Polish National Parks.pptx
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Polish National Parks
National Parks and reserves in Poland
There are 23 national parks in Poland. These were formerly run by the Polish Board of National Parks (Krajowy Zarząd Parków Narodowych), but in 2004 responsibility for them was transferred to the Ministry of the Environment. Most national parks are divided into strictly and partially protected zones. Additionally, they are usually surrounded by a protective buffer zone calledo tulina. In Poland, as amended by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 a park "covers an area of outstanding value for the environmental, scientific, social, cultural and educational, with an area of not less than 1000 ha , which is the protection of the whole nature and qualities of landscape. The national park created to preserve biodiversity, resources, objects and elements of inanimate nature and landscape values, restoring proper state of natural resources and components and reconstruct distorted nature habitats, plants , habitats of animals”
The area of national parks is divided into different areas using separate methods of conservation. There are strict protection zone, active and landscape. In areas bordering the park designated as buffer zone of the national park. The buffer zone can be formed protective zone of game animals and are non-inclusion of hunting. National parks is available to visit, but tourism can be here only in designated areas, trails, roads, paths. National Parks are funded from the central budget. They are managed by the directors, as an advisory body to the Council of the park. Until the April 30 rd, 2004 parks were supervised by the National Board of National Parks. From 1 May 2004, the duties were taken over by the Ministry of the Environment - Department of Forestry, Nature Conservation and Landscape since January 19, 2007 Independent Department for Natura 2000 areas and National Parks. After the establishment of GDOŚ and RDOŚ October 15, 2008, the task under the supervision of the Minister of the Environment of the National Parks Conservation Department completed by the Ministry of Environment. The Polish national parks carried out numerous research programs. Parks play an important role in education, ecological society. The national parks you can visit, and tourism, and they provide a well-developed infrastructure of tourism. Many of them have specially prepared trails and centers of educational and natural history museums.
m a g e Name origin Seat Area (km²) Year 1955(19 33) 1947(19 32) UNESCO status Neighboring national parks Horná Orava Protected Biosphere reserve Landscape Area, Slovakia World Heritage Belavezhskaya Site, biosphere Pushcha National reserve Park, Belarus Babia Góra National Park Babia Góra. Massif Zawoja 33. 92 Białowieża National Park Białowieża(village) and. Białowieża Forest Białowieża 105. 02  Biebrza National Park Biebrza River Osowiec 592. 23 Twierdzanear. Goniądz 1993 Biosphere reserve Bieszczady National Park Bieszczady Mountains Ustrzyki Górne 292. 01 1973 Biosphere reserve Tuchola Forest National Park Tuchola(town) and. Tuchola Forest 47. 98 1996 Gorce National Park Gorce Mountains 70. 29 1981 63. 40 1993 Stołowe Mountains National Park Stołowe Mountains Charzykowynear. Choj nice Poręba Wielka Kudowa-Zdrój Kampinos National Park Kampinos(village) and. Kampinos Forest Izabelin near. Warsaw 385. 44 1959 Biosphere reserve Karkonosze National Park Karkonosze(Giant Mountains) 55. 76 1959 Biosphere reserve Magura National Park Magura Wątkowska (mountain range) Krempna Kurowo near. Kobylin. Narew River Borzymy Ojców (village) Ojców Krościenko nad Pieniny. Mountains Dunajcem 194. 39 1995 68. 1 1996 21. 46 1954 (1932) Polesie National Park Polesie region Urszulin 97. 62 1990 Roztocze National Park Słowiński National Park Roztocze(range of hills) Slovinciantribe Święty Krzyż(Holy Cross) Mountain and theŚwiętokrzyskie Mountains Zwierzyniec 84. 83 Smołdzinonear Słupsk 186 1974 1967 Bodzentyn 76. 26 1950 Tatra National Park Tatra Mountains Zakopane 211. 64 1954 (1947) Ujście Warty National Park Confluence of the rivers. Warta and. Oder Chyrzynonear. Kostrzy n nad Odrą 80. 38 2001 Wielkopolska National Park Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region Jeziory near. Mosina 75. 84 1957 Wigry National Park Wolin National Park Wigry Lake Wolin Island 150. 86 109. 37 1989 1960 Poloniny National Park, Slovakia Narew National Park Ojców National Park Pieniny National Park Świętokrzyski National Park Jelenia Góra Krzywe Międzyzdroje 23. 46 Krkonošský NP, Czech Republic Pieninský NP, Slovakia Shatskyy NP, Biosphere reserve Ukraine Biosphere reserve Tatra National Park, Slovakia
Bieszczady National Park Bieszczadzki Park Narodowy is the third largest National Park in Poland, located in Subcarpathian Voivodeship in the extreme south-east corner of the country, bordering Slovakia and Ukraine. The Park was created in 1973. At the time it covered only 59. 55 square kilometres (22. 99 sq mi), but over the years it was enlarged four times. The last enlargements took place in 1996, when the Park incorporated the former villages of Bukowiec, Beniowa and Carynskie, and in 1999, when the former villages of Dzwiniacz, Tarnawa and Sokoliki were added. Currently it occupies an area of 292. 02 square kilometres (112. 75 sq mi), covering the highest areas of the Polish part of the Bieszczady Mountains. In 1992 the Park and its surrounding areas became part of the UNESCO East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, which has a total area of 2, 132. 11 square kilometres (823. 21 sq mi), and also includes areas in Slovakia and (since 1998) Ukraine. Forests cover about 80% of the area of the National Park. The woods are mainly natural and in some cases it can be said that they have preserved their pristine character. The highest peak in the park, Tarnica, is 1, 346 metres (4, 416 ft) above sea level. Animal life is abundant with several species of endangered animals thriving in the area, among them bears, wolves, wildcats, wild boars, beavers, otters and lynxes as well as deer, moose and European bisons (of which around 100 live in the area). The Park also contains interesting bird species, including eagles and owls, and is home to the largest Polish population of Aesculapian snakes. The area of the Park is sparsely populated (less than 1 person per km²), which means that animals can roam freely. The region is very popular among tourists, but there are not many facilities in the area. Around 70% of the Park’s area is regarded as strict preserve, which means that the use of trails is restricted. The Park’s authorities promote walking trips.
Magura National Park Magurski Park Narodowy is a National Park located in the south-east of Poland, close to Slovakia, on the boundary of. Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Subcarpathian Voivodeship. It covers the main part of the upper basin of the Wisłoka river. When the Park was created in 1995 it covered 199. 62 km², although it is now only 194. 39 km 2(75. 05 sq mi), of which 185. 31 km² is forest. The Park takes its name from the massif known as Magura Wątkowska, after Wątkowa, its highest peak. Magura is also the name of the second-highest peak of this massif. Magurski National Park’s landscape is typical of the Beskid Niski ridge and consists mainly of heavily forested low and medium peaks. Among geological curiosities the most important are the Diabli Kamień ("Devil’s Stone") and the. Kornuty reserve. The main part of the park consists of the Magura Wątkowska massif, with its highest peak Wątkowa at 847 metres (2, 779 ft) above sea level. Other significant hills are Magura (842 m), Wielka Góra (719 m) and Nad Tysowym (713 m). The Wisłoka river and its tributaries are some of the most important elements of the park. The Wisłoka is a typical mountain river, which creates picturesque ravines and frequently changes its course. Plant life is of a transitional character and reflects the park’s location - between the Eastern and Western Carpathians. The majority of the Park is forest. Spruce is not frequent here, which means that the woodland is for the most part natural. Animal life is very rich in the Park - there are 137 species of birds, including several endangered such as the eagle and eagle-owl as well as the stork. There also 35 engagered mammal species including the brown bear (they roam back and forth between Poland Slovakia), lynx, wildcat, wolf and otter. One can also find fish, snakes, salamanders and numerous insects. It is estimated that within the Park there are 200 species of endangered animals. The oldest trace of human settlement in this area are remains of a stronghold at. Brzezowa, on the Walik mountain. It was part of the system of strongholds built by the Wislanie tribe in the 9 th century on the Southern border of their lands. Also, one can find small, wooden Orthodox churches, which were built by the eastern Slavic Lemkos. Unfortunately, some of these buildings are ruined. In one of the farmers’ huts, at the village of Kolonia Olchowiec, there is a small, private museum of Lemko culture. There also numerous cemeteries from World War I, as this area was for a long time a battleground between the Russian and Austro-German armies. A tragic reminder of World War II is the cemetery of 1250 Jews, who were killed by the Nazis in 1942 at the Halbów pass. The Park has its headquarters in the village of Krempna.
Pieniny National Park Pieniński Park Narodowy is a protected area located in the heart of Pieniny Mountains in the southernmost part of Poland. Administratively, the Park lies in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship on the border with Slovakia. Its head office is in Krościenko nad Dunajcem. The Pieniny mountain chain is divided into three ranges: Pieniny Spiskie, Małe Pieniny and the Pieniny Właściwe range where the Park is located. The Park’s area is 23. 46 square kilometres (9. 06 sq mi), of which 13. 11 km² is forested. One-third (7. 5 km²) is strictly protected. On the Slovak side of the mountains there is a parallel park called the Pieninský národný park. The idea for the creation of the National Park in Pieniny comes from prof. Władysław Szafer, a member of the National Commission for the Preservation of Nature (Polish: Państwowa Komisja Ochrony Przyrody) in 1921. In the same year a private preserve on the area of 75, 000 m² was opened by S. Drohojowski around the ruins of the Czorsztyn castle. In 1928 the Polish government made first land purchases and on May 23, 1932 the Ministry of Agriculture created a “National Park in the Pieniny”, on the area of 7. 36 km². After the World War II, the decision was confirmed by the Oct 30, 1954 bill, which officially created Pieniny National Park.
Tatra National Park Tatrzański Park Narodowy; abbr. TPN) is a. National Park located in the Tatra Mountains in Tatra County, in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship—Małopolska region, in central-southern Polandbordering on northern Slovakia.  The Park has its headquarters in the town of Zakopane. There is a similar national park in the neighbouring part of Slovakia, also called the Tatra National Park Tatranský národný park. The first calls for protection of the Tatras came at the end of the 19 th century. In 1925 the first efforts to create a national park, in cooperation with Slovakia, took place. Formally the park was created in 1937, on an area that belonged to the state forests authority. In 1954, by decision of the Polish Government, Tatra National Park was created. It was established originally with an area of 215. 56 km 2 (83. 23 sq mi), but it is currently slightly smaller, at 211. 64 km 2 (81. 71 sq mi). Of this, 151. 91 km 2 (58. 65 sq mi) is forest and the remainder mainly meadows. Strictly protected zones account for 115. 14 km 2 (44. 46 sq mi), of which 61. 49 km 2(23. 74 sq mi) are forest ecosystems. Mountains of The National Park covers one of the two Alpine mountain ranges in Poland. The Polish Tatra range, which is a part of the Western Carpathian Mountains, is divided into two sections: the High Tatras (Tatry Wysokie) and the Western Tatras (Tatry Zachodnie). The landscape consists of sharp-edged peaks and hollows with numerous rock formations.  The highest peak in Poland, Rysy (2, 499 metres (8, 199 ft) AMSL), is located here. There around 650 caves in the park, of which the Wielka Sniezna cave system is the longest (18 kilometres (11 mi)), and the deepest (maximum depth 814 metres (2, 671 ft)). Six caves of this system are open to public. There are several streams, the longest stream reaching 20 kilometres (12 mi). Waterfalls, such as Wodogrzmoty Mickiewiczaare popular with tourists. The highest waterfall is Wielka Siklawa at 70 metres (230 ft)).
The park has over 30 mountain lakes, called staw (Polish: pond). These water bodies are an important part of the High Tatra landscape. The largest lakes are: Morskie Oko with an area of 349, 000 m² and maximum depth of 50. 8 metres (167 ft)); and Wielki Staw with an area of 344, 000 m² and maximum depth of 79. 3 metres (260 ft)). • Up to 1, 250 metres (4, 100 ft) there are mainly Silver fir (Abies alba) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. Higher levels, up to 1, 550 metres (5, 090 ft spruce (Picea abies) forests, which turn into meadows andgrasslands at higher elevations up to 1, 800 metres (5, 900 ft). The highest elevations, above 1, 800 metres (5, 900 ft), have ofalpine flora habitats. • Other typical species include Swiss pine (Pinus cembra), Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum), and Stemless carline thistle(Carlina acaulis). Spring in the Kościeliska Valley is notable for the fields of Giant crocus (Crocus vernus, syn: Crocus scepusiensis). The National Park contains several endemic fauna species, and many endangered and protected ones. Animals include: the. Tatra chamois and marmot, both protected since the mid-19 th century; brown bear, Eurasian lynx, Gray wolf, European otter, Lesser Spotted Eagle, and falcon. • The Podhale region of the Tatras is home to the Górales or the Goral (highland) people. Distinctive elements of their culture include the Podhale dialect (language), music, and traditional artisan customs such as clothes, wooden vernacular architecture, cheesemaking, and craft works. The historic Górale culture was traditionally passed on in oral stories. • The area of the Tatra mountains was exploited by human activities in the past. During summer numerous herds of animals (such as goats, sheep, and cows) pastured on the meadows and these practices caused erosion processes. In the 18 th and 19 th centuries several mines and ironworks were built here, industries that used substantial harvests of local timber. • Current environmental threats include: the proximity of the fast-developing town of Zakopane; and air pollution from the industrial zones in Kraków, Ostrava, and Orava. Fauna is threatened by poachers and habitat loss. • The high number of tourists is the largest threat to Park’s ecosystem currently. Also, the infrastructure, such as hotels and car parks, is not sufficient for the current volume of visitors. [Tourism was first developed in the Tatras in the late 19 th century, and continues in the 21 st. It the most visited of the national parks in Poland. • There are more than 270 kilometres (170 mi) of hiking trails in Tatra National Park.  •
Gorce National Park Gorczański Park Narodowy is a national parkin Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland. It covers central and northeastern parts of the Gorce Mountains, which are part of the Western Beskids (at the western end of the Carpathian range). The first steps to protect this land go back to 1927, when a forest reserve was set up on land owned by Count Ludwik Wodzicki of Poręba Wielka. The National Park was created in 1981, then covering 23. 9 square kilometres. Today, the area of the park has grown to 70. 3 km 2 (27. 1 sq mi), of which 65. 91 km² is forested. The area of the protective zone around the park is 166. 47 km². The park lies within Limanowa County and Nowy Targ County, and has its headquarters in Poręba Wielka. The Gorce range is dominated by arched peaks and river valleys which cut into the range. There a few small caves and obviously - several peaks such as Turbacz (the highest - 1310 meters above sea level), Jaworzyna Kamienicka, Kiczora, Kudłoń, Czoło Turbacza and Gorc Kamienicki. Waters cover only 0. 18 km² of park’s area - there are no lakes or big rivers, only streams. In the whole Gorce range there are hundreds of species of plants, including Alpine and Subalpine plants, which grow on openings. Forests cover about 95% of park’s area and most common species are spruce, beech and fir. There are some openings which are mostly the result of human activity. First settlers appeared in the Gorce area in the 14 th century but Gorce’s forests suffered most in the 19 th century. Back then, trees were cut down on a large scale, especially in easily accessible areas. Animal life is abundant and it includes over 90 species of breeding birds and almost fifty (50) mammal species including lynx, wolf and bear. Also there are frogs, snakes and salamanders (the latter, a rare fire salamander, is the symbol of the Park).  Gorce area contains several examples of folk architecture. The most important building is a unique chapel located on the Jaworzyna Kamienicka opening, which was built in 1904 by Tomasz Chlipała. He was a famous Gorce’s folk wizard and there a great many legends associated with him. The park's landscape is of a natural character which means that traces of human activities are rare. Number of tourists visiting it is not high and the park as such is a haven for nature lovers. Location of Gorce peaks make it
Babia Góra National Park • • • Babiogórski Park Narodowy)is one of the 23 national parks in Poland, located in the southern part of the country, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, on the border with Slovakia. The Park has its headquarters in the village of Zawoja. The park covers an area of 33. 92 square kilometres (13. 10 sq mi), of whichforests occupy 31. 98 km 2 (12. 35 sq mi). The park includes the northern and part of the southern side of the Babia Góra massif, of which the main peak (also known as Diablak) is the highest point of the Orava Beskids mountain range at 1, 725 metres (5, 659 ft). There is a protected area Horná Orava Protected Landscape Area on the Slovakian side of the massif. The area of Babia Góra was first brought under legal protection in 1933, when the Babia Góra Reserve was created. On October 30, 1954 it was designated a National Park. Since 1976 it has been listed by UNESCO as abiosphere reserve under the Man and the Biosphere (Ma. B) programme. The area of the biosphere reserve was extended in 2001. 105 species of birds (including woodpeckers and eagle owls) Animals such as deer, lynx, wolves and bears Insects, especially beetles, including some that are unique to the area
The Stołowe Mountains National Park Narodowy Gór Stołowych includes the Polish section of the Stołowe Mountains (Góry Stołowe), also known as Table Mountains, which are part of the Sudetes range. It is located in south-western Poland, in. Kłodzko County in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, near the border with the. Czech Republic. Created in 1993, the Park covers an area of 63. 39 square kilometres (24. 48 sq mi), of which forests accounts for 57. 79 km². The area of strict protection is 3. 76 km². The Stołowe Mountains landscape started to form 70 million years ago. The range’s unique shape is a result of hundreds of thousands of years oferosion. There are several notable rock formations, among them Kwoka("Hen"), Wielblad ("Camel") and Glowa wielkoluda ("Giant’s head"). Also, there is a sophisticated system of corridors which creates rock labyrinths. Currently plant life is mostly made up of spruce, which was introduced to the area on the turn of the 19 th century to replace pristine beech and fir forests, which had been cut. Natural woodland is scarce and covers only around 3% of the forested areas. There are peat bogs, one of which (area 393, 000 m²) was listed as a strictly protected area in 1959. In the forested areas of the park there are deer, red deer, wild pig, squirrels, hedgehogs, many birds and reptiles including lizards and adders. The history of the Stołowe Mountains is closely connected with the history of the Kłodzko region, located on the borderland of Silesia, Bohemia and. Moravia. After Hussite wars of the 14 th and 15 th century, the area thrived and later on first spas at Kudowa, Duszniki and Polanica were opened. Duszniki is also a
The Karkonosze National Park Karkonoski Park Narodowy) is a National Park in the Karkonosze (Czech: Krkonoše) Mountains in southwestern Poland, along the border with the Czech Republic.  The park is located in Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in the highest part of the Sudetes. It was created in 1959 to cover an area of 55. 10 km². Today it is slightly larger at 55. 76 km 2 of which 17. 18 km² is strictly protected. The majority of the park area, around 33. 80 km², consists of forests. In 1992 Karkonosze National Park, together with the neighbouring Czech National Park, became part of the Krkonose / Karkonosze biosphere reserve under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (Ma. B) programme. Also, 40 hectares of peat bogs were designated a Ramsar international wetland site. The Karkonosze Mountains are the highest range of the much broader Sudetes mountains stretching horisontally from south-western Poland along the northern border of the Czech Republic to eastern Germany. Its highest peak is Śnieżka at 1, 602 metres (5, 256 ft) above sea level, forming a triangle with (similarly sounding) Śnieżnik, 1, 424 metres (4, 672 ft), as well as Ślęża peak, further apart. They are connected by a red hiking trail only for qualified tourists. Śnieżka is unique in its rounded, treeless cap, which stands in sharp contrast to other, lower peaks. The Karkonosze Mountains are situated on the division of the European water system between the basins of two major rivers – the Elbe and the Oder – which means that it also separates the basins of the Baltic Sea and North Sea. Many of the Karkonosze’s streams come down the hills, creating waterfalls, the largest of which in the Polish part of the mountains (300 m) is created by the Łomniczka stream.
There about 100 various birds living in the park, the most numerous of animal species living there. In the higher parts of the mountains there are fewer species of them; in the lower levels there are 100 varieties, but in the peaks there are not more than 10. The park has four species of fish, six species of amphibians, and five species of reptiles. The park's attraction are mouflons, brought here at the beginning of the 20 th century. Karkonosze National Park is visited by more than 1. 5 million tourists yearly. They can use 112 kilometres of walking paths, 10 ski lifts and 12 guest houses. The Park has its headquarters in the town of Jelenia Góra.
Ojców National Park Ojcowski Park Narodowy is a national park in. Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, established in 1956. It takes its name from the village of Ojców, where it also has its headquarters. It is Poland's smallest national park, with an original area of 14. 40 square kilometers (5. 56 sq mi), since expanded to 21. 46 km 2 (8. 29 sq mi). Of this area, 15. 28 km 2 (5. 90 sq mi) is forested and 2. 51 km 2 (0. 97 sq mi) is strictly protected. The park is approximately 16 kilometers (10 mi) north of Kraków, in the Jurassic Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. Karst topography of soluble bedrock characterizes the park, which in addition to two river (the Prądnik and Saspówka) valleys contains numerous limestone cliffs, ravines, and over 400 caves. The largest of these, Łokietek's Cave (said to have sheltered King Władysław I Łokietek, for whom it was named), is 320 meters (1, 050 ft) deep. The area is also noted for its rock formations, the most famous being Hercules' Club, a 25 -meter (82 ft)-high limestone column. Ojcowski Park is very biodiverse; over 5500 species reside in the park. These include 4600 species of insects (including 1700 of beetles and 1075 of butterflies) and 135 of birds. Mammals includethe beaver, badger, ermine, and 15 species of bats, many of which hibernate in the park's caves during the winter. The earliest settlement in the area dates to the Paleolithic, approximately 120, 000 years ago. The Ojców region is rich in flint, which attracted early humans. The park contains numerous castles, including a ruined Gothic castle at Ojców and a better-preserved Renaissance castle at Pieskowa Skała, both of which were part of a late-medieval system of defenses in southwestern Poland, known as the Trail of the Eagles' Nests constructed by the order of. King of Poland, Kazimierz the Great. There are two museums in the park, the Professor Władyslaw Szafer Museum (named for the first person to advocate the creation of a national park in the Ojców area), and a branch of the Kraków-based National Art Collection, located in the Pieskowa Skała castle.
The Pieniny mountains are mainly built from limestone and they create picturesque and impressive, almost perpendicular walls which go down towards the Dunajec River. The most famous summit - Trzy Korony (Three Crowns) is 982 meters above sea level high, however Pieniny’s highest mountain Wysokie Skałki - is 1050 meters above sea level and is not located on the Park’s area. Pieniny National Park is located in the Dunajec river basin, and the river occupies important position among factors that influence Pieniny’s look. Even though the Park is small in size, on its area thrive hundreds of species of plants, including 640 kinds of mushrooms. Sometimes, on the same rock, grow plants with opposite means of survival. Park’s meadows, which are the result of human activity, are some of the richest plant ecosystems of Poland (30 to 40 species of flowers for every square meter). So far around 6500 animal species have been proven to live in the Pieniny. It is supposed that the area is even more abundant - with up to 15 000 species. There are numerous birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians as well as mammals. The most important predator is the lynx. On the shores of the Dunajec the otter thrives. First permanent human settlements in the Pieniny mountains date back to 1257, when Polish princess Kinga was given nearby lands. In 1280 the princess founded a monastery at Stary Sącz, later the Czorsztyn castle was built. This castle belonged to Poland, on the southern side of the Dunajec valley, the Hungarians built their own, then called Dunajec (today it belongs to Poland its name is Niedzica). The Dunajec valley in 1997 was flooded by water, as a result of construction of a river dam. There are 34 kilometres of tourist walking trails in the park, from such peaks as Sokolica and Trzy Korony one can have excellent view on the Pieniny and the Tatra mountains as well as the Dunajec. The Park’s main attraction is a river trip on wooden boats, very popular among all tourists.
Świętokrzyski National Park Świętokrzyski Park Narodowy) is a. National Park in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship in central Poland. It covers the highest ridge of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains – the Łysogory – with its two highest peaks: Łysica at 612 metres (2, 008 ft) and Łysa Góra ("bald mountain") at 595 m (1, 952 ft). It also covers the eastern part of the Klonowski Ridge and part of the Pokrzywianski Ridge. The Park has its headquarters in Bodzentyn. The history of efforts to protect this part of Poland dates back to the times before World War I. In 1921 a first forest reserve in the Swiętokrzyskie mountains was created - this was Józef Kostyrko’s reserve on Chełmowa Góra (1. 63 km²). The following year, two parts of the Łysogory with total area of 3. 11 km² also became protected. In 1932 the area of the reserve was officially expanded to 13. 47 km², but the National Park was not created until 1950. Its initial area was 60. 54 km², but it has since expanded to 76. 26 square kilometres (29. 44 sq mi), of which 72. 12 km² is forested. There are five strictly protected zones with a total area of 17. 31 km². The Swiętokrzyskie are the oldest mountains in Poland, dating back 400– 520 million years. Their present appearance was created by movements of the Earth around 300 million years ago. Long ago there was sea here and much evidence of rich life forms was preserved in the rocks, including fossil traces of animals and plants. Around two million years ago the range was covered by a glacier. The Park is famous for its trees, of which 674 are regarded as monuments of nature and as such are under protection. Park’s authorities successfully managed to reintroduce yew trees here - now there around 1300 of them. Most of Park’s area is forested, mainly with pines and beeches. Fir trees are less numerous as well as forests of mixed oak-fir character. Among the Park’s curiosities we must emphasize the endemic, unique only for this area, fir wilderness and areas of Polish larch on Chełmowa Góra. Park’s fauna is represented by more than 4000 species of invertebrates and 210 species of vertebrae (including 187 protected). One of local animal’s life most precious features is the fact that many of species are of mountainous kind. These usually thrive in the strictly protected areas and deep in the forests. Apart from nature, the Park and its vicinity has a lot more to offer. There are several important architectural relics, most of which of sacral character. The most precious is the Benedictine Holy Cross Abbey from the first half of the 12 th century, located on the peak of Łysa Góra. It is probable that here the oldest example of Polish writing was created - Kazania Świętoktrzyskie (Holy Cross Sermons). An interesting feature of the local landscape is the numerous roadside chapels. Other fine examples of architecture are situated beyond the Park’s limits. These are: female monastery at Św. Katarzyna(1633), churches at Bielice[disambiguation needed] (17 th century)
Roztocze National Park Roztoczański Park Narodowy is a. National Park located in eastern Poland, in Lublin Voivodeship. It protects the most valuable natural areas of the middle part of the Roztocze range. The Park was created in 1974 and initially covered area of 48. 01 km². Its current size is 84. 83 km 2 (32. 75 sq mi), of which forests occupy 81. 02 km², and strictly protected areas 8. 06 km². The Park has its headquarters in Zwierzyniec. The beginnings of nature protection in the region date back to 1934, when the Bukowa Góra Preserve was created (now it is a strictly protected area). In 1938, for the first time in Poland, a bill was issued which stated that prey birds on the area of the Zamoyski family estate were protected. The Park itself was created from State Forests of Districts of Kosobudy and. Zwierzyniec, which had belonged to the Zamoyski family estate. The Park is located in a picturesque Roztocze Środkowe Region, in the upper Wieprz river valley. These parts separate Lublin Upland (Polish: Wyżyna Lubelska) from Sandomierz Dale (Polish: Kotlina Sandomierska). Water of the main river running through the Park - the Wieprz - is of the second class of purity. There also two streams which originate in here: the Szum (2. 5 km) and the Świerszcz (7. 5 km). It must be mentioned that Roztoczański National Park boasts unique tree formations. There are more than 400 socalled "nature monument" trees and the Park’s firs are among the largest in Poland (up to 50 meters in height). Among mammals living in the Park are: red deer, roe deer, boar, red fox, grey wolf andeurasian badger. In 1979 European beaver was reintroduced and now colonies of the mammal thrive in the Wieprz valley. In 1982 Polish ponies were brought here. Also, there have been registered around 190 species of birds, including eagles, storks and woodpeckers. Reptiles are represented by lizards, the common european adder andgrass snakes as well as endangered European pond terrapin. Also insect fauna is interesting, with more than 2000 species. The history of this area is closely connected with the Zamoyski family estate, which was founded in 1589. The Estate’s headquarters were placed at Zwierzyniec, and the Park’s management today is located in the restored house of the former Estate’s administrator. Tourists have a choice of five walking trails as well as a bicycle trail. The area of the Park
Polesie National Park Poleski Park Narodowy is a National Park in. Lublin Voivodeship, eastern Poland, in the Polish part of the historical region of Polesie. Created in 1990 over, it covers a number of former peat-bog preserves: Durne Bagno, Jezioro Moszne, Jezioro Długie, Torfowisko Orłowskie. In 1994 its size was augmented by the addition of Bagno Bubnów, a swampy terrain adjacent to the park. Currently, the park occupies 97. 62 km 2 (37. 69 sq mi), of which forests make up 47. 8 km², and water and wastelands 20. 9 km². The idea of creating a National Park in the Polish part of Polesie first appeared in 1959. Over the following years a few preserves were organized here, and in 1982 the government announced the creation of Poleski Park Krajobrazowy (Polesie Landscape Park). Currently, even though Polesie’s infrastructure is quite well developed, it is rarely visited by tourists. In the village of Załucze Stare there is a cultural center with a museum. The National Park and neighbouring areas form the West Polesie biosphere reserve, designated by UNESCO in 2002. The Shatsky National Natural Parkis adjacent on the Ukrainian side of the border. The Park is also protected under the Ramsar convention as an important wetland site. The park lies on the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland (Pojezierze Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie). In the south it borders the Lublin Upland, in the north the region of Podlaskie, and in the west Masovia. Parts of its forests can be considered as tundra-like, which is unique in continental Europe and characteristic of Russian Siberia. The park’s terrain is flat, with numerous lakes and peat-bogs. Of the plant species, the greater part is made up of boreal plants, typical of other parts of northern Europe, but there is also some Atlantic flora, as it lies on the border of these important plant regions. The region which is particularly rich with flora is the Bagno Bubnów. Animal life is abundant, including 21 species of fish, 12 species of amphibians, 6 species of reptiles and up to 150 species of birds (including several endangered eagles). Out of 35 species of mammals, one can point out otters, elks, beavers and bats. The ecosystems of swamps and peat-bogs, which dominate the park’s landscape, are considered very delicate and can easily be influenced by several outside factors. Some unfortunate changes were made by draining swamps, which took place years ago. However, the most important threat to the life of the park is its proximity to the Lublin Coal Basin, which is located less than 2 kilometers from the park’s protective zone.
Kampinos National Park Kampinoski Park Narodowy is a National Park in east-central Poland, in Masovian Voivodeship, on the north-west outskirts of Warsaw. It has a sister park agreement with Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana, United States. The idea of creating a park here appeared for the first time in the 1920 s. In the 1930 s the first forest reserves were opened. Today, these reserves are much larger and are strictly protected. The park was created in 1959, covering a total area of 407 square kilometres. It covers the ancient Kampinos Forest (Puszcza Kampinoska), and in January 2000 the area was added to UNESCO’s list ofbiosphere reserves. The Park is now slightly smaller than originally, covering 385. 44 square kilometres (148. 82 sq mi), of which 46. 38 km² is strictly protected. The protective zone around the Park covers 377. 56 km². Forests account for around 70% of the park’s area, and most the common tree is the pine. The Park’s symbol is the moose. Kampinoski National Park is located at the biggest river junction in Poland - here valleys of Vistula, Bug, Narew, Wkra and Bzura meet together. There are no lakes, the biggest river of the Park is the Łasica, a tributary to the Bzura, which acts as a water canal. Park’s flora is rich with around 1245 species of plants, of which 69 are protected. Park’s landscape is a mix of sand dunes and swamp lands with pine trees growing on sand meadows on swamps. The Park, together with nearby valley of the Vistula, is an important thriving area of many animals. According to biologists, there are 16, 000 species of animals, of which the most numerous are insects (2 030 species) and birds (200 species). Park’s experts are experienced in the field of reintroducing several animals moose (since 1951), beaver (since 1980) and lynx (since 1992). 83 species of animals are regarded as endangered. The park’s area has rich history, here many important events connected with Polish history took place. Reminders of past are numerous and include tombs of insurrectionists from 1863 anti-Russian uprising, war cemeteries from Polish. German war of 1939 and tombs of members of anti-German resistance (1944– 45). At the Palmiry cemetery lay many inhabitants of Warsaw, secretly killed here by the Germans in the years 1939 -1945. At Żelazowa Wola on the outskits of the Park there is a manor house where famous composer Frédéric Chopin was born. Tourists are welcome on Park’s walking, cycling and skiing trails. One can also rent a horse and ride on trails whose total length is around 360 kilometers. Cycling
Wielkopolska National Park Wielkopolski Park Narodowy is a. National Park within the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region of westcentral. Poland, approximately 15 km south of the regional capital, Poznań. Together with the protective zone around it, it includes part of the Poznań Lakeland (Pojezierze Poznańskie) and parts of Poznań’s Warta Gorge (Poznański Przełom Warty). The Park has its headquarters in the village of Jeziory. Created in 1957 on an area of 52. 44 km 2 (20 sq mi), the Park currently covers 75. 84 km 2 (29 sq mi), of which over half (46. 17 km²) is forested. Waters (mainly small lakes) cover 4. 62 km 2 (2 sq mi), and other types of land 25. 05 km 2 (10 sq mi). The Park contains 18 strictly protected areas. The idea of creating a preserve here was first raised by Professor A. Wodziczko in 1922. After 10 years of efforts, in 1932 two reserves were created: the first at Puszczykowo (original area 2. 39 km²), and the second around Kociołek lake (1. 89 km²). In 1933 on the hill of Osowa Góra a symbolic opening of the Wielkopolska National Park took place, however the Park was not officially created until 1957. Góreckie Lake The landscape of the Park was strongly influenced by a glacier, which covered this area 70 -10 thousand years ago. It is mainly flat - its highest hill - Osowa Góra, reaches only 132 m (433 ft) above sea level. The Park is split by several tunnel-valley lakes, which were created by the glacier. Among them there is one regarded as the most beautiful -Góreckie Lake, with two islands. Of other interesting land formations, one must emphasize numerous, round hills as well as long, narrow hills which resemble rail mounds. Also, there are huge rocks, the biggest of which - Głaz Leśników, is regarded as a nature’s monument and as such is protected. The main element of Park’s flora are species of Euro-Syberian kind, like pine (making up 70% of Park’s forests) as well as other forest plants. Soil here is of poor quality, only around waters it is better which enables plant life there to be more heterogeneous. Unique in its character is Skrzynka Lake, which is partly covered by a thick layer of peat-bogs.
Park’s fauna is characterized by richness of kinds, the best represented are insects with more than 3 thousand species. Forests are full of beets, also very rich is the world of spiders. In lakes, there are several fish - trout, pike and eel. In Park thrive all kinds of amphibians which can be met on Polish plains and 5 species of reptiles, including lizards and grass-snake. Also, there around 190 species of birds, with black woodpecker and buzzard. Mammals are represented by 40 species, with numerous kinds of bats. Among most precious monuments there are: a wooden church in Łódź (17 th century), churches in Komorniki, Puszczykowo, Stęszew and Wiry. At Szreniawaand at Trzebaw there are 19 th-century manor houses. Interesting relic are ruins of a castle built in 1827 by Tytus Działyński on the Zamkowa Island on Góreckie Lake. The Park is visited by more than a million tourists a year. It is crossed by 7 tourist trails and the richness of its fauna and flora is presented in Ośrodek Muzealno-Dydaktyczny Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego (Wielkopolska National Park Museum and Educational Center) in Jeziory.
Białowieża National Park Białowieski Park Narodowy is a National Park in Podlaskie Voivodeship, northeastern Poland adjacent with the border with Belarus. The total area of the park is 152. 2 square kilometres (58. 8 sq mi). It is located 62 km (39 mi) southeast of Białystok (Poland). It is known for the protection of the best preserved part of the Białowieża Forest, Europe's last temperate primaeval forest fragment that once stretched across the European Plain. It is home to the world's largest population of. European bison (Polish: żubr), the continent's heaviest land animals. [ The border between the two countries runs through the forest, the Belovezhskaya Pushcha National Park is adjacent on the Belarus side of the border. There is a border crossing for hikers and cyclists within the forest. The park's formal beginning was the Forest Reserve inspectorate (Polish: Rezerwat) established in 1921. The inspectorate was transformed into the National Park in Białowieża on 11 August 1932 by the Second Polish Republic. After World War II, the forest was divided between the People's Republic of Poland the Belarusian SSR of the Soviet Union. The People's Republic of Poland reopened the Białowieża National Park in 1947. The park headquarters is in Białowieża. Currently, the park consists of three administrative units: The Protective Orłówka Precinct, the Conservation District Hwoźna and the Bison Breeding Centre (with three reserves, breeding and demonstration Bison Reserve). Orłówka Protective Unit with an area of 5073. 21 ha, out of which 4784. 46 ha is under strict protection, 235. 48 ha under active protection and 53. 27 ha under landscape protection. The area is subdivided into two protective districts : Sierchanowo (area of 2303, 24 ha) and Dziedzinka (area of 2769. 97 ha. Hwoźna Protective Unit with an area of 5169, 50 ha, out of which 941. 64 ha is under strict protection, 4203. 68 ha is under active protection, and 24. 18 ha is under landscape protection. The area is subdivided into four protective districts : Cupryki (area of 1243. 17 ha), Gruszki (area of 1426, 52 ha), Masiewo (area of 1120. 29 ha) and Zamosze (area of 1379. 52 ha). The European bison Breeding Centre with an area of 274, 56 ha is under landscape protection. The area comprises three breeding reserves and a European bison Show Reserve. The duties of the personnel of European bison Breeding Centre covers the breeding of European bison inhabiting in all of the Polish part of the Białowieża Forest. The idea of creating a national park locally is about 200 years old. However, the genuine protection efforts which are being continued today are centuries older.
• Often called the "last untouched wilderness of Europe", the Białowieża National Park is the only one of its kind among the 23 national parks of Poland. Its inner zone belongs to the realm of oldgrowth forest which has been living without much human intervention for almost 800 years. Only scientists can navigate the strictly protected area freely. Each group of tourists is limited to no more than 20 people, and the presence of an official guide is mandatory. Classic road tour leads through the southern part of the reserve area, totalling 4, 747 hectares. [ • The headquarters are located at the. Białowieża village in the Museum of Nature and Forest of the Białowieża National Park. The complex, built in the 1960, occupies the place of the former palace of Polish King Augustus III, which was destroyed by the Soviet Army in July 1944. Above the roof of the museum, there is an observation tower available for tourists during the opening hours. The exhibition presents the local species of plants and animals shown through displays, but also through multimedia exhibits with the use of lighting and sound. Particularly commendable is the exhibit devoted to birds. Almost all living species in the region can be heard in audio recordings. Guides in foreign languages are available with additional fee. The waiting time for a group tour is no longer than 15 minutes. [ In almost every room of the museum there are computers with information on the subject in different languages. However, the tour-guides are also likely to repeat the same information for their listeners. All exhibits in the museum have been prepared professionally by scientists, with general public in mind, and therefore are recommended for visitors of all ages.  At the turn of the 20 th century during the Russian Partition of Poland a Palace Park (Polish: Park Pałacowy) was founded around the so-called Tsar's Palace in Białowieża. At the park, is a historic manor house from 1845 that has been refurbished. At present, it serves as the Centre for Nature Education.  • •
Narew National Park Narwiański Park Narodowy is a National Parkin Podlaskie Voivodeship, northeastern Poland, created in 1996. The park is a 35 kilometres (22 mi) section of the Narew River. It is a swampy valley with moraine hills typical of a braided river. Depending on the season and the level of the water table, several riparian area ecosystems are available including swamps, tussocks with surrounding Black Alder (Latin: Alnus glutinosa) and White Willow (Latin: Salix alba) forested areas. The total area of the Park is 73. 5 square kilometres (28. 4 sq mi), of which only 20. 57 square kilometres (7. 94 sq mi) is state-owned, the balance being privately held. The park covers the Upper Narew Valley, a swampy area between the towns of Suraz and Rzedziany. Around 90% of Park’s area are either swamps or waters with the Narew as the main river, which splits in the area into many river beds, but also numerous smaller rivers, such as Liza, Szeroka Struga etc. The Park’s landscape is predominantly made up by many varieties of marshes, reed beds, and there also meadows and forests. The Narew Valley is a haven for birds - there are 179 species of them, including those unique for the area. Mammals are represented by around 40 species, among them some elk and otter as well as numerous beavers - around 260 of them. The Park’s waters are full of fish - 22 species - as well as amphibians. The Park is a wetland site protected under the Ramsar convention. Cultural attractions of the Park are mostly represented by buildings such as numerous traditional village huts, ancient crosses by the roads and windmills. One of the Park’s attractions is a private archaeological museum, owned by Władysław Litwinczuk. The Park also includes an antique manor house at Kurów. The Park has its headquarters in the village of Kurowo. Its buffer zone includes a less strictly protected area called Narew Landscape Park
Biebrza National Park Biebrzański Park Narodowy is a national park in Podlaskie Voivodeship, northeastern Poland, situated along the. Biebrza River. The largest of Poland’s 23 National Parks, the Biebrza National Park was created on September 9, 1993. Its total area is 592. 23 km 2 (228. 66 sq mi), of which forests cover 155. 47 km², fields and meadows covering 181. 82 km² and marshes with an area of 254. 94 km². Biebrza NP headquarters in. Osowiec-Twierdza The Biebrza Marshes are the most precious part of the park. Biebrza National Park protects vast and relatively untouched fenlands with a unique variety of several communities of plants, rare wetland birds and mammals such as Elk and. Beaver and other animals. The Biebrza wetlands as well as the Narew River valleys are very important centres for birds’ nesting, feeding and resting. In 1995 the park was designated as a wetland site of worldwide significance and is under the protection of the Ramsar Convention. The most important part of the Park is Red arsh (Polish: Rezerwat przyrody Czerwone Bagno), which is under strict protection. The park's headquarters is located in Osowiec-Twierdza 8 village, within the grounds of the historic Osowiec Fortress from the 19 th century, near Goniądz.
Bory Tucholskie National Park Narodowy "Bory Tucholskie" is a national park , created on July 1, 1996. It covers an area of 46. 13 square kilometres (17. 81 sq mi) of forests, lakes, meadows and peatlands. The Park is located in the northern part of Poland, in Chojnice County in Pomeranian Voivodeship, in the heart of the Tuchola Forest, the largest woodland in Poland. It is surrounded by a larger protected areacalled Zaborski Landscape Park. The Park forms the core of the Tuchola Forest Biosphere Reserve, designated by UNESCO in 2010. The first proposal stipulated that the national park would cover 130 square kilometres, but after numerous discussions with local authorities it was decided that the borders would cover only the area of the so-called Seven Lakes Stream (Struga Siedmiu Jezior). The land incorporated into the national park belonged to the state, not to private individuals. Forests, meadows and peatlands had previously been part of Forest Preserve Rytel and the lakes had been administered by the State Agency of Agricultural Land. The area of the Tuchola Forest was shaped by the Scandinavian Glacier; for the most part, it is covered by sandy plains. These plains are diversified by numerous dunes and lakes. The lakes are long and narrow, creating long channels, of which the longest is 17 km. The soil in the park is of poor quality.
There are more than 20 lakes in the Park, some of them are pristine, of crystal-clear waters (e. g. Gacno Wielkie and Male, Nierybno, Gluche). Numerous species (around 25) of fish can be found here as well as European beaver. The national park is a heaven for birds - there are 144 species of them, including crane and eagle owl. The symbol of the Park - wood grouse - until recently was common in the area, especially in the Forest District of Klosnowo. Now, authorities of the national park, plan to reintroduce this bird. A particularly important part of fauna are bats - several species of them thrive in the Park. Most important tourist centers of Tuchola Forest are located by the Charzykowskieand Karsinskie lakes. In recent years agro-tourism has become popular - e. g. in the village of Swornegacie. The Brda river is a kayaking trail. Charzykowy is famous as the birthplace of Polish inland yachting. Lake Charzykowy offers good yachting conditions, both in summer and in winter. There are several bicycle trails which let tourists get acquainted with Tuchola Forest's attractions. Moreover, the Tuchola Forest is crossed by numerous walking trails - among them the Kaszubski Trail from Chojnice to Wiela.
Drawa National Park Drawieński Park Narodowy is located in north-western Poland, on the border of Greater Poland, Lubusz and West Pomeranian Voivodeships. The park is a part of the huge Drawsko Forest (Puszcza Drawska), which lies on the vast Drawsko Plain. It takes its name from the River Drawa. It was created in 1990 and initially covered 86. 91 km². Later, it was enlarged to 113. 42 square kilometres (43. 79 sq mi) of which forests account for 96. 14 km² (3. 68 km² is designated as a strictly protected area), and water bodies cover 9. 37 km². Although the park is located on Drawsk Plain, it does not necessarily mean that it is flat. There are picturesque and deep valleys of the Drawa and Plociczna rivers as well as numerous water channels, lakes and peat-bogs. In some places the height can vary by 30 meters within 500 meters. This is quite remarkable for a plain. The highest hill (106 m) is located near the Martew lake, in northern part of the Park. The soil in the park is of poor quality and it mainly consists of sand. . One of main reasons for the creation of the park was the need for to protect valuable areas along the Drawa and Plocziczna rivers. The Drawa creates interesting valleys and hollows and 40 km of the river is within the borders of the park. The river flows at a quite fast pace, which makes it similar to rivers located in mountains. The Drawa kayaking trail is one of the most picturesque in Poland. Lakes include the meromictic lake Czarne (3. 7 km²). There are several interesting species of flora in Drawski National Park, among them 210 species of mushrooms, and up to 400 years old oak trees. The oldest trees are strictly protected in the Radecin Preserve. Trees older than 81 years old cover 40% of the forested area of the park. Drawa National Park near Węgornia There are 129 species of birds, 40 species of mammals, 7 species of reptiles and 13 species of amphibians. The good quality of water in the lakes and rivers enables various species of fish to flourish. The area in the past, when it was located on the border between Poland Western Pomerania (later Prussia), was regarded as unsuitable for human settlement and only since the 17 th century have its forests been cleared for
Słowiński National Park Słowiński Park Narodowy is a National Park in Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern Poland. It is situated on the Baltic coast, between Łeba and Rowy. The northern boundary of the Park consists of 32. 5 kilometres (20. 2 mi) of coastline. The original idea of creating a preserve here came out in 1946, at a conference in Łeba with scientists from Poznań and Gdańsk. The park however was created 21 years later, in 1967, on an area of 180. 69 km 2(69. 76 sq mi). Today it is slightly larger, covering 186. 18 km 2 (71. 88 sq mi), of which 102. 13 km 2 (39. 43 sq mi) consists of waters and 45. 99 km 2(17. 76 sq mi) of forests. The strictly preserved zone covers 56. 19 km 2(21. 70 sq mi). In 1977 UNESCO designated the park a biosphere reserveunder its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (Ma. B). The park is named after the Slavic (later Germanized) people known as the Slovincians (Polish: Słowińcy), who used to live in this swampy, inaccessible area at the edge of Lake Leba. In the village of Kluki there is an open air museum presenting aspects of this people's former life and culture. In the past, the park’s area was a Baltic Sea bay. The sea’s activity, however, created sand dunes which in the course of time separated the bay from the Baltic Sea. As waves and wind carry sand inland the dunes slowly move, at a speed of 3 to 10 meters per year. Some dunes are quite high - up to 30 meters. The highest peak of the park – Rowokol (115 metres (377 ft) above sea level) – is also an excellent observation point. The "moving dunes" are regarded as a curiosity of nature on a European scale. Waters, which occupy 55% of park’s area, are made up of lakes – Łebsko (71. 40 km 2 (27. 57 sq mi), maximum depth 6. 3 m (21 ft)), Gardno (24. 68 km 2 (9. 53 sq mi), maximum depth 2. 6 m (8. 5 ft)) and Dolgie Wielkie (1. 46 km 2 (0. 56 sq mi), maximum depth 2. 9 m (9. 5 ft)). Both Lebsko and Gardno lakes were previously bays. There also 7 rivers crossing the park. Forests in the park are mainly made of pines. These trees cover 80% of wooded areas, there also peat bogs of several types. Of animals, the most numerous are birds with 257 species. This is because park is located on the paths of migrating birds. They feel safe here because human activities are limited. The most interesting species are: erne, eagle owl, crow, swanand various kinds of ducks. Among the mammals, there are deer, elk, wild pigs and hares. There around 140 kilometres (87 mi) of tourist walking trails. Beside the lakes are observation towers and along the trails one can find benches and resting places. Around the park there are many parking sites as well as hotels and camp sites, especially in Łeba.
Wigry National Park Wigierski Park Narodowy) is a National Park in. Podlaskie Voivodeship in north-eastern Poland. It covers parts of the. Masurian Lake District and Augustów Primeval Forest (Puszcza Augustowska). It is named after lake Wigry, the largest of the Park's many lakes. The Park was created on January 1, 1989 Today it is 150. 86 km 2 (58. 25 sq mi), of which 94. 64 km 2 is forest, 29. 08 km 2 is waters and 27. 14 km 2 other types of land, mostly agricultural. Strictly protected zones account for 6. 23 km 2, including 2. 83 km 2 of woods. The Park has its headquarters in the town of Suwałki. The Park’s landscape was to a large extent shaped by a glacier which covered this region around 12, 000 years ago. The glacier, while slowly receding to the North, formed valleys, many of which are filled with water in the form of lakes. Some of the shallowest lakes have in the course of time become peat-bogs. Northern part of the park is hilly, with elevation reaching 180 meters above sea level. Southern part, on the other hand, is flat and is mainly covered with a forest, which is part of the broader Puszcza Augustowska. The Park is famous for its numerous lakes, which are of different shape, size and depth. Altogether, there are 42 of them, the biggest, Wigry, covering the area of 21. 87 km 2 with maximum depth of 73 meters, is located in central part of the Park. Main river is the Czarna Hańcza, which crosses the Wigry lake. This river is an appreciated and popular kayaking trail. Over 1, 700 animal species have been found in the Park, including 46 species of mammals, 202 species of birds, 12 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles. The most characteristic animal living in the Park is. European beaver, numerous in lakes and rivers. Currently there around 250 beavers there. Also, sometimes one can meet a wolf. In Park’s waters thrive 32 species of fish. For some animals, Wigry National Park is the only place to live. 289 species are protected by law and 128 of them have been placed on the Red List of Endangered Species in Poland. Interesting is the fact that in the Park there is not a single specimen of beech tree. On the other hand, predominant tree type is the fir which is present in all forests. The Park’s area is to a large extent covered by peat bogs, which are in some places of pristine character. Northeastern Poland, including the Park itself, is an attractive region for tourism, especially in the summertime. There are more than 190 kilometres of tourist trails in the park. Fishing anglers as well as sailboats take advantage of the biggest lakes. . The places of interest include a former monastery, where an artist residency belonging to the Ministry of Culture is located.
The Ujście Warty National Park Warta River Mouth National Park Narodowy Ujście Warty) is the youngest of Poland's 23 National Parks. It was created on June 19, 2001, in the region of the lowest stretch of the Warta river, up to its confluence with the Odra (Oder), which marks the Polish–German border. The Park covers an area of 80. 38 square kilometres (31. 03 sq mi) within Lubusz Voivodeship. The name Ujście Wartymeans "mouth of the Warta" – the Polish word ujście also being used for the termination of a river at another river or lake rather than the sea. The Park was created on the area of the former Słońsk Nature Reserve, which had existed since 1977, and parts of the Ujście Warty Landscape Park. The ground here is swampy and muddy, which makes it a haven for birds. This is why the former Słońsk preserve, which is now part of the Park, was in 1984 covered by the Ramsar Convention, which purpose is to protect such areas. The Park has its headquarters in the village of Chyrzyno, near Kostrzyn nad Odrą.
Wolin National Park • Woliński Park Narodowy) is one of 23 National Parks in Poland, situated on the island of Wolin in the far north-west of the country, in West Pomeranian Voivodeship. It was established on 3 March 1960 and covers an area of 109. 37 square kilometres (42. 23 sq mi). The Park has its headquarters in the town of Międzyzdroje. • The Park contains a number of species of flora and fauna. Its attractions include the sea cliffs of Gosań and Kawcza Góra, and a wisent (European bison) sanctuary.