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Police Reform in Mexico’s Municipalities Daniel Sabet Georgetown University September 17, 2009 Police Reform in Mexico’s Municipalities Daniel Sabet Georgetown University September 17, 2009

The need for local police reform The military is a limited tool • Human The need for local police reform The military is a limited tool • Human rights abuses • Too blunt an instrument • Cannot be effective if its efforts are undermined by corrupt police

Current reform and police professionalization efforts • • SUBSEMUN (over US$ 300 million, 2009) Current reform and police professionalization efforts • • SUBSEMUN (over US$ 300 million, 2009) Vetting (over 100, 000 tests, 2008 -9) Police civil service Standardization and information sharing Legal reforms National agreement CALEA Judicial reforms

City Percent of officers with a Duration of high school cadet Minimum degree or City Percent of officers with a Duration of high school cadet Minimum degree or training education requirement above (months) % of police receiving annual inservice training Guadalajara Secondary 34. 70% 8 Majority Monterrey Secondary 33. 97% 6 All Mérida Secondary 28. 39% 3 All Ahome High School 55. 15% 12 All Secondary 40. 03% 6 Majority High School 35. 27% 8 Majority Secondary - 6 Majority Chihuahua High School 47. 07% 10 All Puebla High School -. . All HS for transit 55. 80% . All Secondary 34. 55% México DF San Luís Potosí Torreón Cuernavaca Zapopan 6 All Source: Survey of municipal police departments. Non-representative sample

City SUBSEMUN Basic Trucks as a percent monthly and patrol of other 2008 salary City SUBSEMUN Basic Trucks as a percent monthly and patrol of other 2008 salary cars per budgetary (pesos) police sources Internal affairs employees per 100 police Average annual firings as a percent of police? Guadalajara $7, 916 0. 17 24. 55% 2. 94 0. 76% Monterrey $7, 243 0. 20 22. 04% 3. 72 1. 90% Mérida $4, 672 0. 15 59. 82% 0. 64 1. 71% Ahome $6, 269 0. 12 0. 50 3. 12% México DF $8, 186 0. 12 5. 46% 0. 84 3. 09% San Luís Potosí $6, 506 0. 15 33. 65% 1. 35 3. 81% Torreón $6, 625 0. 35 100. 90% 0. 40 16. 05% Chihuahua $8, 745 0. 49 33. 11% 0. 44 0. 97% Puebla $7, 226 0. 25 Cuernavaca $5, 952 0. 20 Zapopan $9, 050 0. 14 . . 5. 40% 0. 43 1. 13 . 1. 40% 1. 14 0. 36% Source: Survey of municipal police departments. Non-representative sample

Many accountability mechanisms but little accountability • • • Vetting Human rights commissions Compstat Many accountability mechanisms but little accountability • • • Vetting Human rights commissions Compstat Citizen services Internal affairs departments – Reactive investigation of individual incidents based on complaints – Few cases of corruption – No complaints from fellow officers – Does not address collusion with organized crime – Focused on rotten apple rather than the rotten barrel

Continued weaknesses • Uneven advances between rural and urban areas • Accountability mechanisms • Continued weaknesses • Uneven advances between rural and urban areas • Accountability mechanisms • Merit based promotions • Transparency and civil society oversight

Why don’t good policies work? • Problems of design – Accountability mechanisms • Problems Why don’t good policies work? • Problems of design – Accountability mechanisms • Problems of implementation – Education – Merit based promotion – Vetting • Problems of institutionalization – – – Procedures Selection criteria Training Equipment In-service training Citizen outreach

Procedures in Mexicali Timeline Party in Power Mayor Policy 1998 -2001 -2004 2007 -2010 Procedures in Mexicali Timeline Party in Power Mayor Policy 1998 -2001 -2004 2007 -2010 PRI PAN 2004 -2007 PAN Hermosillo Celada Díaz Ochoa Ramos Flores Valdez Gutiérrez ISO-9001 Japanese quality control Internal CALEA

The importance of a long term approach in Chihuahua Timeline 1998 -2001 Party in The importance of a long term approach in Chihuahua Timeline 1998 -2001 Party in power Mayor Police Chief Policy 2001 -2002 -2004 -2007 PRI Reyes Baeza Barousse Moreno 2007 -2009 PAN Cano Ricaud Raúl Grajeda Domínguez Blanco Zaldívar Borruel Baquera Lazaro Gaytán Aguirre CALEA Accreditation

The key questions • Can civil society oversight overcome the continuity problem? – And The key questions • Can civil society oversight overcome the continuity problem? – And if it can, is civil society prepared to play this role? • Given the empirical inability to develop effective anti-corruption efforts in the current environment, is it reasonable to presume that accountability is the last step in a sequence of police reforms?

Gracias! Daniel M. Sabet Georgetown University dms 76@georgetown. edu http: //www 9. georgetown. edu/faculty/dms Gracias! Daniel M. Sabet Georgetown University dms [email protected] edu http: //www 9. georgetown. edu/faculty/dms 76/home. html