- Количество слайдов: 22
Points for discution • - Jargonisms • - Professionalisms • - Dialectal words • - Vulgarisms • - Colloquial coinages
• A colloquialism (colloquial word) is a word, phrase, or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms are sometimes referred to collectively as "colloquial language". To colloquialisms refer jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words, vulgarisms, colloquial coinages.
Jargonisms stand close to slang, also being substandard, expressive and emotive, but, unlike slang they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally (in this case we deal with professional jargonisrns, or professionalisms}, or socially (here we deal with /argon/sins proper). Jargonisrns of both types cover a narrow semantic field: in the first case it is that, connected with the technical side of some profession. So, in oil industry, e. g, for the terminological "driller" (буровик) there exist "borer", "digger", "wrencher", "hogger", "brake weight"; for "pipeliner", "bender", "cat", "old cat", "collar-pecker", "hammerman"; for "geologist""smeller", "pebble pup", "rock hound", "witcher", etc.
Jargonisrns proper are characterized by similar linguistic features, but differ in function and sphere of application. They originated from the thieves' jargon (1'argo, cant) and served to conceal the actual significance of the utterance from the uninitiated. Their major function thus was to be cryptic, secretive. Jargonisms do not always remain the possession of a given social group. Some of them migrate into other social strata and sometimes become recognized in the literary language of the nation. There are hundreds of words, once Jargonisms or slang, which have become legitimate members of the English literary language. Jargonisms have their definite place of abode and are therefore easily classified according to the social divisions of the given period.
• Jargonisms are a special group within the non-literary layer of words. • There is a common jargon and there also special professional jargons. Common Jargonisms have gradually lost their special quality, which is to promote secrecy and keep outsiders in the dark. In fact, there are no outsiders where common jargon is concerned. It belongs to all social groups and is therefore easily understood by everybody. • When a jargonism becomes common, it has passed on to a higher step on the ladder of word groups and becomes slang or colloquial.
• • • Piou-Piou—'a French soldier, a private in the infantry'. According to Eric Partridge this word has already passed from military jargon to ordinary colloquial speech. Humrnen—'a false arrest* (American) Dar—(from damned average raiser)—'a persevering and assidu¬ous student'. (University jargon) Matlo(w) —'a sailor' (from the French word 'matelof) Man and wife—'a knife' (rhyming slang) Manany —'a sailor who is always putting off a job or work' (nautical jargon) (from the Spanish word 'mamma'—‘tomorrow')
Professionalisms are the words used in a definite trade, profession or calling by people connect¬ed by common interests both at work and at home. Professionalisms are correlated to terms. Terms, as has already been indicated, are coined to nominate new concepts that appear in the process of, and as a result of, technical progress and the development of science. Professional words name anew already-existing concepts, tools or instruments, and have the typical properties of a special code. The main feature of a professionalism is its technicality. Professionalisms are special words in the non-literary layer of the English vocabulary, whereas terms are a specialized group belonging to the literary layer of words. Professionalisms generally remain in circulation within a definite community, as they are linked to a common occupation and common social interests.
The semantic structure of a professionalism is often dimmed by the image on which the meaning of the professionalism is based, particularly when the features of the object in question reflect the process of the work, metaphorically or metonymically. Here are some professionalisms used in different trades: tin-fish (submarine); block-buster (= a bomb especially designed to destroy blocks of big buildings); piper (=a specialist who decorates pastry with the use of a cream-pipe); a midder case (=a midwifery case); outer (= knockout blow). Some professionalisms, however, like certain terms, become popular and gradually lose their professional flavour.
– – Professionalisms should not be mixed up with jargonisms. Like slang words, professionalisms do not aim at secrecy. They fulfil a socially useful function in communication, facilitating a quick and adequate grasp of the message. Professionalisms are used in emotive prose to depict the natural speech of a character. The skilful use of a professional word will show not only the vocation of a character, but also his education, breeding, environment and sometimes even his psychology. The use of professionalisms forms the most conspicuous element of this literary device. Good examples of professionalisms as used by a man-of-letters can be found in Dreiser's "Financier. "
Frank soon picked up all the technicalities of the situation. A "bull", he learned, was one who bought in anticipation of a higher price to come; and if he was "loaded" up with a "line" of stocks he was said to be "long". He sold to "realize" his profit, or if his margins were exhausted he was "wiped out". A "bear" was one who sold stocks which most frequently he did not have, in anticipation of a lower price at which he could buy and sat¬isfy his previous sales. He was "short" when he had sold what he did not own, and he was "covered" when he bought to satisfy his sales and to realize his profits or to protect himself against further loss in the case prices advanced instead of declining. He was in a "corner" when he found that he could not buy in order to make good the stock he had borrowed for delivery and the return of which had been demanded. He was then obliged to settle practically at a price fixed by those to whom he and other "shorts" had sold.
Dialectal words are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong. In Great Britain four major dialects are distinguished: Lowland Scotch, Northern, Midland (Central) and Southern. In the USA three major dialectal varieties are distinguished: New England, Southern and Midwestern (Central, Midland). These classifications do not include many minor local variations. Dialects markedly differ on the phonemic level: one and the same phoneme is differently pronounced in each of them. They differ also on the lexical level, having their own names for locally existing phenomena and also supplying locally circulating synonyms for the words, accepted by the language in general. Some of them have entered the general vocabulary and lost their dialectal status ("lad", "pet", "squash", "plaid"). Each of the above-mentioned four groups justifies its label of special colloquial words as each one, due to varying reasons, has application limited to a certain group of people or to certain communicative situations.
The history of a very large part of the vocabulary of the present day English dialects is still very obscure, and it is doubtful whether much of it is of any antiquity. There is sometimes a difficulty in distinguishing dialectal words from colloquial words. Some dialectal words have become so familiar in good colloquial or standard colloquial English that they are universally accepted as recognized units of the standard colloquial English. Of quite a different nature are dialectal words which are easily recognized as corruptions of standard English words, although etymologically they may have sprung from the peculiarities of certain dialects. The following words may serve as examples: hinny from honey; tittle apparently from sister, being a childish corruption of the word; cutty meaning a 'testy or naughty girl or woman’.
Most of the examples so far quoted come from the Scottish and the northern dialects. This is explained by the fact that Scotland has struggled to retain the peculiarities of her language. Therefore many of the words fixed in dictionaries as dialectal are of Scottish origin. Among other dialects used for stylistic purposes in literature is the southern dialect (in particular that of Somersetshire). This dialect has a phonetic peculiarity that distinguishes it from other dialects, initial [s] and [f] are voiced, and are written in the direct speech of char¬acters as [z] and [v], for example: 'volk’ (folk), 'vound’ (found), 'zee’ (see), 'zinking’ (sinking). To show the truly dialectal words are intermingled with all kinds of improprieties of speech, it will be enough to quote the following excerpt from Galsworthy's "A Bit of Love. "
"Mrs. Burlacomble: Zurely! I give ‘im a nummit afore 'e gets up; an' "e 'as 'is brekjus regular at nine. Must feed un up. He'm on 'is feet all day, goin’ to zee folk that widden want to zee an an¬gel, they'т that busy; art when 'e comes in 'e 'II play 'is flute there. He'm wastin' away for want of 'is wife. That's what'tis. On' 'im so zweet-spoken, tu, 'tis a pleasure to year 'im —Never zays a word!" Dialectal words, unlike professionalisms, are confined in their use to a definite locality and most of the words deal with the everyday life of the country.
Vulgarisms are coarse words with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation. History of vulgarisms reflects the history of social ethics. In fact, at present we are faced with the reverse of the problem: there are practically no words banned from use by the modern permissive society. Such intensifies as "bloody", "damned", "cursed", "hell of", formerly deleted from literature and not allowed in conversation, are not only welcomed in both written and oral speech, but, due to constant repetition, have lost much of their emotive impact and substandard quality.
• • • In contemporary West European and American prose all words, formerly considered vulgar for public use (including the four-letter words), are even approved by the existing moral and ethical standards of society and censorship. Vulgarisms are often used in conversation out of habit, without any thought of what they mean, or in imitation of those who use them in order not to seem old-fashioned or prudish. Unfortunately in modern fiction these words have gained legitimacy. The most vulgar of them are now to be found even in good novels. This lifting of the taboo has given rise to the almost unrestrained employment of words which soil the literary language. However, they will never acquire the status of standard English vocabulary and will always remain on the outskirts. The function of expletives is almost the same as that of interjections, that is to express strong emotions, mainly annoyance, anger, vexation and the like. They are not to be found in any functional style of language except emotive prose, and here only in the direct speech of the characters.
Colloquial coinages (nonce-words) are spontaneous and elusive. Most of them disappear from the language leaving no trace in it. Some nonce-words and meanings may acquire legitimacy and thus become facts of the language, while on the other hand they may be classified as literary or colloquial according to which of the meanings is being dealt with. When a nonce-word comes into general use and is fixed in dictionaries, it is classified as a neologism for a very short period of time. This shows the objective reality of contemporary life. Technical progress is so rapid that it builds new notions and concepts which in their turn require new words to signify them. Nonce-coinage appears in all spheres of life.
New coinage in colloquial English awakens as emphatic a protest on the part of literary-conscious people as do nonce-words in literary English. Here is an interesting quotation from an article in The New York Times Magazine: "Presently used to mean 'at the present moment' but became so completely coloured with idea of 'in the near future 7 that when its older meaning came back into general use after World War II, through re-introduction into civilian speech of the conserva¬tive military meaning, many people were outraged and insisted that the old meaning was being corrupted—whereas, in fact, the 'corruption' was being, purged. Human nature being what it is, and promptness ever behind promise, the chances are strong that the renewed meaning will fade”.
• Some changes in meaning are really striking. What are called semantic changes in words have long been under the observation of both lexicologists and lexicographers. Almost every textbook on the study of words abounds in examples of words that have undergone such consid¬erable changes in meaning that their primary meanings are almost lost. See the changes in the words nice, knave, marshal, fellow, for example. • Some nonce-words and meanings may, on the one hand, acquire legitimacy and thus become facts of the language, while, on the other hand, they may be classified аs literary or colloquial according to which of the meanings is being dealt with.
• There is another feature of colloquial nonce-words which must not be overlooked. There are some which enjoy hopeful prospects of staying in the vocabulary of the language. The nature of these creations is such that if they appear in speech they become noticeable and may develop into catch-words. Then they become fixed as new colloquial coinages and cease to be nonce-words. They have acquired a new significance and a new stylistic evaluation. They are then labelled as slang, colloquial, vulgar or something of this kind.