limelight (1850) w Lime Incandescent In Oxy-Hydrogen flame t Electric Arc-Lamps, “Jablochkoff Candles” (1857) u Street Lighting - Electric Arc t Paris (1875) t Llondon (1878) u Domestic Lighting t Electric Arc-Lamps - Too Powerfull t Filament Lamp (1881)

Electric Power Stations u Background u Transformers u Deptford Power Station u DC Or Electric Power Stations u Background u Transformers u Deptford Power Station u DC Or AC u Parallel Operation Of Alternators

Background u First Power Station (1882) t Supplied Private Customers t Holborn Viaduct Station Background u First Power Station (1882) t Supplied Private Customers t Holborn Viaduct Station - Edison Co. u Brighton & Godalming u Grosvenor Gallery (1883) t AC @ High Voltage t Customers Given Series Transformers t Ferranti w Replaced Seimens Alts. With 2400 V Alternators w Switch From Series To Parallel - Gibbs

Brighton Power Station (1887) Brighton Power Station (1887)

Transformers u Faraday (1831) t Principle Of AC Transformer w Mutual Induction Of Windings Transformers u Faraday (1831) t Principle Of AC Transformer w Mutual Induction Of Windings u Gaulard & Gibbs (1883) t Adjustable Core t Series Circuit u Ferrenti Or Westinghouse t Parallel Circuit

Deptford Power Station (1991) u Intended To Supply London u Ferranti t Transmission At Deptford Power Station (1991) u Intended To Supply London u Ferranti t Transmission At High Voltage (10, 000 V) w Mains 20 ft Copper Tubing (Inner & Outer) Separated By Paper Used In London For 40 Years t Power Output w Four Ferranti Generators (10, 000 V Windings) w One 10, 000 hp Steam Engine u Led To Small Power Stations t Maiden Lane (1889)

Deptford Power Station (1891) Deptford Power Station (1891)

Maiden Lane Maiden Lane

D. C. Or A. C. u Pro A. C. t England w Ferranti, Gordon, D. C. Or A. C. u Pro A. C. t England w Ferranti, Gordon, Mordley, Thompson t U. S. w Westinghouse, Tesla, Sprague, Steinmetz u Pro D. C. t England w Lord Kelvin, Crompton, Kennedy, Hopkinson t U. S. w Edison

u A. C. D. C. Or A. C. (Continued) t Advantages w High Voltage u A. C. D. C. Or A. C. (Continued) t Advantages w High Voltage Generation & Transmission w Less Main Loss t Disadvantages w Electrocution u D. C. t Advantages w Large Storage Batteries During Light Load w Safe t Disadvantages w High Voltage Transmission (No H. V. Machines) w Battery Maintenance

D. C. Or A. C. (Continued) u Arguments t Brown & Edison w Death D. C. Or A. C. (Continued) u Arguments t Brown & Edison w Death Penalty By Lethal Electrocution w Bought Generators From Westinghouse (1889) t Westinghouse w Contact For Niagara Falls Power Scheme t Bitter Fights Between Edison & Westinghouse u Change-Over t Equal Number Of D. C. & A. C. In 1890 t London (1958) w Some Areas & Provincial Towns Are Still D. C.

Batteries u Primary Batteries t Non reverseable Chemical Reaction t Single Or Two Fluid Batteries u Primary Batteries t Non reverseable Chemical Reaction t Single Or Two Fluid Classes u Single Fluid Class t Voltaic Cell - Zinc & Copper t Problem - Variable Voltage t Subject To Polarizartion w Hydrogen At Positive Pole u Two Fluid Class t Constant Electromotive Force

u Helm Batteries - Single Fluid (1850) t Carbon Replaced Copper u Warren de u Helm Batteries - Single Fluid (1850) t Carbon Replaced Copper u Warren de la Rue (1868) t Lead Dioxide t Silver Chloride u G. Leclanche (1866) t Lead Acid u R. W. Bunsen (1844) t Carbon & Zinc Plates With Chromic Acid u Grenet (1859) - Shown t Carbon & Zinc Plates With Potassium Dichromate

Batteries - Two Fluid u Used For Telegraph u Daniell Cell t Electrolyte - Batteries - Two Fluid u Used For Telegraph u Daniell Cell t Electrolyte - Dilute Sulfuric Acid t Constant Voltage t Plates Did Not Waste t Active For Long Periods t No Unpleasant Fumes u Minotto Cell t Replaced Pot With Sand u Fuller Cell t 12 Cells t Telegraph (1875)