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Political, Social & Economic Changes (1877 -1918) Day 3
Learning Targets • I can evaluate the impact of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system on Georgia during this period.
Learning Targets Continued. . . • I can analyze the denial of rights to African-Americans through Jim Crow law, Plessy vs. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence. • I can explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du. Bois, John and Lugenia Burns Hope, and Alonzo Herndon.
As big businesses continued to dominate America’s economy, a growing group of poor farmers and hourly wage workers demanded to be heard. . .
Populism • political idea that supported the rights of the “common” people in their struggle with the wealthy people Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists
The People’s Party • Populist Party • Grange and Farmer’s Alliance joined with unions to create People’s Party --8 Hour Workday --Graduated Income Tax --Restrictions on Immigration --Government Ownership of Railroads and Telephone and Telegraph Services --”Free” or Unlimited Coinage of Silver into Dollars --Direct Election of US Senators --Reduction of Tariffs --Australian Ballots (printed by gov’t, distributed at voting places, and collected there in sealed boxes so that the votes are kept secret)
Tom Watson • Georgia’s Best-Known Populist • Criminal Lawyer Known for His “Down-to-Earth” Style of Defense. • Member of Georgia General Assembly • Wealthy • Concerned about Georgia’s poor and struggling farmers • Concerned about African American Farmers • Elected to US House of Representatives in 1890
Rural Free Delivery (RFD) Bill • Introduced by Tom Watson • Required the US Postmaster General to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge.
Georgia’s Progressive Era Governors
Hoke Smith Worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities – white supremacist – led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote – excluded many blacks – better funding of public schools – child labor laws passed
“Little Joe” Brown Son of Civil War Governor Joseph E. Brown Defeated Hoke Smith Used the 1907 economic depression to blame Smith for Georgia’s problems. Slogan: Hoke and Hunger: Brown and Bread
Hoke Smith Re-elected NEGATIVE – He still believed in white supremacy – Supported anti-black laws – Under his leadership, the Georgia General Assembly passed a constitutional amendment that said that a person had to own property and be able to read in order to vote. – RESULT – Most African Americans and many poor whites were removed from voter rolls. POSITIVE – Railroad Commission– responsible for the regulation of gas lines, electric power companies, and trolley cars. – Public Schools – received better funding – Child Labor Laws – changed – Regulated lobbying groups and placed limits on campaign contributions
Smith-Lever Act • Created Agricultural Extension Service to teach improved farming methods
Smith-Hughes Act • helped establish vocational schools for youth
The County Unit System • 1917: Neil Primary Act created “county unit system” • Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government • Smaller counties had more county unit “votes” even though they had fewer voters • People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes • Declared unconstitutional in 1962
8 Most Populous Counties (1920) Fulton County 232, 606 Chatham County 100, 032 Bibb County 71, 304 Richmond County 63, 692 Muscogee County 44, 195 Dekalb County 44, 051 Floyd County 39, 841 Laurens County 39, 605
B u s i n e s s
Cotton States and International Exposition • 800, 000 visitors to Atlanta • Lasted 3 months (1895) • Visitors saw new machinery and learned how cotton was made into marketable products. • Showcased the economic recovery of the South (in which cotton played a large role) • Highlighted the region’s natural resources • Lured northern investors • Henry Grady was one of the principal planners
Rich’s Opened in 1867 Owner = Morris Rich Department Store Featured Atlanta’s 1 st Plate Glass Store Windows • Became the “Place to Shop in Georgia” • Took farmers’ produce in payment for merchandise • Accepted teachers’ scrip (paper money that is not legal currency) • •
Coca-Cola • Created by druggist, John Pemberton • Named Coca-Cola after its two main ingredients: coca plant and the kola nut
Alonzo Herndon • Former Slave from Social Circle • Barber and Entrepreneur • Founder and president of Atlanta Life Insurance Company. • Worked with Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du. Bois • At the time of his death in 1927, he was also Atlanta’s wealthiest black citizen, owning more property than any other African American.