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POLYHOUSE TECHNOLOGY DR. N. S. TEKALE POLYHOUSE TECHNOLOGY DR. N. S. TEKALE

Our diet constitutes cereals, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. The majority of Indian population do Our diet constitutes cereals, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. The majority of Indian population do not incorporate enough quantities of fruits and vegetables in their regular diet and intake of food become imbalanced. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 2

 WHY POLYHOUSE TECHNOLOGY ? n n The fruits and vegetables are missing in WHY POLYHOUSE TECHNOLOGY ? n n The fruits and vegetables are missing in the diet of poor marginal Indian because of their overall shortage Majority of farmers are not ready to shift their crop land to fruits and vegetable cultivation, hence under such condition poly houses can be the only answer for this. We need promotion of fruits and vegetables cultivation for financial support to the farmers and total food security to all The poly house technologies are advanced in Israel, Holland, Spain, Italy, Kenya, South Africa, Japan and China. But unfortunately much neglected in India 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 3

n India and Holland having more or less same land under flower cultivation but n India and Holland having more or less same land under flower cultivation but in world’s flower export, Holland’s contribution is 70% and India’s contribution is just 1% or even less because of advanced technology of poly houses in Holland. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 4

1) Maharashtra is promoting poly house technology for cultivation of Gerbera , Carnation , 1) Maharashtra is promoting poly house technology for cultivation of Gerbera , Carnation , Roses, Anthurium and some Exotic vegetables 2) About 1500 Poly houses of 5 Gunthas(5000 Sq Feet) and 10 Gunthas(10000 Sq Feet) capacity are under production but still farmers are not getting enough out put due to lack of guidance from expert horticulturists 3)Banks are also reluctant to give finance because of unaware of knowledge in this field 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 5

Principle of polyhouse Growth and healthy production of plants under controlled favorable conditions in Principle of polyhouse Growth and healthy production of plants under controlled favorable conditions in closed or partially closed space is called polyhouse. Polyhouse concept emerged to undertake adverse environmental conditions such as excess of raining, high temperature, extreme cold condition, air flow etc. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 6

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 7

Advantages of poly house 1 ) Protection from excess rainfall, wind current, scorching sunlight Advantages of poly house 1 ) Protection from excess rainfall, wind current, scorching sunlight and extreme cold conditions 2) It can be erected on unproductive soil 3) Under minimum space one can have maximum production of crop plants 4) Humidity is maintained 5) Efficient use of CO 2 6) Minimum labor requirement 7) Minimum use of water and fertilizers 8) Maximum use of space 9) A single person can have control over thousands of plants 10) Diseases and pests can be controlled easily 11) Water can be used economically 12) Production of crop throughout the year 13) Protection from birds, animals and human activities 14) Labor cost is reduced 15) Quality of product is best 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 8

 TYPES OF POLYHOUSES n n n 17. 09. 2010 1 Glass House 2 TYPES OF POLYHOUSES n n n 17. 09. 2010 1 Glass House 2 Shade Net 3 Poly House VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 9

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 10

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 11

CONDITIONS MAINTAINED IN OLYHOUSE n n n There are five different types of environmental CONDITIONS MAINTAINED IN OLYHOUSE n n n There are five different types of environmental parameters maintained in a polyhouse. These are: CO 2 Temp Light Humidity Air Flow 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 12

LIGHT n 17. 09. 2010 Light: Light is a most critical factor for poly LIGHT n 17. 09. 2010 Light: Light is a most critical factor for poly house. The brightness of light is measured in LUX. For healthy growth of crop in poly house, minimum requirement of LUX is 50, 000 to 60, 000. In India, light LUX varies from 40, 000 to 1, 40, 000 hence in many parts of our country such as Maharashtra, Karnataka, M. P. the sunlight is bright and has to be reduced by using shed net. We can reduce sunlight 30%, 50%, 75%. The 50% shed net are common in India. VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 13

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 14

THREE TYPES OF LIGHT n 17. 09. 2010 Along with the LUX, the wavelength THREE TYPES OF LIGHT n 17. 09. 2010 Along with the LUX, the wavelength of light is also important. On the basis of wavelength, Light is classified into three types Ultra violate light wavelength 0 -400 nm Visible light wavelength 400 -700 nm Infra light wavelength 700 onwards VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 15

 From these three types, plants use only visible light for photosynthesis. In polyhouse From these three types, plants use only visible light for photosynthesis. In polyhouse technology light is controlled in such a way that plant receive maximum visible light and remaining light get reflected back i. e. outside the polyhouse 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 16

TEMPRATURE n For flowers and vegetables healthy and maximum growth, the temp requirement is TEMPRATURE n For flowers and vegetables healthy and maximum growth, the temp requirement is between 26’C to 30’C during day time and 15’C to 18’C in night. The stele frame work of poly house is covered by polythene hence inner temp. can rise up to 40’C. To control the temp inside the poly house, the ventilation as well as cooling pads and fans are used. Because of this we can have continuous quality production of herbs throughout the year. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 17

n HUMIDITY n. For flowers and vegetables, and their healthy and maximum growth, we n HUMIDITY n. For flowers and vegetables, and their healthy and maximum growth, we should have proper humidity. Requirement of humidity for flower production is 65% to 80% and for vegetables it is 60% to 65% Because of controlled humidity plant growth remain continue, flower grow with attractive colors and after cutting, their shelf life also increases. Humidity helps in color combination of herbs, vegetable and flowers. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 18

n Carbon-Di-Oxide: In our surrounding atmosphere CO 2 conc. is 0. 03% means 300 n Carbon-Di-Oxide: In our surrounding atmosphere CO 2 conc. is 0. 03% means 300 ppm. Plants use this CO 2 for photosynthesis. In poly house, during night time there is no photosynthesis but CO 2 is given out by respiration. This CO 2 remain accumulated around plants hence in night compare to outside, polyhouse always have more CO 2 conc. This CO 2 is again used by plants growing in poly house for rapid photosynthesis. It has been proved that if poly house having 1000 ppm of CO 2, then herbs, vegetables and flower production increases to 4 to 5 times more compare to normal conditions. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 19

n WIND MOVEMENT If humidity is more in polyhouse, then chances of diseases and n WIND MOVEMENT If humidity is more in polyhouse, then chances of diseases and pest increases. Under such condition, side vents of polyhouse are opened to promote wind movement in polyhouse. Because of wind movement the humidity decreases and chances of diseases also reduced. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 20

TYPES OF POLYHOUSES Uncontrolled : where only top part is covered well (GH 1 TYPES OF POLYHOUSES Uncontrolled : where only top part is covered well (GH 1 Partially controlled: where polyhouse have open and closed window(GH 2) Completely controlled : where windows are absent. It is totally Computarized(GH 3) Polyhouses are also classified in to three types n Attached: When it is attached or supported by a part of building or any type of constructed wall n Detached: when it is in free standing position n Connected: When several polyhouses are joined together in a series VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. 17. 09. 2010 Tekale 21

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 22

TYPES OF POLYHOUSES Polyhouses have different shape and sizes and on this basis they TYPES OF POLYHOUSES Polyhouses have different shape and sizes and on this basis they are classified in to three types n Barrel shaped n Ridges and furrow type n Saw tooth type Shape and size varies according to the climatic conditions of the region/Country 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 23

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 24

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 25

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 26

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 27

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 28

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 29

Selection of site for poly house: Following things are taken into account 1 The Selection of site for poly house: Following things are taken into account 1 The selection Site should be free from pollution. 2 Water should be available regularly 3. Supply of electricity (Three phase ) should be regular 4. Soil should be properly leveled and drained 5 Poly house should be near to road side means proper approachable road must be there to go to poly house 6. Some space should be there nearby for further extension 7 Expertise and labors should be available when required. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 30

Other Essential things 1. Should have cool chamber (0’C) to accumulate and store the Other Essential things 1. Should have cool chamber (0’C) to accumulate and store the final product. 2. Water p. H should be between 5. 5 to 7 & electric conductivity of water should be 0. 01 to 0. 1 3. p. H of soil should be between 5. 5 to 6. 5 and electric conductivity 0. 6 to 0. 8 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 31

DIRECTION OF POLYHOUSE n 17. 09. 2010 Poly house should have light from all DIRECTION OF POLYHOUSE n 17. 09. 2010 Poly house should have light from all sides and wind current should not damage the poly house. To overcome these problems, Poly house should be preferably South-North in direction. VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 32

n Material used for shading: After construction of poly houses, it is covered by n Material used for shading: After construction of poly houses, it is covered by semitransparent sheet which can be a poly film, Acrylic, polythene, or polycarbonate material. Use of poly film is more profitable. Poly film protect UV rays to enter in poly house, n transparency is between 80% to 9 o%. Gauge varies 200 to 800 micron. Poly film can tolerate 50’C and its life span is about three years. 1 kg poly film covers 5. 38 sq m area of a poly house. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 33

Preparation of soil: n 17. 09. 2010 For poly house, soil has to be Preparation of soil: n 17. 09. 2010 For poly house, soil has to be prepared under strict supervision. First the floor is leveled properly and then raise beds are prepared using red soil, fine sand well decomposed cow dung or coco-pit. soil is disinfected using formalin solution and then used for growing the crops. Crops can be grown directly on the beds or in pots. VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 34

IRRIGATION METHODS There are six different methods of irrigation as follows 1) Hand watering: IRRIGATION METHODS There are six different methods of irrigation as follows 1) Hand watering: Used for potted plants using Hose pipe and shower 2) Tube Method: Advanced and used for potted plant 3) Over head Sprinklers: Advanced in which Nozzles are mounted on risers. Good for ground beds. Sprinklers can also be in suspended position above the plant 4) Drip Irrigation: Also called ‘I’ Irrigation. In this method the water is given to potted plants by drip method at desired interval 5) Mist System: This system provide the water in the form of very fine spray. The mists are produced from sprinklers fitted with nozzles having very fine nano pores 6) Polythene tubing: In this method the perforated plastic pipes are used to water the plants growing on the beds. The polythene tubing can also be used between the rows Micronutrients are given through irrigation system Pesticides are used by spray methods or through irrigation VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. 17. 09. 2010 Tekale 35

Plants used in poly house technology are : Floriculture: Roses, Orchids, Gerbera, Aster, Lilies, Plants used in poly house technology are : Floriculture: Roses, Orchids, Gerbera, Aster, Lilies, Marigold, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Anthurium etc. Vegetables: Mostly exotic such as Asparagus, Broccoli, Brussels, Sprouts, Squash (zucchini), Celery, Cherry-Tomato, Chinese cabbage, Leek, Lettuce, Parsley etc. Landscape Plants: And all types of shade loving plants or foliage plant which require minimum light for healthy growth Polyhouse is also used for growing the seedling and hardening of tissue culture plants 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 36

ECONOMICS n n Each poly house of 5 Guntha cost about 5 lacks Central ECONOMICS n n Each poly house of 5 Guntha cost about 5 lacks Central Govt. Aid is 1 lack, Subsidiary from Govt. of Maharashtra Rs. 60, 000 Bank loan Rs -3, 40, 000 Interest rate 8 % Entire cost gets recovered in first two years of production. n Erection of poly house requires minimum 3 months. 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 37

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 38

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 39

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 40

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 41

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 42

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 43

17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 44

THANK YOU! 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma THANK YOU! 17. 09. 2010 VPM's Advanced Study Centre, Thane : P. G. Diploma in Gardening & Landscape Designing : Dr. N. S. Tekale 45