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Power, Politics and the Media: Core Concepts Brian M Conley 1 Power, Politics and the Media: Core Concepts Brian M Conley 1

The Permanent Campaign Power, Politics, and the Media: Core Concepts 1. Faces of Power The Permanent Campaign Power, Politics, and the Media: Core Concepts 1. Faces of Power a. Pluralism: Grievance: Action b. Agenda Setting: Grievance: No Action c. Hegemony: No Grievance: no Action 2. Shaping of Perception: a. Propaganda: Manufacturing/Engineering of consent b. Advertising/PR: Construction of desires c. Political marketing: constructing political/ideological brand/party loyalty. 2

A Propaganda Model Chomsky and Herman: A Propaganda Model Filters 1) Concentrated Ownership 2) A Propaganda Model Chomsky and Herman: A Propaganda Model Filters 1) Concentrated Ownership 2) Advertising 3) Sourcing 4) Flak 5) Anti-Communism (War on Terror? )

Public Relations Ewen: Public Relations Theory Ewen identifies several Protocols of Persuasion 1) Creating Public Relations Ewen: Public Relations Theory Ewen identifies several Protocols of Persuasion 1) Creating Circumstances 2) Calculated Simulation of Enthusiasm 3) Creation of Mood 4) Creating Impressions

Political Marketing and Branding Shaping of Perception: Political Marketing: “Branded Conservatism” Constructing political/ideological brand/party Political Marketing and Branding Shaping of Perception: Political Marketing: “Branded Conservatism” Constructing political/ideological brand/party loyalty. a. Rise of the modern Republican Party b. Development of a coherent conservative brand c. Re-shaping of the public/political discourse in the United States d. Applied to electoral politics e. Applied to public policy making (state and federal level) 5

Advertising? Product Orientation Business Product Market/Consumers Design No Promotion 6 Advertising? Product Orientation Business Product Market/Consumers Design No Promotion 6

Advertising? Sales Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design Promote/Sell 7 Advertising? Sales Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design Promote/Sell 7

Advertising? Market Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design Product Sells Itself 8 Advertising? Market Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design Product Sells Itself 8

Advertising? Sales Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design New Coke/New Taste Promote/Sell 9 Advertising? Sales Orientation Business Market/Consumers Product Design New Coke/New Taste Promote/Sell 9

Advertising? Market Orientation BMW 4 Runner Business Design Desires MP 3/ Friendship Market/Consumers Product Advertising? Market Orientation BMW 4 Runner Business Design Desires MP 3/ Friendship Market/Consumers Product Desires Car/ Feelings: JOY Sells Itself 10

Party Brands Product Approach: Party ? Public (Market) Policy No clear connection between what Party Brands Product Approach: Party ? Public (Market) Policy No clear connection between what a party does or thinks in terms of policy and what the public needs or wants 11

Party Brands Sales Approach: Party Public Policy: One Way The Party attempts to “sell” Party Brands Sales Approach: Party Public Policy: One Way The Party attempts to “sell” or convince the public that it should want (and thus support) a party’s policies, without consulting the public. 12

Party Brands Market Approach: Party Public Policy: Two Way (Research Driven) A party has Party Brands Market Approach: Party Public Policy: Two Way (Research Driven) A party has the potential to provide the public what it needs, because it has researched what the public wants. Implications: Market Approach empowers a party to respond to the public at the level of wants rather than needs. 13

Party Brands Market Approach: Party Targeting Frames Public Segments 14 Party Brands Market Approach: Party Targeting Frames Public Segments 14

Party Brands Market Approach: Party Policy and Promises Frames: Concerns, Values, Aspirations, Needs Public Party Brands Market Approach: Party Policy and Promises Frames: Concerns, Values, Aspirations, Needs Public Political Branding Developing an idea, message, image, party narrative based on keen understanding of what certain market segments wants, and then building loyalty with that segment Segments 15

Party Brands Market Approach: Party Policy and Promises Positioning If policy/brand fails it can Party Brands Market Approach: Party Policy and Promises Positioning If policy/brand fails it can be repositioned, or modified to reconnect or reaffirm concerns (frames) of the targeted segments. Positioning Public Segments 16

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party: Health Care Republican Party Health Care: Repeal Small Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party: Health Care Republican Party Health Care: Repeal Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Differentiation: Not the Demo. CRAT…Party; does not response to Demo. CRAT voters (in the first instance) Public Political Branding Developing an idea, message, image, party narrative based on keen understanding of what certain market segments wants, and then building loyalty with that segment 17

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: Public View Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: Public View Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Health Care: Repeal Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Party Branding How the public views or experiences the party. Public Segments 18

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: Party View Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: Party View Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Public Party Branding The party brand story becomes the means through the party communicates, interactions and responses to its targeted segments. Segments 19

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Public Institutionalization? A party brand story or narrative only works if in fact the party has a story, that is, it has agreed/decided as an institution to cohere around a particular political story. Segments 20

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Family Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Family Values, St Def Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Public Segments Republican Institutionalization: The Republican Party has a brand story or narrative: Small Government Lower Taxes Family Values Strong Defense Date? 21

Party Brands Market Approach: Obama Brand 2008 Obama Change, Hope, Audacity, Post-Part/ lnclusion Obama Party Brands Market Approach: Obama Brand 2008 Obama Change, Hope, Audacity, Post-Part/ lnclusion Obama Brand: Obama had a brand story or narrative in 2008: Responsible govt, community values… Hope Change you Can believe in Public Segments 22

Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party? Democratic Party ? ? ? ? Dem. Party Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party? Democratic Party ? ? ? ? Dem. Party Brand: The Democratic Party has talked about developing a brand: Responsible govt, community values… Ethical Politics (Rep Culture of Corruption) Public Segments 23

Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: 2010 Elections Democratic Party Rec Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: 2010 Elections Democratic Party Rec Act, 95% Tax Cut, Obama, Middle-Cl Relief Responsible govt, community values… Public Dem. Party Brand: The Democratic Party did try to adopt the Obama brand in 2010 (Economic Policy) Recovery Act 95% Tax Cuts Obama Middle-Class Tax Relief Segments 24

Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand? Democratic Party Rec Act, 95% Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand? Democratic Party Rec Act, 95% Tax Cut, Obama, Middle-Cl Relief Responsible govt, community values… Public Institutionalization? For the brand concept to work, it has be embraced (institutionalized) by the party. Question: Did the Dem. Party institutionalize the Obama brand? Segments 25

Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: US Senate 2010 Democratic Party Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: US Senate 2010 Democratic Party Rec Act, 95% Tax Cut, Obama, Middle-Cl Relief Responsible govt, community values… Institutionalization? Leadership (White House, DCCC, DSCC): Yes. Public Segments 26

Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: US Senate 2010 Democratic Party Party Brands Market Approach: Democratic Party = Obama Brand: US Senate 2010 Democratic Party Rec Act, 95% Tax Cut, Obama, Middle-Cl Relief Responsible govt, community values… Institutionalization? The 19 Democratic candidates running to retain party seats in the US Senate: NO! Public Segments 27

Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: US Senate 2010 Republican Party Small Govt, Party Brands Market Approach: Republican Party Brand: US Senate 2010 Republican Party Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Family Values, St Def Small Govt, Lower Taxes, Personal Choice Public Republican Institutionalization: The Republican leadership (RNC, NRSC, NRCC) and 18 candidates running to retain party seats in US Senate: YES Segments 28

Figure 1. Candidate Messaging by Issue: US Senate Election, 2010 94% 100% 90% 88% Figure 1. Candidate Messaging by Issue: US Senate Election, 2010 94% 100% 90% 88% 76% 80% 70% Percent 60% 52% 47% Party Democrats (19 Candidates) 50% Party Republicans (18 Candidates) 40% 22% 30% 16% 20% 10% 0% Recovery Act Obama 95% Tax Cut Middle-Class Oversized Govt Tax Relief Taxes Govt Spending

Public policy: Application Case Studies 1. Economic Policy 2. Healthcare Policy 3. US foreign Public policy: Application Case Studies 1. Economic Policy 2. Healthcare Policy 3. US foreign Policy (Iraq) 30